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Those who are interested, carefully read the following points and
Download the HANDBOOK and the following documents in the DOWNLOAD section


SOLE SPOKESPERSON : IBS looks for the right areas where to place the installations and provides for all the bureaucratic procedures from the grant application from Enel / Terna to the grant issuance .

INVESTORS : the investors are already ready to buy the licenses / grants Grid Parity as soon as they will be issued .

GUIDELINES : it is important that the plots respect the following terms . For this reason, we recommend you to read them carefully . Thank you for your collaboration . We hope you will have a productive long-term collaboration with us .

- Landlords in Italy
- People in charge of plot announcements
- Rental agencies
- Technicians and operators in the renewable energy sector, especially in the PV sector
- Professional organizations : Agronomists, Surveyors, Engineers, Architects, Experts ( Land Surveyor, Engineer, etc)
Professional studies relevant to the sector

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SIZE OF THE GRID PARITY INSTALLATIONS THAT WILL BE BUILT : from 5-10 MW to 40 MW-50 MW or more . Download Characteristics of the sites to be suitable

HECTARES OF PLOTS NEEDED FOR 1 MW IN GRID PARITY : almost 2 Hectares every Megawatt depending on whether solar trackers are used or not . Plots have to be adjacent or at least 1 – 2 Km distant from each other, so that the connection in the substation can take place without any problems

LEASEHOLD ESTATE OR PURCHASE RIGHTS : it is possible that landowners sign a contract in which the investor pays a leasehold estate for 25 years + 3 years or + 5 years or the investor can buy the plot . Land plots fit the requirements all over Italy ( North Italy, Central Italy and South Italy )

Investors are interested in land plots all over Italy and its regions : it is important that lease charges or plot sales and soil radiation allow to obtain a return on investment consistent with the business model .
Some investors prefer the following regions : Abruzzo, Basilicata, Campania, Lazio, Molise, Puglia, Sardinia, Sicily, Umbria . Some investors consider the region Calabria .
IT IS IMPORTANT TO VERIFY that there are no urban restrictions and limitations on building GRID PARITY PV systems on plots in each region in Italy .
REGARDING SARDINIA : it is important that plots are industrial and not agricultural .

SUMS PAID TO LANDOWNERS FOR THE LEASEHOLD ESTATE : the sum paid to landowners in Euro per Hectare per Year for the leasehold estate will be decided with the investor and the owners, depending on the Region where the plots are and on the investor type . The investor can also pay the plots ’ leasehold estate in a single discount rate solution .

SUMS PAID TO PLOT OWNERS IN CASE OF SALES : the sums paid per Hectare in South, Central and North Italy will be discussed individually and negotiated with the investors and the owners . The investor knows the variable costs per hectare depending on his own financial model .



Ous investors also consider purchasing ready to use licenses where the installation can be built immediately .

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SCREENING : landowners or people in charge of plot announcements who are in touch with the owners will be asked to send :

- PLOT TYPE : flat, sloping, soil pitch
- GOOGLE EARTH and IMAGES with the accurate coordinates and the highlighted plots perimeter.

This will allow us to : verify the plots, conduct simulations, determine the radiation in that area, verify if the plots are adjacent or if the distances between them are consistent with the requirements needed for the construction of GRID PARITY installations .

After a first and quick check is made in order to give the green light to the construction, we will need to sign the prior agreements of the following documents :


INFORMATION ON THE CLOSEST ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION OR ELECTRICAL ROOM AND RELATED CONNECTION : it is just as important to know the plots distance from the closest Enel / Terna electrical substation, if there is average or high voltage ; to know the electric line capacity, the possibility to connect in substation and the costs of a connection in the electrical plant of an already existing substation . The creation of a new substation can be done for GRID PARITY PV installations starting from 30 MW – 40 MW . At the same time, the adjacent active high voltage line will be directly intercepted . In case of any doubts, you can send pictures of the aerial electric line both average and high voltage or pictures of the electrical substation or room, asking for advice .

PRIOR AGRREMENT THAT LANDOWNERS WILL HAVE TO SIGN : if the results on the tests made on plots and on the possibility of connection in the substation are positive, we will sign a prior agreement and start the working phases and bureaucratic procedures . IBS will provide the Autorizzazione Unica ( an Authorization which constitutes the necessary and obligatory title for the construction and commissioning of PVs ) with the help of experts :
- Autorizzazione Unica ( AU ) including, geological prospecting and exams and range reconnaissance
- Design and presentation of TICA ( Testo integrato delle connessioni attive, is document that states technical – economic terms and conditions for the connection to the grid of electric power production plants and it refers to a connection request made starting from January 1st 2009 ) and different proceedings, participation to any kind of meeting with the Authorities in charge until the AU is obtained and PV installations can be built .

TIMINGS : even if each region has its different timings and procedures, completing the whole bureaucratic procedure to receive the Autorizzazione Unica usually takes about 15 -18 months . Timings start after the positive result of :
- the preliminary analysis of the plot documents and after having signed the preliminary contracts with the owners
- the analysis of the documents that will be sent to the conferenza dei Servizi present in the Region ( an institution of the Italian legislation that simplifies the activity of the Italian public administration ) which collaborates with our architects .

AGREEMENTS : with the people in charge of plot announcements or partners that will facilitate plot announcements or landowners ’ announcements, we will sign the agreements that protect them for the recognition fees . We will also sign a NDA ( Non – Disclosure Agreement ) on the exchange of confidential information both with the person in charge of plot announcements and with the landowners . IBS wants to have a productive long-term synergy with those who will want to cooperate .

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We are looking both for people directly in charge of plot announcements, different types of operators who are in touch with landowners and also people who aim to become our Area Managers . The Area managers’ job will be that of coordinating the people in charge of plot announcements, collect proceedings and being responsible for the information . They are also a reference point between landowners or plot announcers and IBS in case of any problems .

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GUIDELINES : it is an Information Handbook in PDF which aims is to research the right areas and to operate independently making the information exchange more efficient .

INFORMATION VIDEO : the video ’ s aim is to facilitate the process and to reveal in advance the information that will be needed in the different phases. In this way, it gives an immediate overview .

GREENFIELD PRELIMINARY FORM OF THE AREA : this initial document has to be downloaded in order to send the first information by plot owners or announcers with the google earth picture of the plot and its coordinates and perimeter attached ( Site characteristics agricultural land to be eligible )

SIMULATOR OF THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN THE ELECTRICAL LINE COSTS AND THE BUDGET : it is an excel file that simulates the low and average voltage connection costs . We suggest you to write the required values into the yellow cells ( where some values are written as an example ) and a calculation and first estimate will be made automatically . Regarding high voltage, CONTACT US .

PROGRESS REPORT OF THE AUTORIZZAZIONE UNICA : in this section our co – workers, partners, investors and announcers are able to monitor the progress report of the Autorizzazione Unica regarding the plots, where the procedure to obtain this authorization in Grid Parity together with the plots data is taking place

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Contact us via E-mail with your personal information in order to reach us or to begin working with us . One of our managers will contact you within 24 hours and will give you the necessary information :

Mail : info(a)
Skype : doingbusinessibs ( location Roma )

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Notes : In the E-mail given to contact us the at sign is written with this symbol (a), instead of this one @ in order to respect our company policy regarding cybersecurity On the Internet there are some browsers and automatic programs that could use the active email in the websites and create harmful SPAM communications . However, by replacing the symbol @ with (a) this problem is avoided . Thus, for everyone’s safety, we ask you to take note of the email and to write us from your email account or server . Or, you could click on the following image . This will direct you to the page where you can CONTACT US through the website special area . Thank you for your cooperation .



Fotovoltaico Tecnologia e dispense


The solar radiation is the electromagnetic energy that is emitted by the process of the fusion of hydrogen in the sun and it turns into helium atoms ( He ) .
Solar energy, that in a solar year crosses the atmosphere and arrives on earth, it is only 1/3 of the total energy that is intercepted by planet earth out of the atmosphere and the 70% of the energy ends in the sees .
The remaining energy ( 1,5 x 1017 kWh ) , that in one year intercepts dry land, is the same as thousand times of the present total world energy consumption .
Irradiation intended as solar irradiance or as power density of solar irradiation, is intercepted out of the atmosphere thanks to a surface that is perpendicular to sunlight ( it is also known as solar constant ). Irradiation is equivalent to 1353 W / m2, and during the year it is variable to ± 3 % due the elliptical earth orbit .
The following figure illustrates the irradiation development , through readings out of the atmosphere in a year :

Fotovoltaico densità di potenza radiazione solare PV

The peak value that is detected on the earth’s surface is about 1000 W / m2 , at noon, on a summer day, clear sky, optimal sun condition.
The solar radiation that comes to the earth’s surface, a distinction can be made between direct radiation and spread radiation . Direct radiation affects the surface through a very specific and unique angle of incidence, while spread radiation affects the surface with various angles.

When the direct radiation can’t affect a surface because there is an obstacle in the middle, thanks to the spread radiation the shaded area won’t be completely obscured.
This aspect has got technical density, especially for photovoltaic installations that can also operate only through the spread radiation.

fotovoltaico principi fisici solare PV

Furthermore, inclined surface can receive reflected solar radiation ( reflection ) from the land or from overwater in its front or horizontal surfaces ; such phenomenon is defined as “ albedo “ and it contributes to increase the process.

Direct radiation, spread radiation and albedo are received by a surface and the related proportion depend on certain elements :

- First of all on the weather conditions: in a cloudy day spread radiation prevails ; in a clear day , especially with dry weather , direct radiation prevails , and it can reach 90 % of the total irradiation ;
- The slope in relation to the horizontal plane of the surface : any horizontal surface will receive the higher spread radiation and the minimum reflected radiation, if there are no objects around in an upper altitude in relation to the surface’s one ;
- Presence of reflective surface : particularly the higher contributes is due to the reflection that is gave by clear surfaces . Moreover reflected radiation is higher in winter because of the reflective effect of snow and it decreases in summer months due to the effect related to the absorption by land and grass .

fotovoltaico BIPV PV

The slope or grade that will allow to make the stored energy utmost, could vary from location to another : changing location, the relationship between spread radiation and total radiation will vary, because increasing the grade of the surface that picks up, the component of spread radiation will be reduced and reflected component will be increased.

Practically, the optimal situation is recorded when the surface has southern exposure , and there is a rake angle that is equivalent to the site’s latitude : directing to south there will be a maximization of the filtered solar radiation that is received throughout the day and the slope is equal to the latitude that during the months of the year minimises the variation of solar energy that is filtered as a consequence of the sunlight oscillation of ± 23.5 °, compared to the perpendicular one of the harvest surface. If we name with ID the direct radiation, and with IS the spread radiation and with R albedo , then we can determine the total solar radiation that will affect on a surface :
IT = ID + IS + R


Photovoltaic effect turns the direct photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity through physical phenomenon in which light radiation interacts with electron of semiconductor materials.
The solar cell represents the physical object by which such phenomenon manifests itself and it is in substance a diode, that is characterized by a vast surface of several dozen cm2 .
To understand the photovoltaic effect is relevant to describe conceptually how a diode works ( p-n junction ) , and since today the crystalline silicon ( Si ) is the more used material for the creation of solar cells, silicon diode will be analysed .

fotovoltaico materiali semiconduttori PV

The silicon atom has got 14 electron, 4 of these are valence electron, therefore they can chemically bond in pairs with other valence electron of different atoms . In a chemically pure silicon crystal, every single atom is bonded through covalent bond with other 4 silicon atoms, so ,because of chemical bonds, in the crystal there aren’t electron which are free .

In the event that several silicon atoms in the crystal would be replaced by other phosphorus atoms ( P ) that is characterized by 5 valence electron, 4 of these will be used in chemical bond with adjacent silicon atoms, while the fifth electron could be separated from the phosphorus atom through thermal energy and it will be free to move in the crystal lattice .

Similarly, silicon atoms can be replaced by boron atoms ( B ) that has got only 3 valence electron and , in this case there will be a missing electron to saturate chemical bond with adjacent silicon atoms . This missing electron will be a positive electron and it will be called “ electron hole “ .

The following picture illustrates with a graphic what has been described : in the first the structure of the crystal lattice of silicon ( Si ) is shown, in the second there is how the structure of the crystal lattice varies when is carried out a doping through phosphorus atoms ( P ) and in the last case, modification of the crystal lattice are shown after the doping with boron atoms .

fotovoltaico tipo p tipo n potenziale elettrico PV

In the doping through phosphorus ( P ), atoms carry free negative electric charge and material is called “ n “ type, while in the doping and therefore in the replacing of silicon atoms by boron atoms ( B ) they carry positive electric charge and material is called “ p “ type . The p-n junction ( diode ) is determined by aggregating a “ n “ type bar with a “ p “ type bar .
Material “ n “ free electron will have in their left a region in which there aren’t free electron and this will lead to a flux of such carriers to the left in order to re-stablish balance between positive and negative electric charge . Similarly, the electron hole will find in their left a region in which there aren’t electron hole and so there will be a flux of positive electric charge to the right . As a result of the activation of such spread process , on the left side there will be an excess of negative electric charge, while on the right side there will be an excess of positive electric charge .

It follows that, in the region of interface between the two materials an electric field will be determined and it will tend to increase ever more, proportionally to the fact that the electric hole and electron keep spread to the opposite sides . This process keeps going until the creating electric potential will assume a size that will stop a further spread of electron and electron hole .
When such balance will be reached, a permanent electric field in a material will be created without using external electric fields . Through these concepts, it is easier to explain the photovoltaic effect . Assume that a particle that is a sunlight ( photon ) come in the “ p “ type region of the material . If the photon have at his disposal an higher energy of the gap band , in other words the minimum energy that is needed to determine the bond cleavage in the silicon lattice, it will be absorbed and will lead to the manifestation of a pair of electron – electron hole . The released electron during this phenomenon can move to the right because of the electric potential .

Contrary, if the photon came in the “ n “ zone , the creating electron hole will move to the left .
The flux that will be activate, will lead to an accumulation of positive electric charge to the left and negative electric charge to the right . This will create an electric field that is opposite of the one that is bonded to the spread mechanism . The more will be the number of photon that will reach the junction, the more fields will tend to erase each other , until there won’t be an internal field that separate every further pair of electron – electron hole .

This is the requirement that determines the open circuit voltage of a photovoltaic cell ( see open circuit voltage of a photovoltaic modules ) . Putting electrode ( metal contacts ) on the surface of a photovoltaic cell, it is possible to use the created potential. Such flux will create an accumulation of positive electric charge + to the left and negative electric charge – to the right , creating an opposite electric field as a sign of what it is created through the spread mechanism .



In the solar cell solar radiation turns into electricity .

The solar cell is a device that is composed by a subtle slice of semiconductor material, that is often silicon ; it has a thickness that could vary from 0,25 mm to 0,35 mm, often in a square shape or with a surface of 100 cm 2 . For the production of cells , silicon is a most frequently used material and it is used in the electronic industry, where the process cycle leads to very high costs, costs that couldn’t be justified if we consider that the required degree of purity in the photovoltaic field is lower than the one which is essential for electronic .

There are also other materials that can be used to create solar cells :

- Monocrystalline silicon: energy performance 15 – 17 %
- Polycrystalline silicon : energy performance 12 – 14%
- Amorphous silicon : energy performance lower than 10 %
- Other materials : cadmium telluride, gallium arsenide, gallium and indium thallium arsenic and copper .
However, now the most used material is monocrystalline silicon, which makes record higher performance and greater prolonged duration compared to other materials that are usable for the same purpose .

fotovoltaico sezione di una cella fotovoltaica PV


The solar cell is an intermediate product in the photovoltaic industry field : it provides limited current and voltage values, if they are compared to those that are usually required in users devices, moreover cells are extremely fragile, not electrically isolated, and they haven’t a mechanical support .

Cells are therefore aggregated and assembled with the aim of building a unique structure that is called photovoltaic modules ( see also Solar Panel ).
Photovoltaic modules have a more robust structure and it is easier to handle and on them solar cells are properly placed ( see hybrid solar cell ) .
Photovoltaic modules ’ size can vary, but those that are more common have surfaces which can vary from 0,5 m2 to 1,3 m2 , usually with 36 cells that are electrically linked in series .

fotovoltaico tipi di celle FV moduli fotovoltaici PV

Photovoltaic modules have a power that can vary from 50 Wp to 150 Wp related to the type and the efficiency that characterizes the solar cells which make up modules .

The most important electric features of photovoltaic modules are :

- Peak power ( Wp) : it is the power that comes from photovoltaic modules in standard conditions of utilisation STC : Irradiation = 1000 W / m2: Temperature = 25°C ; A.M. = 1,5
- Rated current ( A ): it is the current that comes from photovoltaic modules in the work-point
- Rated voltage ( V ): it is the work-voltage of photovoltaic modules

fotovoltaico curva I-V caratteristica PV

Wp ( Watt peak ) is the size that is taken as reference of photovoltaic modules and it has the aim of expressing the electric power that comes from photovoltaic modules in standard conditions of reference ( considering standard conditions with Irradiation = 1000 W / m2 ).


The photovoltaic system ( if you want see current source ) is composed by photovoltaic modules that are aggregated and linked in series and in parallel ( series and parallel circuits ) in order to reach optimal and desired operating conditions .

The base elements of the photovoltaic field are photovoltaic modules . More photovoltaic modules are mechanically assembled to each other determine the “ photovoltaic panel “ , while photovoltaic modules or panels are electrically linked in series and they allow to obtain the rated voltage of distribution, and they form the “ string “. Finally, more strings must be linked in parallel and this determinates the “ field”. United photovoltaic modules constitute the generator and they are built on a mechanical structure that is able to support the modules and it is oriented in order to maximise the solar irradiation .

generatore fotovoltaico PV

The quantity of electric power that is produced by a photovoltaic system can vary in a year, in proportion to sunshine in location where the system is built and depends on latitude .
Depending on the application for which the system was designed, it must be sized observing the following criteria :

- electric load
- peak power
- possibility to connect to the power grid or not
- latitude of the site and annual average irradiation of the site where there is the photovoltaic system.
- specification of the building’s architectural type
- specification of users load’s electric type

For example it is assumed that to the latitudes of central Italy, 1 m2 of photovoltaic modules of good manufacturing on average could produce :

0,35 kWh per day during the winter period
0,65 kWh per day during the summer period
>> 180 kWh per year


A photovoltaic plant or a photovoltaic system is an aggregate of mechanic, electric and electronic components which detect / intercept and subsequently transform the available solar radiation energy, making possible to use solar energy in the form of electric energy .

Systems in this typology can be divided in two categories, regardless of the usage and size of power of themselves :

- those isolated , “ stand alone “ as well or
- those connected to the electric grid or grid connected

Isolated “ stand alone “ systems, by virtue of the fact that they are not connected to the electric grid, must generally and necessarily have a storage system or storage of the energy that is produced . The energy storage is needed because the photovoltaic field is in position to supply electric energy only during the day, while often the higher request of users focuses on the afternoon or in the night . During the insolation is therefore necessary to have a produced energy storage and not to use it immediately, energy that is provided to the load when there is a reduction or absence of the available one.

sistemi grid connected PV

Configuring the plant through this method , means that the photovoltaic field is sized in order to allow the supply of the load and the charging of storage batteries ( rechargeable battery ) in the insolation hours .
In the systems connected to the grid, usually there are not storage systems because energy that is produced during the insolation hours is immediately placed in the electric grid ; on the contrary, during hours of lower insolation or without insolation, the load is powered by the grid .
If the continuity of service is considered, a system of this typology will be more reliable compared to a stand alone photovoltaic system, that after a failure, it can’t have the possibility to be powered in an alternative way . “ High reliability “ systems can be designed though an isolated system ( stand alone ) with diesel ( for example hybrid diesel – electric ) .

impieghi stand alone PV

The aim of a grid connected system is therefore to allow the feed-in in the highest quantity of energy .
In the physic point of view the structure of a photovoltaic system, either isolated or connected to the grid, can be different ; usually 3 important blocks can be highlighted :
- photovoltaic power station
- power conditioning system
- system for data acquisition
Attention is being paid to the fact that connected to the grid systems without storage, in these cases the grid serves as power reservoir with unlimited capacity . The load is represented by connected to the grid user instead, like for a grid connected system .


The main components of a grid connected photovoltaic plant are :

- Inverter for connecting to net
- Device for interfacing with electric grid
- Bi – directional meter for energy

The inverter is a fundamental component in the grid connected photovoltaic systems because it is able to maximise the production of electric current of the photovoltaic device, by optimising the transfer of electric energy between photovoltaic modules and load .

Inverter as a device can turn direct current which is produced by modules 12 V, 24 V, 48 V, and so on ) into alternating current ( usually 220 V ) in order to supply the load – user and / or feed the energy in the grid, with which it can work with an interchange system .

Grid connected inverters have usually got an electric type device which allow to extract full power from the photovoltaic system in every moment . The device tries to reach the maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) and it adapts features about the production of the photovoltaic power station to the need of the load .

sistemi grid connected schema PV

The inverter is also important because usually a photovoltaic system is able to give current and voltage values which vary on the basis of irradiation + temperature variables, on the contrary of the load, that usually needs constant values of voltage of supply .

Indeed, electric grid interface devices have the aim of ensuring that the form of the electric energy wave , which is fed into the grid, have got all the features that the local supplier of energy requires .

Finally, the energy meter will measure the energy that the photovoltaic system can produce during its operating period .


The main components of a stand alone or isolated photovoltaic plant are :

- photovoltaic modules
- load regulator
- inverters
- storage system or storage batteries

In this photovoltaic plant’s typology, electric energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules , is also stored in storage batteries . Through a load regulator, load is supplied by the stored energy in the batteries .

impianti fotovoltaici stand alone PV

The load regulator must preserve accumulators from the load in excess due to the photovoltaic system and it must protect accumulators from an excess of load due to the use . Both situations have harmful consequences for the correct functioning and for the durability of accumulators . Since usually the power that is required by the user, it is not always equal to the intensity of solar radiation ( and consequently this affects photovoltaic plant ’s electricity production ), a portion of electric energy that is produced by the photovoltaic field must be stored in order to be used when the user will need it . This is the aim of the storage system in these plants .

Therefore, a storage system is composed by a set of rechargeable accumulators, and it is sized so as to ensure a relevant autonomy of the electric load supply . Batteries with this aim are practically accumulators of stationary typology and only in particular cases using batteries as motor fuel is permitted . It is important that batteries for photovoltaic use must have the following features :

- Self discharge low value
- Long estimated duration
- that do not require maintenance
- that can work with a high number of charging and discharging cycle

In the case of stand alone or isolated system, the aim of the inverter is to transform direct current into alternating current . The direct current is produced by the photovoltaic field and alternating current is essential for the direct supply of users .
In this case, inverters must be sized in order to supply directly the load which will be connected to it .
Obviously, the inverter with this type of plant building ( i.e. isolated or stand alone plants ) doesn’t represent a component with a compulsory presence ; it is possible to supply directly the load in direct current and with low voltage .

efficienza e costo generazioni FV PV


There are description of the phases for sizing a photovoltaic plant and indication for designing a complete plant .


- Quantify presence of shadows ( vegetation, heights , buildings )
- Morning mists
- Fog
- Wind
- Snow

This information allow to determine the photovoltaic system ’s placement, optimising their exposure to the South, higher inclination on the horizontal plane, support structures and their features .


Energy = Power for the time of use

Isolated or grid connected utilisation consumption will be supplied through the photovoltaic plant and will be catalogued in terms of daily required energy .

Example :

- 2 15 W lamps must be supplied 5 hours per day
- 1 60 W CRT must be supplied 3 hours per day
Total energy that is daily needed = 2 x 15 W x 5 hours per day + 1 x 60 W x 3 hours per day = 330 Wh per day


To choose correctly the modules’ inclination, usually it must be equal to the latitude where modules are located, except for architectural needs .


Electric energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules is linearly proportional to the solar radiation which affects on the solar modules ’ surface ; the calculation can be made referring to the information about the site ’s solar irradiation .

A calculation method that is frequently used , is to detect EQUIVALENT HOURS of the site through appropriate tables and the hours are considered with the optimal photovoltaic modules’ inclination . “ EQUIVALENT HOUR “ is the period of time in which solar irradiation reaches an equivalent value of 1000 W / m2 . In a location of centre Italy, the average value related to 12 months of such indicator, the value can be 3, assuming a modules’ inclination of 45° .

For the calculation of the dimensioning of a photovoltaic plant, this method is used to identify the quantity of daily energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules . According to this method and knowing the “ monthly equivalent hour of the site “, it is possible to determine the peak power of our photovoltaic system with the following method :

Photovoltaic system’s peak power Kwp = daily need of Equivalent Hours energy


It is important to consider losses or voltage drops which are introduced by components that constitute the photovoltaic plant ( inverter, voltage regulator , batteries , cable connections and so on ).
Knowing that total losses of the photovoltaic plant are 30 %, it will be necessary to increase the Kwp ( peak power ) of the same percentage in the photovoltaic system .


The power of an inverter is calculated in a different way according to grid connected or isolated ( stand alone ) plants . In the case of a grid connected plant , the choice of inverter is based on the feature of the photovoltaic field : when the power of the photovoltaic system is fixed and therefore the number of photovoltaic modules as well, the typology of usable inverter is identifiable .
For an isolated plant, the maximum total power connected to the inverter will be calculated . For example , the case that was used before to calculate daily energy need :

Total power = 2 x 15 W + 1 x 60 W = 90 W

Substantially, an inverter of rated power higher than 90 W must be used .

Depending on the waveform that is produced, to choose the inverter for the isolated stand alone plants , different types of inverters can be used :

- pure sine wave inverters : they can reproduce a waveform that is practically the same as the grid one and they allow to supply any load typology

- trapezoidal wave and square wave inverters : they could not supply correctly, for example electronic type loads .


If low levels of sun occur, photovoltaic plant would have lower productions than those that are achievable in optimal days of sun, therefore when this occurs the storage can be sized in order to ensure a certain load supply, for a certain period of time ( maximum number of consecutive days), in which there is absence of sun .


The investment in photovoltaic plants implies a significant use of capital in the first phase and low expenses for parks maintenance .
Analysing all the economical and financial aspects related to a photovoltaic plant is quite complex, however there are some elements which must be considered :

- Every photovoltaic plant and installation needs to be analysed in its reference framework ( legislation, local condition . Solar irradiation level, available areas and so on ).
- It is fundamental to refer to the energy value that is produced and not to focus on the energy cost in order to operate correctly ; this because from a qualitative point of view, the energy that is produced through photovoltaic solar source is not the same compared to energy traditional sources, both for environmental impact and intermittent of produced energy and so on .
- Photovoltaic system’s life time is about 25 years now, even though some manufacturers give assurance for longer periods .
- Difficult links to the grid, for situation like mountain hut or isolated houses in low urbanized areas and so on .

There are cases where the initial investment is amortised ( see amortisation ) for the cost of user electrification that is higher than the cost for the installation the photovoltaic solar plant .
Usually for a photovoltaic plant there is a cost per kWh that is a higher product than the cost per kWh if is bought from the network ; as a result it is better to install a photovoltaic plant in line with present incentive forms ( Feed-in tariff ). A cost per kWh that is produced by a photovoltaic plant it can be compared to the kWh that is bought in network, if through financial types of contribution in high percentage .

fotovoltaico vari strati cella fotovoltaica PV


In 2001 it was created a national project called “ Tetti Fotovoltaici “ in Italy; it was characterized by various critical points that are inherent in the photovoltaic solar field development and they are :

- Advertising campaigns and information were not clear and sometimes they were wrong by responsible bodies
- Number of limited funding ( about 30 / 40 fundable projects ) if they are compared to the total demand that were received in each region
- Need to advance money by customers to buy the photovoltaic plant
- Presence of a maximum limit for the cost for the plant ; this has favoured the spread of low quality plants
- Absence of indications for the quality of modules that are used in terms of performance, efficiency and so on
- Absence of refunds of kWh that were produced by photovoltaic plant, only an adjustment between electric energy production and consumption
- Uncertainty for the effective final typal approval of photovoltaic plant .

On the contrary an elementary but effective project for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar field in Germany is given, and it was created in 2000 in which :

- there were not non – refundable contribution
- there were subsidised rate funding lasting 10 years
- there were facilities connected with the electric energy that was produced by the photovoltaic plant .
Such programme allowed to create photovoltaic plants as investment, to realise high efficiency and quality plants, to obtain the highest production possible and users were stimulated to do effective maintenance actions on time .


Environmental impact in the solar renewable is low or it doesn’t exist, because of the absence of the release of polluting substances in the environment ( air, water, see pollution ). There is a reduction in gas that are responsible of the feared greenhouse and of the phenomenon of acid rain .
The photovoltaic conversion from solar energy into electric energy represents the renewable type source which is more environmentally friendly .

Photovoltaic solar plants don’t emit polluting materials, vibration and since they are modular, they go along with the site’s geomorphology where they are installed ; finally they can produce energy near electric loads, so succeeding to prevent transmission losses .
By the way, the environmental impact is not zero : some problems remain and there are limited typology of environmental impact that affect the approval or acceptance of plants and they are the following :

- productive process of components and the pollution that comes from it
- usage and saturation of areas in territories which don’t allow other uses
- sometimes a significant visual impact ( visual pollution )
- impact on fauna and flora, i.e. on the local climate .

As regard to the pollution in the components production phase . The choice of raw materials can reduce the phenomenon, for the rest emission that come from productive process are the function of more or less advanced technology that is used during the production phase . The most used photovoltaic plants and photovoltaic systems are based on silicon ( a chemical element that is widespread on the earth’s crust ) both in the crystal form, poly – crystal and amorphous form .
The production process doesn’t provoke an excessive use of harmful or polluting substances and in is important to say that in the photovoltaic market, a part of the silicon comes from the reuse of waste in the electronic industry .

fotovoltaico solare PV

It must be highlighted that some typology of solar cell may involve potential risks in case of fire, because toxic gasses can form after a combustion ; obviously when photovoltaic panels can be no more used , they are properly disposed ( photovoltaic waste ) through adequate system of photovoltaic panels recycling . Photovoltaic parks installation and therefore the need of space and territory depends on how the photovoltaic is used : decentralised or centralised mode in big plants .

In the first case and in the decentralised mode, the used part of territory is reduced because the photovoltaic plant is installed in surfaces that were already removed from the natural environment, for example roofs, building ’s facades or balconies of existing buildings, car parks and their structure, service areas near cliffs, dangerous places and sides of the road etc. The expansion potential for the decentralised photovoltaic and photovoltaic systems is large, and the degree of penetration and development is connected with a substantial costs reduction .

Analysing the second case, i.e. centralised photovoltaic production plants ( mega watt ) , where the energy need is, the efficiency of modules conversion and site’s insolation are optimised and they need significant territory extensions in order to provide overall an appreciable contribute .
Reasons of aesthetic type led to a failure of some projects and photovoltaic systems, where a strong visual impact depends on the size of the park that affected heavily the territory ; this impact is very reduced in the decentralised use, for example roofs and facades .

Big or medium sized photovoltaic plants will have a larger visual impact that amplifies in the case of beautiful countryside .
Another problem that is possible to find concerns the reflecting surfaces and the disturbance that is connected with enormous surfaces near residential areas, roads etc., and with the actions that are necessary in order to mitigate the effects modifying the slope or building appropriate protective shields through arboreal elements or shrubs, without incurring to create shadow zones in the photovoltaic field ( see ENEA research ) .

FV a concentrazione 1500 X PV

In the decentralised use of photovoltaic solar systems the impact on flora and fauna related to the limited subtracted ground is negligible since the absence of noise and vibration .
When photovoltaic panels subtract solar radiation to the environment, aspect that could involve light modification on the local microclimate, is appropriate to bear in mind that only about 10 % of energy of the sun that affects for time unit on the surfaces of the photovoltaic field, will be converted and transported to another place as electric energy while the remaining part will be reflected or will go through modules .

In the multitude of territorial institutional and social contexts, and in the past experiences turns out that a soft technology for the environment to, as well as solar photovoltaic energy, is not exempt from environmental impact that can create difficulties in the population’s acceptance of green projects and they are useful from the energetic point of view .

The size of a solar plant and the impact that is determined in the solar photovoltaic are infinitely lower than the older energy technologies ( energy from coal, nuclear energy etc. ), however they are enough to create position and opposition that are difficult to pass, therefore, the identification of the right site, the design of the plant and the realisation of the authorisation procedure will give better results if appropriate evaluation and consideration on the environmental impact will be made, in advance with accuracy and involving social parts .



PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS : it is based on some elements such as economic benefit, possible urban restrictions, presence or absence of incentives, costs for the request for a point of connection to the institution which deals with the grid .

FINAL PLANNING : it includes authorisation, final planning as built, technical documentation must be finished and sent for the request to put the photovoltaic plant in the grid .


A correct data collection is needed in order to start a feasibility study : there must be drawings and photos in which there is the orientation of the site where the park will be built, data related to electric energy consumption and supply ( if there it is ), information about the structure where the photovoltaic plant will be installed ( permissible load for the coverage ).


The space necessary for realise a photovoltaic plant depend on the site where the photovoltaic must be installed, on the technology and therefore the efficiency of the chosen photovoltaic modules .
Sometime high efficiency and value photovoltaic modules must be used because of the high consumption and the small available space ( see CIGS modules )



Speaking of energy, the grid parity represents the point when the electric energy that is produced through the plant ( that are supplied by renewable energy sources ), is characterized by having the same price as the energy that is produced through other sources of traditional or conventional energy, such as methods that use fossil sources or different sources, for example the nuclear energy .

In the Italian energy market, especially in the last years and in the photovoltaic area, it was recorded a phenomenon of the spread of investment in this area thanks to these incentives . When the incentive system through energy accounts ( on the base of the incentives for the electric production through the solar source in July 2013 ), the Grid Parity has became more popular, in terms of “ parity “ between cost of electric energy that is produced by a photovoltaic plant and cost for buying the energy from the grid .
Following the enactment of the Strategia Energetica Nazionale SEN 2017 by MISE ( Ministry of Economic Development in Italy ), there are important aims as regards to the photovoltaic production in the area of electric energy production mix : 72 Twh until 2030, compared to 24,8 Twh that were produced in 2017 . The concept of market parity as grid parity’s evolution is taking off .


A study made by Department of electrical engineering in the University of Padova, highlights how in Italy the grid parity was achieved in 2013 : therefore the price per kilowatt – hour for cars ( the consumption obtained by photovoltaic panels is the same as the price of the energy that is possible to buy from the electric grid ).
According to an other study made by a Spin off in the University of Roma Tor Vergata, some definition related to the photovoltaic grid parity have increase and this concept is developing :
- Observability : intended as competitiveness as cost of generation of renewable Kwh
- Reachability : intended as competitiveness related to the profitability of the investment .

schema elettrico impianto fotovoltaico connesso in rete PV

According to the terminology in use, a photovoltaic plant in the grid parity means production of electric energy through solar sources and such production is obtained without incentives, i.e. through an economic return that is equivalent to the sum of :

- a proportion of the electric energy that is switched with the grid and whose has got an economic value of Dedicated Withdrawal or Net metering
- no cost of acquisition for the electric energy as regard to the self – consumed quota ( statistical ratio Solar Photovoltaic GSE )

Trade arrangements managed by GSE, can include a modes of operation of the total or partial self-consumption plant, on the basis of the plant’s power class in Kwp and of the producer costumer ’s energy -intensive profile ( new definition of energy – intensive companies of Anima ) that has got responsibility for the photovoltaic plant .
A cost of generation of photovoltaic kWh ( Levelised Energy Cost ) is mapped to the photovoltaic plant in the grid parity, as well as a IRR ( Internal Rate of Return ) of the investment that is involved in the plant’s installation ; It must be compared to the benchmark values of IRR, with the aim to understand if it is appropriate the investment ’s risk and the obtaining of the accessibility condition and therefore the obtaining of the Grid Parity .

Producing electric energy through solar photovoltaic sources without incentives and without self-consumption leads to the concept of market parity or parity generation . Chile is an example, but there are other examples in the world where the photovoltaic wins without incentives on the conventional plants of coal energy or energy from other sources according to the data related to the electric market . The discriminatory is the high cost of electric energy together with the strong solar irradiation . The market parity is made when electric energy is produced through solar photovoltaic sources but without any incentive .

The market parity is obtained thanks to multi megawatt photovoltaic plants that are connected to the distribution grid in medium – voltage, or utility scale photovoltaic plants that are connected to the transmission grid in high – voltage .

To obtain the economic value in the market parity, the value of the official electric energy must be sought in the power exchange GME . Market parity represents the Trade Off between :
- generation cost per photovoltaic kWh LCOE and
- price in the electric market of electric energy

processo fabbricazione impianti FV in poli Si PV

The electric energy is produced and then is fed into the grid and is commercially levied through the “ indirect withdrawal “ from the GSE, and it has got a value for the zonal time price .
In an alternative way, this electric energy can be sold directly in the market of electric energy of the power exchange GME or it can be bought through a trader through two – year contracts for a fixed price ( 48 € / Mwh in 2017 ).
A group of researchers in the Polytechnic of Milan, thanks to a study about this concept, they highlight how the expression grid parity is usually intended as parity between electric energy production cost made by a photovoltaic plant and the cost for the buying of the energy from the grid .

However, usually “ grid parity “ is when it is convenient to invest in a photovoltaic plant, both from a economic point of view and good profitability of the investment, where there aren’t incentives . Speaking of photovoltaic in Italy, the grid parity represents a reachable purpose, with substantial difference and therefore a higher or lower convenience of the investment, depending on the typology of plant, locality and usage of the energy that is produced. There are studies that summarises the differences between the grid parity model and market parity .


Authorisation for photovoltaic plants

Depending on cases, the authorisation to build photovoltaic plants in Italy starts with a simply communication of a prior installation to the municipality, however sometimes the process can become more elaborate and bureaucratic : it depends on single regional rules that have to regulate permission according to certain criteria, which must necessarily adhere to the national guidance .
Furthermore, the area in which the plant will be installed and the size of the photovoltaic plant affect this process as well .

For each photovoltaic plant type there is a specific authorisation, both for a photovoltaic plant that is installed on a roof a building and for the one that is installed on the ground and so on .
First of all it is necessary to contact the technical office of the municipality of the territory in which the plant will be installed, however the Province ( Provinces list ) has got competence and responsibility for the big plants or for photovoltaic plant that are next to protected areas, in some case the responsibilities belong to the Region ( Regions list ) or to the Superintendence ( superintendence list and Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities ).


Except for the big photovoltaic plant on the ground or next to protected areas ( official list of protected natural areas ), where the process can become complex, usually the prior communication to the Municipality is enough in order to start working on plants such as domestic plants or small industrial plants . Since November 2015 an additional simplification of the bureaucracy has been in force : it is a simplified procedure to build a connection and start working on small photovoltaic plants on the buildings’ roof . This procedure allows to use a Modulo Unico ( a type of model ) in order to comply with obligations under the relevant laws : municipal authorisation , request application to Enel / Terna in order to connect with the grid, dispatch of practice for Net Metering to GSE . Link to the decree of simplification of authorisation for residential photovoltaic plants


Simple authorisation title, it is the legislation for plants assimilated to activities of free building ( denuncia di inizio attività in edilizia ) . It is sent with telematics in some municipality and it is a prior communication to the municipality of a determinate territory, there is a tacit consent , and it is actually a communication of start of work . Contact point to refer to : Technical Office of the related Municipality .

When it is applied :

It is a request that is applied to plants which cannot benefit from the unique procedura autorizzativa semplificata ( a procedure ) under the power of 20 KW ; the communication to the municipality is suitable for small plants on the roof where the simplified procedure is not applied . The prior communication is enough for photovoltaic plants that are on the roof or are integrated in the roof with same inclination and equal to the to brim’s orientation where they will be installed ; a modification of the building ’s template that houses photovoltaic panels mustn’t be verified . Criteria are considered valid only if plants are not installed in areas subjected to protection or constraints of the legal code of cultural heritage and landscape . Otherwise other procedures are compulsory and the competence could move from municipality, province, region to the superintendence in order to grant authorisation .
The prior communication to the municipality is also a suitable authorisation for photovoltaic plants and from renewable sources that are compatible with the “ Net Metering” . Following there are some guideline :

Plants must not :

- provoke an alteration of the size of a building
- provoke an alteration of the surface of a buildings
- alter the intended use of a building
- modify the number of building units inside the building
- involve an increase of the number of urban parameters ( building codes )
- affect the structural parts of a building
- be on buildings that are in historic centres ( A area General Urban Development )
The prior communication to a determinate municipality as single authorisation typology, requires that the holder of the plant that will be built, has got the full legal participation ( Property ) on areas or on goods subjected to works that will be carried out in order to build the plant .

Building Integrated Photovoltaics


When photovoltaic plants that will be installed are between 20 kW and 50 MW or in the case in which the proposer has not the full ownership on the areas or on the buildings, it will be necessary the Autorizzazione Unica AU ( A type of an authorisation ) and the competence will move from municipality, province or region .


The contact point for the granting of the authorisation is only the system operator ( Enel / Terna ) . Enel Distribution becomes the single mediator for the applicant for the handling of the case .
The Procedura Autorizzativa Semplificata was created in november 2015 in order to speed up the authorisation process for the installation of small photovoltaic plant on the roof . The authorisation process as bureaucracy involves exclusively the compilation and the next dispatch ( in 2 phases ) of a Modello Unico .
This “ Modello Unico” is accessible through telematics from the producer of the system operator on internet, in this case Enel Distribution . Through the gateway a first part of the model can be made out before the start of works and then a second section when works are finished .
Through this procedure, in 2 phases, the municipality is warned of the “ start of work “ and the request of installation of photovoltaic plant is sent to Enel, and a copy of the instance of request in order to access the net metering will be sent to GSE . The Modello Unico works as authorisation function for some photovoltaic plants . The Modello Unico has the big lead : the applicant can interface only with Enel in order to handle administrative and bureaucratic aspects and it permits the applicant to proceed to the presentation with different timing, 2 modules complying the authorisation request in order to create and install the photovoltaic plant .
The first phase of the model, before the start of works, includes the communication of “ start of works “ to the municipality, cadastral data of the plant ( visura cadastral ) and biographical data of the applicant . The second phase of the model, when works are finished, includes the communication of “end of works”, technical data of the plant, declaration of conformity and instance of start Net Metering .

It is possible to adhere to the simplified procedure and it concerns about new small domestic plants and small industrial plants . These are the requirements for the accession to the simplified process for those who want to install a photovoltaic plant :

- connection to a point of withdrawal in existing low voltage, where other plants of electric production are not connected
- lower or equal power to the power in the withdrawal point
- plant until 20 KW of power
- plant made on the roof
- connection to the grid through “ Net Metering “ method with GSE

Substantially the typology of plants which can be installed : new plants on the roof of houses, small companies, laboratories, sheds and condos .



Renewable energy
PV, Solar Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic Geographical Information System ( PVGIS )
Grid parity
TICA ( testo integrato connessioni attive )
Valutazione Impatto Ambientale V.I.A.
Autorizzazioni Fotovoltaico ( AU autorizzazione unica, PAS procedura abilitativa semplificata )
Developer of photovoltaic parks
Green Field Investment
Attualizzazione ( Discount )
Buyer, Investor
Unit of measurement : Power ( Watt, Megawatt MW, Watt peak, Megawatt Peak MWp ), Surface ( Hectare )
Technical terms related to land : CDU ( Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ), Visura Cadastral for lands , Particelle Lotti, Agricultural soil Land typology
Google Earth ( Localizzazione terreni )
Electric Substation
Enel , Terna ( Handler of electricity grid )
GSE ( Handler of energetic services )
Professional association : Agronomists, Surveyors, Engineers, Architects, Experts , Professional office
NDA Accordo di Non Divulgazione ( Non Disclosure Agreement )

contact IBS by mail

Translated by : Matteo Aristei


Agrovoltaico Fotovoltaico Terreni FV sviluppo


IBS ENERGY is glad to announce that, in addition to the ground – mounted photovoltaic, they started developing agrivoltaic projects . The agrivoltaic, also known as agrophotovoltaic, came to Italy thanks to the contribution of the Italian company REM TEC SRL .

The agrivoltaic allows more energy production than the ground-mounted photovoltaic, through high integration and environmental sustainability, compatibility with the agricultural activity, landscape protection, and avoiding land consumption, too .

This is possible by means of the latest technological solutions and solar tracking with photovoltaic panels at a height of about 14 ft ( 4,5 meters ), and connected to each other wirelessly, that is, through a system of remote control and communication and a mobile and flexible structure, that does not clutter up the room, is made of recyclable materials, and does not take away space from the arable land .

The photovoltaic panels, by virtue of a remote control, can be:

- perpendicular to the land, not only to allow a homogenous distribution of rain and snow, but also to prevent any damage in case of hail or strong wind ;
- parallel to the land, for easy access and circulation of agricultural machinery .

To minimize the shading in the agrivoltaic and ensure maximum lighting to the land below, the arrangement of the panels is optimized and the poles on which the structure rests are placed at a distance of almost 40 ft ( 12 meters) from each other .
The agrivoltaic can promote the short food supply chain, with products that are sustainable, offering the local community agricultural products which come from organic farming and clean energy ( could be similar to net metering ).




There is a new challenge, that in the future will reward companies that will provide solutions able to integrate the agro – zoological activities within photovoltaic systems .


A possible greenhouse gas reduction in the agrivoltaic sector, a challenge addressed to worldwide innovative companies, is still being experimented . It is fundamental to create a coexistence of photovoltaic and local agricultural in which no space destined for food production or grazing purposes is occupied . This would be an added value to the community, with a territory diversification, making a profit and generating clean energy, too .

You may have wondered, while driving throughout Italy and catching sight of solar panels, if it is technically possible to cultivate land under them . Well, this is a reality by now: for a long time now in Central Europe and the USA, and recently in Italy, too . The agrivoltaic is an innovative and efficient system that has the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, producing clean energy respecting nature .
A new way of cultivating is born, the so-called ‘’ Agrivoltaic ’’.

Agriculture + Photovoltaic = AGRIVOLTAIC

This sum, until a while ago, was affected by the high costs of the structures and the panels . And today because of a considerable reduction of prices, linked to the research and development of new materials, it is possible to use an innovative and efficient system . Still using the same surface, the agrivoltaic combines electricity production with the agricultural activity .


While the photovoltaic effect and the photovoltaic panels were discovered by the french Alexander Edmond Bécquerel in 1839, the first working selenium solar cell was created by the american Charles Fritz in 1883 . And Albert Einstein proposed a new quantum theory of light and explained the photoelectric effect in a landmark paper, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 .
And well, a lot of progress has been made since then . However, in the conventional photovoltaic, that is the ground – mounted photovoltaic, land cultivation is not possible yet as the panels are way too close to the land .

As time passed by, as plants proliferated and also due to country incentives and feed-in tariff, people had started realizing that fields not in use kept on increasing . Nowadays, in regions like Apulia and Sicily, there are more authorization processes as people fear panels may take room from the agriculture surface .

Then why not combining them ? Indeed, the agrivoltaic produces energy and at the same time cultivates land, and therefore leaves the way clear for farm machines .
Italy is new to the agrivoltaic : it first arrived in 2009 in Mola di Bari, Apulia, where agrivoltaic systems were installed above vineyards ; reaching 55 hectares in 2013 in Mantua, Lombardy and Piacenza, Emilia-Romagna, with photovoltaic plants installed at a height of 5 meters ( about 16 ft ) and at a 12 meters ( about 39 ft ) distance to facilitate cultural operations, to clear the way for farm machines and to reduce the shading .

In Italy, an alternative to the ground-mounted photovoltaic is the so called ‘’ photovoltaic greenhouse ’’, thanks to state incentives. How does it work? One needs to find an available greenhouse with specific bankability requirements that make it similar to an industrial covering, and by virtue of photovoltaic panels it becomes a greenhouse photovoltaic . The biggest one is in Suscioffu, in the province of Cagliari, in Sardinia .


- LOGISTICS : planning stage. One has to organize the panels properly to clear the way for farm machines ;
- CLIMATE CONDITIONS AND SAFETY : climate conditions have to be taken into consideration ; for safety reasons the photovoltaic panels have to be secured in place . For example, strong winds may let the panels fall and would also be a risk for the workers ;
- CULTIVATION OPTIMIZATION : analyzing the climate and microclimate conditions, determined by the panels, that allow the optimization of cultivations depending on the type of cultivation and the agronomic characteristics of the land .


- STATIC CONFIGURATION : the inclination of the panels cannot be modified . Upsides : simplicity, the most affordable, the most reliable . Downsides : limitation of plant varieties, no control on the shadows created ;
- DYNAMIC CONFIGURATIONS ( solar tracking technology ) : one can modify the panels orientation . Upsides : possibility to regulate the shade, vertical inclination to avoid any damages, horizontal orientations to protect against hail and freezing temperatures during the night, increase of the performance of the panels as they can face the sun, and therefore optimizing energy production .


- For the agricultural land : as the photovoltaic modules increase soil mosture, in summer roots are more hydrated . There also are advantages for apiculture, as plants grow around the modules and no pesticides are used . There is less pollution, an advantage for bees, and less fungicide ( used to fight against plants parasites ), too .
- Rangeland : sheep graze in the land, near to photovoltaic installations: the grass is low and one can take advantage of the shading .
- Organic cultivations : low water consumption cultivations, optimization of the harvest from a quantitative / qualitative point of view, high profitability and more jobs .
- Farmers increase their profit margin : innovative methodologies, technologies and cultures, and therefore new business models and new opportunities for agriculture .


Although in Italy there is not much experience in this sector, there are some countries that serve as example, among these there is America . Arizona studies show that the agrivoltaic has great microclimate advantages : while in summer the land temperature below the modules is lower, in winter there is a mitigation of very low temperatures, reduction of water evaporation and cleaner energy .


Some Non – profit organizations want the Governments to encourage greater synergies between agriculture and photovoltaic, also thanks to government incentives, to achieve the international targets of the Paris Agreement and the national targets for 2030 set by the Integrated National Plan for Energy and Climate ( PNIEC ) . The main objective is to stop climate change . To do so, to reach 32GWP of new solar plants by 2030, it is important to aim for renewable sources . To achieve these goals plants on roofs are not enough . In fact, great utility-scale plants are needed .

These organizations strongly want the realization of great ground – mounted photovoltaics to be enhanced, hoping for no more legislative measures that would block the installation of photovoltaic plants on agricultural lands .

New photovoltaic installations move forward slowly to guarantee the 32GWP set by PNIEC . Therefore, there must be more photovoltaic installations on roofs, in unused areas, ex – carries, landfills, revamping and repowering of the already existing plants . Also, the authorization procedure of the utility – scale ground-mounted photovoltaic plants has to be simplified, in unused agricultural areas, near to infrastructures, consciously using the agrivoltaic, ensuring land biodiversity . In substance, thanks to the agrivoltaic, energy production and cultivation coexist, with advantages to the community and to the farmer, who has an additional income that will help their agricultural activity .

The low costs of panels and installations and the constant technologic and efficiency improvement allow the realization of Grid Parity / Market parity ground-mounted photovoltaic plants with no government incentives . If there are any incentives, in case of unused areas or reclaimed lands, due to the bureaucrats normative problems and delay in the reclaiming there are no tenders .

Furthermore, unless there are specific Regional laws, one can install photovoltaic systems in agricultural areas with no restrictions, ( even though one cannot use incentives by means of auctions ), giving the Regions and Local Authorities the job to restrict the possibility of installing plant thanks to targeted measures .

Therefore, some new parameters would be useful to regulate new installations on agricultural lands, protecting the agricultural activity and stimulating the agrivoltaic, also known as agriphotovoltaic .


Paris Agreement

Abandoned quarries and reservoirs for Floating Solar

Abandoned quarries and reservoirs for Floating Solar

Cave dismesse fotovoltaico flottante galleggiante Home



IBS Energy not only is at the forefront when it comes to Grid Parity ground – mounted photovoltaics, but also focuses on the development of Photovoltaic Installations, fixed or with solar trackers in abandoned quarries/bodies of water . How ? Thanks to a floating installation with a cooling system, enhanced by solar mirrors to collect and concentrate incident solar radiation . IBS, as developer and supplier of photovoltaic installations, via floating plants promots their environmental integration . The benefits of the floating application are not only inexpensive, thanks to an increase in production, but also environmental, as there is a greater protection of water resources by reducing its evaporation . There are also benefits such as the recovery of degraded areas e.g. abandoned ex – quarries that, without a recovery plan, could turn into uncontrolled illegal landfills with environmental and health risks .


- Owners of lands, quarries and reservoirs
- Signalmen, business operators and technicians ( surveyors, engineers, architects, etc. )
- Developers, Investors and Consultants
- Power companies
- Other relevant activities


It is a patented installation, developed and marketed in 2010, that consists of a structure or metal frame properly coupled with some floating elements, which allows the presence of a photovoltaic installation able to float on water, both in ex quarries or in resevoirs flooded by water .


Solar radiation is collected via a properly designed structure where the Photovoltaic Panels are fixed . It is a structure that can be made of aluminium (Al) or stainless steel and that supports photovoltaic modules constituted by photovoltaic cells . To optimize the irradiance and energy production, it is possible to change the inclination of the floating PV panels . The floating solar uses floats, characterized by a strong floating capacity on fluids, combined with HDPE supporting structures . A floating solar installation is a modular system, which can be implemented to form larger stand – alone installations, depending on the surface of the ex – quarry or reservoir . How ? Thanks to floating structures that usually aggregate 4 panels, which can be joined to form larger islands . The system is designed to maximize electricity production using floating PV structures . Thanks to the proximity to water surface, and the reflected light that is conveyed on high performance photovoltaic panels, the production of the floating photovoltaic system can increase by 10 % to 20 %, compared to a similar system installed on the ground .


What differentiates a traditional photovoltaic from a floating photovoltaic installation, simply known as a floating solar ? Instead of referring to a ground-mounted photovoltaic arranged on a surface that remains motionless we refer to a fluid element, water . Therefore, these installations, not only are provided with the same technology and latest generation photovoltaic panels, but are also implemented with specific technologies that allow the installations themselves to float on diversified surfaces and bodies of water .


- Ex – mine quarries ( mine quarries now flooded by water and abandoned )
- Natural or artificial lakes and reservoirs
- Catchment reservoirs for drinking water
- Lakes and reservoirs for agricultural and/or storage irrigation
- Large waste water treatment plants
- Large sedimentation tanks
- Hydroelectric dams and mountain lakes
- Lakes, ponds, lagoons
- etc.


Although, until 2016, this type of installation was carried out almost exclusively in protected areas with small sized installations, it is now in an experimental stage on large surfaces, and in unprotected places such as open seas or lakes . This is also due to the growing interest in this technology that is expected to undergo a strong development, soon reaching over 1 GW of installed capacity worldwide, and then achieve far more important results quickly . All of this has been possible thanks to some Singapore experiments, that by using Japanese, Italian, Korean and French technologies has installed floating photovoltaics in huge drinking water reserves . Therefore, excellent results in terms of energy production have been achieved . Subsequently, the same technology has experienced a significant growth on a global scale .

Ex Cave discariche dighe bacini idrici fotovoltaico flottante



- A low environmental impact, a positive or at most a neutral one with no danger to the balance between the ecosystems ;
- Evaporation is reduced by covering the surface of water ;
- The organoleptic qualities of water are improved by limiting the algae bloom through the shading performed by the platform ;
- The gradual erosion of the reservoirs is significantly reduced thanks to a reduction in the wave motion and the wave action .


- It is possible to limit the use of soil and to store land and water as valuable sources for more important purposes ;
- It is possible to recover and rehabilitate contaminated areas ,e.g. ex – quarries, and at the same time produce clean energy ;
- it is a technology that not only has a good appearance, but also a full compatibility with recreational activities .


- To convert abandoned areas, such as abandoned quarries, into productive and profitable areas ;
- To significantly reduce major infrastructure investments and the connection to the national electricity costs ;
- To reduce the timing and to speed up the processes of development and the obtaining of permits, although in the presence of abandoned quarries these are already faster, as they do not require all the steps expected by an Environmental Impact Assessment EIA demand ;
- To improve electricity production .


IBS thanks anyone who sends information and is interested in collaborating in the reporting or development of this type of photovoltaic installations in abandoned quarries or reservoirs .


Floating Solar Project


Name of the reservoir : ________________________ ** If it does not have a name, state name, city or country **

Type of reservoir : ** Select the appropriate entry **
o Abandoned quarry and flooded mines
o Storage reservoir
o Irrigation reservoir
o Water treatment tank
o Rain water storage tanks
o Industrial reservoir/ hydroelectric dam
o Lakes, ponds, lagoons
o Other to be specified____________________________

Location: _______________________________

** Attach a Google Earth kmz file, GPS coordinates or a Google Maps link **

HIGH WATER LEVEL: _________ ( meters )

** To design shape and size of the installations, and so avoid a collusion with the bank **
** Levels above sea level or above bottom level ( bottom = 0 ) **
** Enter expected levels in the next 25 years **

BANK LEVEL : _______ ( meters )

BOTTOM WATER LEVEL : ________ ( meters )

LOW WATER LEVEL : _________ ( meters )

** Can be the same as the bottom **

BANK SOIL COMPOSITION : _________________________________________________

** To evaluate the anchor system suitable for the type of soil on the bottom: muddy, sandy, stony **
** Density : soft, average, hard **

BOTTOM SOIL COMPOSITION : ___________________________________________________________

IS THE RESERVOIR COVERED WITH GEOTEXILE OR MEMBRANE ? ___________________________________________
ON THE BANK ? ___________________________
ON THE BOTTOM ? ___________________________


Type of use of the produced photovoltaic energy : ** Select the appropriate entry **

Self -consumption
Onsite exchange ( up to 500 kWp)
Feed – in

Installed power required : ** Select the appropriate entry **

o MWp (dc)
o MVA (ac)

Individual module power : __________ W

** If a specific photovoltaic module is needed, send us a technical sheet **
** It is preferrable for a module to be made up of 72 cells to reduce the number of modules per installed capacity . If the specific power is not specified, a module with 72 cells will be designed .**
** Preferred voltage level system ( DC ): 1,000 V 1,500 V **

Network connection point location : _______________________________________

** Example: GPS coordinates << southeast from the basin >>**


Floating solar project relevant information :

- Site – specific conditions : _______________________________________________________
- Wind maximum speed : _______________________________________________________
- Network connection : ____________________________________________________________
- Maintenance of the reservoir : ___________________________________________________________


- Bathymetric and topographic maps ( dwg, CAD files )
- Technical sheets of the photovoltaic modules / inverters
- Site photos .

cave miniere fotovoltaico galleggiante vantaggi



Click here to download : FLOATING SOLAR CHECK – LIST


Contact us at the following e-mail to send the core data of an abandoned quarry / reservoir for an installation of a floating solar or to receive further information :
floating mail ibs energy


- Name of the company/ contact person
- Core business
- Google Earth location of the quarry / reservoir
- Illustrate the site and its conditions

Thank you for your cooperation

cave dismesse fotovoltaico floating contatti


Detailed analysis of the floating solar advantages :

The advantages that a floating solar system has if installed e.g. in an ex – quarry, compared to not floating traditional photovoltaic systems :

MINIMUM LAND CONSUMPTION that can be used for agricultural purposes : as floating installations are installed in water reservoirs ‘’ they do not consume land ’’, except for the components that allow connection to the national electricity grid . The use of the floating solar is strategic especially in foreign countries or even in Italy, where valuable soil and lands are protected by the Regions that outstand in the agri – food sector, or where flat terrain is scarce and particularly expensive . It is therefore necessary to preserve agricultural land, especially in areas with high population density, so that they are used for greater public utility purposes . It is also important not to take away territories from the rural habitat in areas with a balance between fauna and flora, and to find alternative ways of producing energy without adversely affecting the territory, the environment and the landscape, bringing together energy independence with the purpose of safeguarding the territory itself and ensuring the hydraulic safety of the concerned areas .

ABSENCE OF STRUCTURES : as they float, floating solar installations do not need to build or provide structures / infrastructures to support/ orient the panels . Furthermore, these structures show how important the installation decomissioning phase and the restoration of the pre – existing environmental condition and status are .

WATER SAVING : in the case of areas intended for irrigation or human consumption, if we reduce evaporation of the underlying water to a maximum of 80 %, we obtain a great water saving . Considering the gradual and constant decline in fresh water on the globe and given that, thanks to these floating installations there is a reduction in evaporation of over 80 % on an annual basis, such technologies should be subsidised in arid countries with scarce water reserves through EU policies . In fact in arid countries, water is always scarce. And so, by preserving water resources with floating solar installations, e.g. in rainwater collection tanks / aqueduct basins, important results and benefits for the population would be reached, also avoiding exodus in periods of greatest drought, reducing the migratory phenomena .

EFFICIENCY INCREASE : the output of floating panels is higher when compared to ground – mounted installations . This is showed by studies on operating installations, especially in areas close to the ground, where summer high temperatures lead to a reduction in the output and life span of photovoltaic panels . With the same size or other characteristic elements of the installation, a floating photovoltaic park, e.g. installed in an ex – quarry, compared to the same one installed on the ground, can lead to an increase from 7 to 15 % of the produced electricity .

LOW MAINTENANCE : as they are installed on water, photovoltaic panels do not need frequent cleaning that is instead necessary on the ground, especially for floating solar in abandoned quarries in dusty areas . The amount of dust above the surface of water, in the air above it, is minor if compared to the mainland, as the dust raised by the wind near the bodies of water does not get past the shore . In addition, another benefit is being able to avoid cutting the grass or vegetation that grows under the ground – mounted installations. Finally, soil levelling activities, especially in ex – quarries with particular extracted materials or initial preparation costs of the site, are absent or reduced to a minimum .

LOWER SOLAR TRACKING AND COOLING COSTS : Compared to the ground – mounted photovoltaic, e.g. in an abandoned quarry, water makes the implementing of solar – tracking plant technologies and panels cooling operations easier, which is fundamental, especially in summer, in territories with strong solar irradiance . These floating technologies cause an increase in the energy produced that can go up to 20 % regarding the solar tracking, and 10 % when it comes to the cooling of the panels .

GREATER RECYCLABILITY OF COMPONENTS another benefit to the environment, thanks to the minimal presence of fixed infrastructures, is that of maximising the use of recyclable materials in the floating solar, as the building and implementation of these installations provide a greater use of mainly HDPE ( high density polyethilene ), aluminium and steel materials .

RECOVERY OF ABANDONED QUARRIES : it is common to find many abandoned quarries that were then flooded by water, and the installation of floating solar allows the realization of a control of the area . Therefore, an investment of money in trasforming them is avoided, and the risk of them ending up in abusive uncontrolled landfills is excluded .

INTEGRATED STORAGE AND STAND – ALONE INSTALLATION : The application of floating solar is compatible with integrated storage systems to allow photovoltaic installations to be energetically independent and autonomous . For example, in Italy, in small islands, it is difficult to find appropriate spaces to house generating plants and solar parks through ground – mounted PV . Large parks, even if eligible in terms of host areas, would have high electricity production costs . This is because they are often far from infrastructures that allow a cheap connection to the national electricity grid . On the other hand, by identifying existing areas and reservoirs which have not been used ( or flooded abandoned quarries ), even close to energy-intensive or high energy consumption users ( urban and industrial areas ), thanks to floating installations the high costs and losses of energy, which the electricity infrastructures involve in terms of transport, distribution and transmission, would be significantly reduced .

GREATER EFFICIENCY : the high efficiency, if compared to ground – mounted installations of equal power , is favored by the proximity of photovoltaic solar panels to water, that cools the silicon cells in moments of greater production, increasing the efficiency . Light, reflected by water thanks to its reflective properties ( unlike the ground ), makes a major contribution in terms of efficiency, especially at high latitudes . In winter, however, properties, in terms of water heat exchange, determine a mitigating effect on the panels, which can defrost faster with the result of gaining up to an hour of production per day .

FLOATING AND GROUND – MOUNTED PHOTOVOLTAICS : EQUAL COSTS BUT GREATER BENEFITS in addition to ensuring a significant increase in production, the floating solar avoids consuming soil, preserves water reserves and reduces water evaporation . Furthermore, it has costs that are similar to the ground – mounted photovoltaic . Therefore, if you have an abandoned quarry/ artificial or natural water reservoir, with a significant consumption of electricity, choosing a floating solar instead of a traditional system would be an absolutely winning choice .

FLOATING SOLAR AND DAMS : a photovoltaic park installed near hydroelectric plants with re – pumping stations would allow the use of sun ’s energy to implement the system, thanks to storage technologies in the form of potential energy . This technology fits perfectly in the case of dams, reservoirs, quarry lakes, storage irrigation tanks, water treatment and conditioning tanks . These are generally well irradiated by the sun, protected, and sometimes close to energy – intensive consumption sites, and therefore are ideal candidates for floating solar.


Some associations for the protection of the environment have expressed their concerns about installations of this type, that through installations in quarries or bodies of water could generate critical situations in case of nests placed by animals under the panels of the floating solar . Therefore, efforts are made to find solutions with a low environmental impact to avoid, as far as possible, the use of areas of environmental value, or of a particular faunal importance, and give priority to sites in degraded areas or pre-existing artificial areas .
The impact on aquatic fauna and flora that could be disturbed by this type of installation on water surfaces is still being verified . However, there are several studies conducted by neutral third – party organizations, including Gumi Electronic & IT Research Institute ( GER ) and Korean KETEP, the Korean Environment Institute ( KEI ), according to which adverse environmental effects would not appear to be determined . However, these studies will continue to ensure a non – negative impact on the environment, also trying to improve the installations to make them even more environmentally friendly .

cave miniere recupero con il fotovoltaico


A quarry is a type of open – pit mine in which dimension stone, rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. In Italy, the operation of quarries is regulated under the provisions of Royal Decree no. 1443 of 29 July 1927 .


Quarry materials are :
- building, road and hydraulic constructions materials ;
- peat ;
- quartz, diatomaceous earth, silica sands, gritstones, sharpening stones, soil with coloured pigments ;
- materials not defined as mines materials in the decree .


- clay quarries to obtain bricks ;
- sand and gravel quarries to make concrete ;
- silica quarries to make glass and ceramics ;
- limestone quarries to make cement ;
- chalk quarries ;
- decoration and building stone quarries : marble, granite, gneiss ( e.g. serizzo, Luserna stone ), sandstone ( e.g. Macigno, Trani stone ), travertine, slate and strain quarries .
Mining can only be carried out after a state concessione has been granted . On the other hand, bogs and quarries are regulated by the landowner and are subject to regional legislation .


Quarries, and mines too, can be :
- pit quarries / mines
- underground quarries / mines
- open – pit quarries / mines
Open – pit quarries are the most common ones, but there also is underground quarrying, often in the case of valuable materials ( Carrara marble quarries and Milan cathedral Candoglia marble quarries ).

In the case of ornamental stone quarries ( e.g. marble and granite quarry ) equipment and technologies are used to detach large, regular and free of defects boulders . The boulder is detached from the wall thanks to sharp cuts, done using specific machines such as chain saw cutting machine and diamond wire cutting machine .


- 5.273 active and non – active mining sites, 5.137 quarries and 136 mines
- 6,2 % less than 2015
- Among 25 % of Italian municipalties, about 2.013 reported at least 1 mining site ;
- 2.295 active sites, of which 2.227 quarries and 68 mines, that extract 167,8 million tons of non – energy minerals ;
- 83,8 % quarry minerals equal to 154 milion tons ; limestone, travertine, chalk , sandstone which equals to 48,6 % of the total quarrying ;
- 44 % of the quarrying done in Nothern Italy which is equal to 68 milion tons ; Lombardy in the lead for number of quarries in production ( 273) and it’s the 14,4 % of the total quarrying ;
- solid minerals dug up from mines which is equal to 13,7 million tons ;
- Ceramic and industrial minerals equal to 5,7 milion tons, cement marl equal to 5,5 milion tons ; and the 58,5 % of the production in Sardinia, Tuscany, Umbria ;
- Mine minerals, mineral water extraction equal to 16,2 milion cubic meters, of which 57 % in north Italy: Lombardy with 3,3 milion cubic meters, Piedmont and Veneto with 50,7 % of the country ’s total . on

quarries and bogs’ legislation


Wind Power Plant Lands



EN Wind Power Plant Home Page


A SINGLE INTERLOCUTOR : IBS coordinates the scouting of suitable sites to install wind farms . Together with a partner engineering company, it is the owner of the authorization cycle, supervising the bureaucratic process, starting from the request for connection to the electricity grid to the Terna / Enel operators until the Single Authorization . IBS on request may also indicate an EPC ( Engineering, Procurement, Construction ) for construction activities and BOS ( Balance of System ).

INVESTORS : Buyers / Investors already have contracts in place with IBS and they are ready to purchase the Aeolian concessions / authorizations in Grid Parity as soon as they can be established, operating in Development mode in Greenfield or Brownfield .

EN how to cooperate wind power plant

GUIDELINES : in order to make processes efficient, it is important that the ( land ) sites for wind farms that will be presented, have certain requirements indicated below, therefore we recommend a careful reading of the directives that will follow . Thanks for collaboration !


- Land owners in Italy

- Facilitators, land detectors

- Estate agents

- Operators and Technicians operating in the Renewable Energy sector

- Professional associations : Engineers, Architects, Surveyors, Agronomists, Industrial Experts, Agricultural Experts, Professional Offices


WIND SPEED : sites exposed to wind blowing at a speed of 5 meters or more per second (& gt ; 5 mt / s), according to the average annual wind speed measured at 100 m s.l.t. / s.l.m. ( 100 meters above ground level / above sea level ). Read in the section “Operations” how to present the sites for details

MORPHOLOGY OF SITES / LANDS FOR WIND FARMS : sites with adequate wind, preferably ridges and crests

HECTARES OF GROUND NEEDED : it will depend on the installable power, according to the provisions of the law, and depending on the distance that will be maintained between the various wind turbines

SIZE OF WIND PLANTS : according to the legal indications, from 500 KW up to 5 – 6 MW for each wind turbine or higher power . The total power of the wind farm will depend on the number of wind turbines that will be installed

AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL LANDS : both agricultural and industrial land are allowed . Sardinia is an exception because according to the current legislation, it allows the installation of a wind farm exclusively on industrial D category land and not on agricultural land category E

REGIONS WHERE TO BUILD WIND FARMS : the land, if suitable and without restrictions, can be found throughout the national territory : Northern Italy, Central Italy, Southern Italy, and therefore land in all regions . It is important that there is adequate windiness, and that the rents or the sale of the land allow an economic return on the investment compatible with the economic model . The regions with greater windiness are : Sardinia, Sicily, Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia, Campania, Molise, followed by Abruzzo, Lazio, Umbria, then Tuscany, Emilia, Marche, Liguria, and some areas of Val D’ Aosta, Piedmont, Trentino Alto Adige without considering off – shore installations at the sea

PURCHASE OF LAND OR SALE OF SURFACE RIGHT : it is allowed that the owners can take advantage of both a purchase contract and a contract for the sale of the surface right for 30 years and in some cases a transfer of the discounted DDS surface right paid at the beginning in a single payment trance

AMOUNTS FOR SALE OR SALE OF SURFACE RIGHT TO LAND OWNERS : the amount that will be paid to the properties of the land in Euro to Hectare for the sale, or in Euro to Hectare per year for the right to surface, will be negotiated between the investor and the owner of the land, depending on the Region where the land are located ( Southern Italy, Central Italy and Northern Italy ), on the distance from the connection point and on the characteristics of the site ( slope, geomorphological features ). In some cases, the investor may also pay the land surface rights in a single, updated solution . Each investor recognizes variable rates per hectare depending on the financial model used .

CONSTRAINTS AND WIND LIMITATIONS : the lands will be subjected to a geomorphological and orographic analysis, and careful analysis will be carried out to ascertain that the sites are not affected by various types of constraints :

- Official list of protected areas

- Natura 2000 network, sites of Community Importance and Special Protection Areas, SIC ZPS

- Cultural heritage and landscape

- Landscape constraints, visual cones

- Archaeological, geomorphological, hydrogeological constraints, areas with hydrogeological and hydraulic risk

- Piano territoriale paesaggistico regionale ( regional landscape territorial plan )

- Proximity to habitable buildings and electromagnetism

- Urban planning constraints

- Restrictions of a national, regional, local nature for the construction of wind farms in Grid Parity .



Our Buyers / Investors are also interested in purchasing ready – to – build permits ” Ready to Build ” where it is possible to immediately proceed with the construction of the Wind Power Plant .

EN steps to point out land plot wind power plant



VISIT AT THE ATLAS AEOLIAN SITE : Click on the LINK Aeolian Interactive Atlas


- After clicking on the Link, the Home of the Atlas site will open

- On the left select : “ Average annual wind speed at 100 m s.l.t. / s.l.m. ”

- The map will be colored with different colors depending on the average wind speed per area concerned

- Click on + and go to enlarge the Region and the area of interest

- Discard the coloured areas in light green and dark green and consider the colored areas with the colours Yellow, Light Orange, Pink, Dark Orange, Purple, Blue and Blue, ie for wind speeds equal to or greater than 5 meters per second ( > 5 mt / s)

- If the land of interest falls in the colours indicated, you can proceed to send the site data


Land owners or signallers will be asked to send :

- Google coordinates of the land with the indicated placeholder

- If the area to be analysed is large, send the highlighted perimeter of the site in addition to the coordinates using the File with .KMZ extension from Google Earth

- Greenfield Website card that collects basic information about the land

This will make it possible to carry out checks regarding wind speed, and simulations of wind energy production .

After the preliminary analysis, and having obtained the go – ahead to proceed, the following documents will need to be sent :

- Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ( Certificate of urban destination )



SUBSTATION OR CABIN AND RELATED CONNECTION : the verification of the distance of the land from the nearest Enel / Terna substation will be carried out ; the presence of medium / high voltage, the capacity of the line, the technical feasibility of a connection in the substation, the costs for connection to a stall of an existing substation . The creation of a new user substation, will be considered for wind power plant of adequate power ; at the same time the nearby high voltage line will be directly intercepted .

To send documents, go to the section below “COLLABORATE”


PRELIMINARY AGREEMENT TO BE SIGNED BY THE OWNERS : after the checks on the land, on the connection to the Enel / Terna substation, and obtained a positive outcome, the signature of a preliminary land option agreement and the operational steps and the start of the authorization bureaucratic process can take place .

ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY IBS AND PARTNER COMPANIES : IBS will engage through qualified technicians in the development of single authorizations through :
- Single Authorization development that includes geological, morphological, orographic surveys and examinations, and related surveys
- Design, presentation of TICA connection request and various requests, meetings with the Authorities in charge until obtaining the Unique Turnkey Authorizations, to proceed with the construction of the wind farms .

TIMING : times and methods differ depending on the type of site ( agricultural or industrial land ), region concerned, other technical aspects . The time runs after the preliminary analysis of the land documents and the signing of the preliminary option contract with the properties and then from the analysis documents sent to the Services conference in the Region in synergy with our designers .

AGREEMENTS WITH SIGNALS : if the site is not submitted to our attention by the owner directly, but through signalers or collaborators, we will sign agreements to protect employees for the recognition of a reporting fee and an NDA ( Non Disclosure Agreement ) for release of confidential information .

EN test and documents download wind power plant



GREENFIELD SITE CARD : make the download to send the basic information by the owner of the land or signaller (Region, Province, Municipality, if sale or DDS, economic expectations, any Mortgages, information on the Electrical Cabinet, etc.), with the Google Coordinates and if You can attach the photo in Google Earth with coordinates and perimeter of the land .


LINE SIMULATION COSTS LINK : ( for EXPERTS ) Excel file to simulate the connection costs to the low voltage / medium voltage line . Enter the values in the boxes highlighted in yellow and automatically calculate and first evaluate. For high voltage, CONTACT US .

EN download greenfield form wind power plant

EN Google Earth and KMZ

EN download electrical line costs wind power plant

Contact us Wind Power Plant


Contact us to collaborate by E-mail indicating your contacts or call +39 348 29 20 146. One of our managers will communicate with you within 24 H :

Mail : info(a)
Skype : doingbusinessibs ( location Roma )

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Notes : in our E-mail the at is indicated with this symbol (a) insted of @ for informatic safety . Thank you for your collaboration !

EN Stakeholders wind power plant


EN Grid Parity Stakeholders

EN work with us wind power plant


We are looking for direct signalers, operators in contact with the properties of the land, and people who wish to become our Coordinators / Area Managers to coordinate and relate to the reporters, and point of reference for the information process .


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How the wind is formed

The wind is an atmospheric phenomenon . The earth transfers heat to the atmosphere unevenly, creating areas of low pressure and areas of high pressure . When several air masses come into contact, the area where the pressure is greater transfers the air where the pressure is lower, creating an air flow . The higher the pressure difference, the stronger the wind will be .

How to measure the wind

The wind is measured by force and direction . The direction is measured with a wind vane, which can freely orientate, based on the wind direction and the wind is classified using the place of origin or using the cardinal points . The force is indicated by measuring its speed in knots or through the Francis Beaufort scale . The speed is measured with the anemometer, the most used and the simplest is the cup type .

The circulation of the wind

The movements of air are due to the difference in temperature between the equator and the tropics . The equatorial hot air rises, needing cold air from the tropics in a continuous recirculation .

Factors that influence the circulation of winds

Other factors also affect air circulation:

- Earth axis inclination
- The revolution of the earth around the sun
- The rotation of the earth
- The frictional force of the earth ‘s surface
- Presence of mountain ranges

Description of the wind farm

A wind power plant is composed of one or more distant wind generators connected by underground cables . A typical wind machine is composed of turbines ( 1 to 3 ) fixed on a hub . The turbines and the hub form the rotor . The hub is connected to a tree . All the elements are placed in an instrument which is positioned on a support with an adjustable bearing . This instrument is placed on a tower anchored to the ground with a reinforced concrete foundation .
There are several machines but they can be grouped into 2 categories :
- Machines for electrical production to be placed on the network
- The machines for supplying isolated users

Onshore wind farms

More connected wind turbines form wind farms, real power plants . The energy is conveyed to a collection station where it is transformed into medium – voltage electricity . A wind farm can have up to more than one hundred turbines and covers an area of several kilometres . The distance between the turbines is calculated 5 – 10 times the turbine diameter . The USA owns the largest number of onshore wind farms, the largest being in Texas . In Europe the largest is in Glasgow ( Scotland ).

Offshore wind farm

The most recent wind farms are located offshore in the sea, where it is possible to exploit the winds that meet no obstacle . Construction and maintenance costs are higher, but the advantages are :
- The winds find no obstacles
- The problems of aesthetic and acoustic impact are solved
- They are not a danger to birds, birds of prey and migratory birds
Offshore installations are the real future of wind energy . The largest number of offshore wind farms are located in Denmark and the United Kingdom .

Wind energy

Wind energy is a technology that allows wind energy to be converted into electricity . Wind energy drives the wind turbine producing electricity to be transferred to the national electricity grid . The main problem is the landscape impact : the turbines are placed on top of mountains and hills . So they are visible from great distances .

Wind energy in history

The exploitation of wind energy goes back to ancient times, just think of the windmills that Holland used from 1350 to drain the marshes . The first true electric power generators date back to the early 1900s . In the period between the two world wars more powerful wind turbines were built .

Benefits and costs

The most significant cost is the initial investment for the construction of the wind farm . The supply of the machines is the most important expense . The cost of a turbine ( purchase, transport, assembly and start – up ) is directly linked to the rotor diameter . The cost of producing Kwh from wind is constantly decreasing over the last twenty years thanks to the optimization of processes, innovation and the improvement of machine performance . There are no fuel costs and the systems are remotely controlled .
Main benefits identified by the International Energy Agency :
- Very low emissions of harmful gases ( Co2 )
- Availability of energy from a different and safe source
- New industrial and employment prospects
The states that are currently interested in this type of energy are : Austria, Finland, Canada, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Holland, Spain, Norway, Sweden and the USA .

Solar Roofs


EN Solar Roofs


IBS search INDUSTRIAL ROOFS AND AGRICULTURAL COVERING for photovoltaic covering using solar panels .

The types of intervention are :


The methods are :

- EFFICIENT USE SYSTEMS SEU ( efficient use systems )


By opening the following LINK and clicking on the image, it is possible to download a document that you need to draw up . Once completed, send us the document via e-mail together with the information about the roof . As soon as we receive the form, we will process a preliminary to determine :

• The power of the plant
• The production of the plant
• The business plan

Then we will make you a financial offer to pay you for your Roof .

Please be sure to include all your contacts in the e-mail . Thank you for your collaboration .

EN ask an offer for solar roof


If your company has roofs, surfaces on which you would like to install photovoltaic panels, you can also contact the number +39 348 29 20 146 or for more information write us by e – mail .

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The industrial photovoltaic power plants on the roofs represent for a company the combination of cheap, clean energy and entrepreneurial awareness about environmental issues . They transform the environmental protection in a profitable investment with increases in profits . The covering and roofs of industrial and commercial buildings are particularly suitable for the installation of photovoltaic panels, as they have large surfaces and there are no patches of shade .

The number of companies that choose photovoltaic installations on roofs is increasing every day . They want to reduce the energy expenditure for production requirements , using photovoltaic modules installed on large surfaces and on the roofs of buildings . The photovoltaic roofs sector for companies recorded an increase of over 40 % compared to the previous year thanks to a sharp price cutting of the photovoltaic modules ; because of this, several companies, in particular the energy – intensive ones, decided to reorganize the energy expenditure, investing on the photovoltaic industry, increasing their competitiveness in the market .

IBS through its partners, and a team of engineers with an extensive experience in the green economy sector, will be responsible for the design of the plant, the installation and testing of solar photovoltaic systems on the roofs, for an after – sales service and a qualified maintenance of the assistance, as well as expert advice in the field of renewable energy .

The goal is to identify and then develop sustainable solutions that aim at a high energy efficiency, that led to the development of renewable sources in Italy and to an energy conservation .


Solar energy
Solar power plant
Photovoltaic power station
Photovoltaic module
Solar panel
Covering and PV Rooftop
Renewable energy


Tetti coperture solare SEU



The aim of this guide is the one of giving information on solar roofs and coverings, a great way for owners, who want to rent them for the installation of photovoltaic modules, to make a profit . A photovoltaic installation on solar roofs and coverings, with solar panels, ensures an energy saving and an annual rent. Furthermore, the renting out of solar roofs for photovoltaic installations on roofs and industrial warehouses not only guarantees a rent, but also frees the roof from asbesto or eternit .


- What are we looking for as to roofs and coverings ?
- To house photovoltaic panels, what characteristics must the covering have ?
- What are the needed authorizations to rent the roof, industrial and agriculture coverings etc..?
- What has to be in the contract, to rent out a roof / industrial covering for a photovoltaic through Efficient system for users ( SEU )?
- What is the taxation for those who rent out roofs or coverings for the photovoltaic ?


The renting of roofs to investors who work in the renewable energy sector is a great way to make a considerable profit .
How much does a photovoltaic installation on roofs cost ? The answer is : ‘’ Nothing to you !’’
Why ? If the roofs have all the requirements to house photovoltaic panels, the costs for the authorization to build the photovoltaic installations are at the investor ’s expense.
Here are the terms to install solar panels on roofs or coverings owned by you .

The first thing to do to enter the renewable energy business is the renting out of a roof / covering for a photovoltaic installation .

However, it’s important to rely on societies with proven track record . IBS Energy works with Industrial and Financial groups which have international experience and a financial solidity . Therefore, we will support and help you as you enter the world of renewable energy, through the process that will bring you to rent out your roof to bankable investors . These investors, together with certified installers, will build photovoltaic installations on roofs, agricultural and industrial coverings . They have a proven expertise as they installed photovoltaic panels on roofs and coverings throughtout Italy : Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Trentino – Alto adige, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Liguria, Emilia – Romagna, Tuscany, Lazio, Marche, Umbria, Campania, Molise, Abruzzo, Basilicata, Apulia, Calabria, Sicily, Sardinia .


Roofs with asbesto, roofs without asbesto, Industrial and Agricultural coverings, great solar greenhouses: > 2500 – 3000 square meters ;

Coverings and parking areas, industry covering, renting of a roof for a photovoltaic : > 2500 – 3000 square meters ;

Edifices, Pergolas, Shelters less than 2500 square meters in size : it depends on the case ;

Roofs or Coverings owned by Artisans or Small businesses < 2500 square meters that need energy efficiency and rent: it depends on the case .


The major requirements are :

EXPOSURE TO THE SUN : to install photovoltaic panels on roofs or industrial and agricultural coverings, roofs have to :
- face south, east and west
- be firm and securely fixed
- be in order from an urban point of view .

DISTANCE FROM THE ELECTRIC LINE / THE NEAREST TRANSFORMER CABINET : to rent roofs or coverings for the photovoltaic it is fundamental the presence of a MV / LV medium -low voltage or HV high voltage transformer cabinet .

ABSENCE OF RESTRICTIONS : to rent roofs or coverings for the photovoltaic, urban and scenic restrictions of environmental impact must be absent .The restriction screening is completely borne by IBS Energy .

SURFACE : above( ‘’ what are we looking for as to roofs and coverings ’’ paragraph ) there are all the information, however coverings > 2500 – 2800 square meters or under will depend on the case .

If you have any doubt, contact us to get free advice .


If the roofs / coverings have these characteristics and respect the selection criteria, an inspection will take place ( free of charge to the owner ) to check the roof and make an offer to the owner .

Once the offer is accepted, IBS Energy will deal with all the practices ( authorizations, building of photovoltaic covering ..) and takes care to inform the owners .


Depending on the surface, the type of roof etc, there might be different authorizations :

STMG ( GENERAL MINIMAL TECHNICAL SOLUTION ) : this, in relation to the connection costs to the electricty grid, states the estimated costs to connect to Enel, to build the new connection to the international electricity grid .

STMD ( DEFINITIVE MINIMAL TECHNICAL SOLUTION ): once the connection solution proposed by Enel is accepted, it’s possible to proceed with the definitive project for the connection of photovoltaic panels on roofs or agricultural / industrial coverings .

TICA ( ‘’ TESTO INTEGRATO DELLE CONNESSIONI ATTIVE ’’ ): amalgamated law of the technical and economic conditions for connection to electrical networks .

CIL : start of construction work comunnication
CILA : start of construction work asseverate communication

DIA ( NOTIFICATION OF WORKS COMMENCEMENT ): for small sized and with limited power photovoltaic installations .
Regulatory references : article 19 of Law no. 241/1990 ; article 23, paragraph 5 of the Italian Presidential Decree no. 380/2001, modified by the Legislative Decree of 27 December 2002 no. 301 and by Law no. 311 of 30 December 2004 .

PAS ( ‘’ PROCEDURA ABILITATIVA SEMPLIFICATA ’’: SIMPLIFIED AUTHORIZATION PROCEDURE ) : a simplified procedure to install photovoltaic plants with a limited power, similar to DIA ( ‘’ Dichiarazione inizio attività ’’: Notification of works commencement )


Technically, the entries in a roofs or industrial coverning contract for a photovoltaic depend on whether it is an Efficient system for users ( SEU ) or cession of the building lease .
If it is a SEU, the owner saves energy as it partially / totally comes from the photovoltaic panels ( discounts will be applied ). Plus, the photovoltaic panels will become property of the roofs ’ owner after a return on investment in the years agreed on .

LIFE OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC CONTRACT FOR ROOFS/COVERINGS : the life of a contract for the rent ( building lease ) of a roof/covering depends on the case . The SEU contains the specific procedures .

EXPIRATION OF THE AGREEMENT : once the agreement expires, the roofs / coverings ’ owner completely owns the buildings lease of roofs / coverings and, in the case of a SEU, also of the panels .

RESTORATION OF THE ROOF / COVERING : once the contract for the cession of the building lease expires, who invests must pull down the photovoltaic panels( on the covering ). It is also possible for the covering ’s owner to buy the photovoltaic installation .

RENT PAYMENT TIMES : the rental is paid-up either the first of the year, or date to be agreed on.

COST : in the case of photovoltaic installations on warehouses / greenhouses / roofs / coverings , the rent comes from the disposing of asbesto or eternit . There is a greater rent if there is an asbesto / eternit covering to dismantle . Who invests is responsible for every expense when it comes to the installation and to free the roof from asbesto .


Contact us to get free personalised advice .


Once we receive the information to locate the roof or the covering, an analysis of the roof and a possible photovoltaic development will take place . Afterwards, there is an economic proposal and offer for industrial converings that include :
- Building lease with an annual rent
- Building lease with the disposal of asbesto / eternit and the covering will be replaced with a different structure
- preliminary contract and authorizations for the photovoltaic installations.

WHO INVESTS : IBS Energy or investors ( industrial and financial groups with whom IBS Energy has development agreements )


In Italy, the installation of photovoltaic panels on roofs and industrial coverings is beneficial to both the roof / industrial covering owner and the investor .

The renting of roofs and coverings is the first thing to do for the installation of photovoltaic plants . The procedure can be: Grid Parity photovoltaic or through FER1 decree .


Grid Parity installations are important for the production and selling of energy in the electricity market . As they are built with no public incentives, there is competiveness ( as to trading prices ) between the energy produced by the photovoltaic and the one produced by fossil sources . The energy price of the photovoltaic in the electricity market is equal or lower than the one of other sources .


The FER1 decree of April, 7th 2019 includes incentives for photovoltaic installations, developed and built under some conditions, and it also sets priorities :

Reclaimed areas and installations :
- Quarries that no longer have their primary aim because of the exhausted fossil fuels
- Landfills, even if reclaimed and/or reactivated

Public / governmental buildings with asbesto/eternit roofs .
These installations are connected to charching columns for electrical vehicles with a power equal or more than 15 Kw and more of the 15 % of the power genarated by the photovoltaic panels connected in parallel in the electricity grid .


- Photovoltaic plants with power less than 1MW ( new construction plants, rebuilt and reactivated )
- Upgraded plants that develop < 1MW more than before - < 1 MW installations to be revamped - To be in the business register, there have to be new construction / rebuilt plants - Group of Photovoltaic Installations with > 20 KW and no more than < 1 MW produced . For Plants with power > 1MW, there will be dutch auctions .
A group of plants with power 30 KW – 500 KW may access incentives if the total generated power is > 1 MW.

There are 7 calls for applications to the registers and/or auctions :

30/9/2019 – 30/10/2019
31/1/2020 – 1/3/2020
31/5/2020 – 30/6/2020
30/9/2020 – 30/10/2020
31/1/2021 – 2/3/2021
31/5/2021 – 30/6/2021
30/9/2021 – 30/10/2021

List: no later than 90 days after the end of notification.

The notifications are :

Wind onshore ( wind farms )
Photovoltaic installations

New photovoltaic systems wholly replacing asbestos roofs of industrial and rural buildings

Residual gases from purification processes in new plants
Existing hydro plants

Includes the plants subject to total or partial renovation:
• On – shore wind
• hydroelectric
• residual gases from purification processes.

In case of non – compliance with the law, you may lose incentives and tariff .



PV photovoltaic development in Grid Parity


Our company, in collaboration with structural design companies, is developing photovoltaic power plants in Grid Parity in Green Field in Italy through new Single Authorizations .
As to GREENFIELD, we talk about new authorizations in the Photovoltaic sector in which the investor is a part of the development process from the beginning, and intervenes during the authorization process supporting the costs through agreed payment steps according to predefined milestones . The process starts with confirmation of specific sites of interest ( agricultural, industrial, ex – quarries ), continues with the presentation of the request for connection to the national electricity grid addressed to the competent authorities, until obtaining the Single Authorization . In some cases with sites where the authorization process has already been activated by our companies, the BROWNFIELD mode is also possible .


In the field of photovoltaic development we will deal with:

- PRELIMINARY CHECKS : analysis of site conformation and slopes, radiation intensity, shaded areas, constraint analysis and planning restrictions, possibility of connection to the electricity grid in the cabin and connection costs, layout drawing, preliminary signature of option with the owner of the land, and of all the activities of preparation of the dossier relating to the site of interest .

- DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND AUTHORIZATION PROCEDURE : all the steps from the start of the connection request process to the network, up to the scheduled time based on national and regional procedures, to the authorization, in collaboration with our engineering partner companies of an important track record of photovoltaic power plants already successfully authorized .

- EPC : IBS can provide the investor with an excellent EPC service with advanced technology and competitive prices for the construction of the Photovoltaic Plant to deliver the Turnkey Photovoltaic park .

STRENGTH : IBS has a scouting team in all the Italian regions for finding suitable sites, and in JV with structured engineering and design companies, it develops the entire authorization process from the connection request to Enel or Terna until the release of the buildable ” Single Authorization ” concession .


– Italian and International Investors
- Investment funds, SGR
- General Advisor
- EPC ( Engineering, Procurement and Construction ) in a Joint Venture with Investment Fund
- JV Developers with Capital Funds


REGIONS : it is possible to build plants in almost all the Italian regions .
Initially the Investors were more interested in the South, Central Italy and Islands ( especially Sicily, Puglia, Basilicata, Lazio ), but we are witnessing a growing interest in Sardinia, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Calabria, Umbria and the regions of central and northern Italy ( Tuscany, Emilia Romagna, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Piedmont ) due to system logics and future opportunities related to the network and industrial sectors .
The economic parameters are carefully analysed to guarantee for rents or land purchase, in combination with the radiation in that area, an adequate economic return compatible with the economic model of the individual investor . It is important to verify that the sites are not affected by constraints and in the case of particular restrictions, industrial or former quarries are preferred, instead of agricultural land .

DIMENSIONS AND SIZES OF PLANTS : normally we are required to install sites starting from 5 – 10 MW to go up, even if occasionally some investors show interest in 2.5 – 3 MW peak plants or in isolated cases of plants below 1 MW to be connected in medium voltage through PAS ( Simplified Authorisation Procedure ).

EXTENSION IN LAND HECTARES : is an aspect strongly linked to the type of technology to be used ( single axial tracker or fixed system tracker ) and to the type of panels . Normally 1.6 – 2 Hectares are required for each installed Megawatt of power up to 1 Hectare for each MW in the case of particular fixed technologies designed to optimize the installed power .

ASSIGNMENT OF SURFACE RIGHTS OR BUY THE LANDS : Land owners are interested in both methods of proceeding . In the case of a contract for the sale of surface rights, the duration is usually 30 years .

ADVANCES OR CAPERS FOR DDS OR PURCHASE OF LANDS : The topic related to the advance or down payment is relevant for easier negotiation with the land owner . The investor is usually willing to recognize a deposit for TICA or STMG for the site, when Terna or Enel confirm the power that can be connected to the electricity grid through the electrical substation identified as the connection point and the related costs . However, occasionally some investors consider it appropriate to make a payment of an advance or down payment at the signing of the preliminary option contract for DDS ( sale of surface rights ) or purchase of the land .

EURO A MW AMOUNT FOR DEVELOPMENT : The amount in Euro or Fee to be paid for each MW of installed power for the development of the Single Authorization . It is to be paid to the Development Engineering and Design Company, of which IBS is a partner . It is an important parameter to confirm the interest in proceeding with the signing of the Development Contract with the Investor, and will be the subject of negotiation between the parties . This aspect is closely linked to what follows, namely the payment Milestones ( risk capital and success fee ) linked to the Development itself .

STRUCTURE OF PAYMENT MILESTONES : that is, when development payments are made, and % for each phase . IBS can send a draft milestones structure combined with the MW Development Fee . Although this aspect is highly customized and the result of negotiations between Developers and Investors, the milestone structure traditionally provides for 4 to 6 payment Milestones .


- MILESTONE 1 Approval of the project : presentation of the Dossier and preliminary contract signed with the owners of the land
- MILESTONE 2 Preliminary phase : acceptance of TICA
- MILESTONE 3 Pre – authorization phase : Environmental impact assessment , Single Authorization ( VINCA, VIA and AU )
- MILESTONE 4 Construction project
- MILESTONE 5 to 120 days from obtaining the Single Authorization


The following direct development costs are normally excluded from the MW fees and Development Fee :

- Any charges for setting up and managing the SPV
- Expenses for requesting the TICA ( request for connection to the electricity grid )
- Eventual Extraordinary specialist reports during the authorization process ( geognostic, geological, hydraulic, acoustic, archaeological )
- Charges envisaged by the Network Operator for connection solutions and advances on grid connection costs
- Possible advances to land owners and charges for registering contracts for the granting of land rights, notary reports, brokerage fees to Real Estate Agencies
- Examination costs at the appropriate public bodies concerned
- Costs for issuing guarantees in favour of public bodies and / or network operators .

DRAFT OF THE DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT : a draft of the development contract is very important to be sent so that the Engineering Company that will sign the development agreement with the investor can view it .

DRAFT OF THE PRELIMINARY OPTION TO BE SIGNED WITH THE PROPERTY OF THE LAND : although it is a purely contractual aspect, our experience suggests that we analyze the document to realize if this latter will substantially facilitate or complicate the negotiation with the ownership of the site, and the signature of the same, also to provide some suggestions aimed at speeding up the practices and at the same time preserving the bankability of the agreement for the due protection for the investor . Therefore a draft of the preliminary option would be desirable to be analyzed by us simultaneously with the negotiation of the Development Milestones and Fees .

EPC : EPC and BOS ( Balance of System ) activity is optional and at the discretion of the investor, so in case of interest it will be our care to provide the necessary advice .

( for owners and reporters )

SOIL CONFORMATION : if it is flat, inclination and conformation of the site
- GOOGLE EARTH and the perimeter of the land together with the coordinates . This will allow us to determine, through simulations, the radiation and expected profitability of the plant .

CATASTAL DOCUMENTS : Land register and parcel lots, CDU ( urban destination certificate )

SUBSTATION OR CONNECTION CAB : distance of the land from the Terna or Enel substation, presence of medium or high voltage, actual line capacity, if possible connect to the substation, connection costs to the existing substation stall . Possible creation of a new user substation in the case of PV Photovoltaic Power Stations of 30 MW – 40 MW up and actions to intercept the high voltage line of proximity .

PRELIMINARY WITH THE PROPERTY OF THE LAND : sometimes the preliminary contracts already signed with the properties of the land are turned over to the investor who confirms the interest in a site . However, it is normally preferable to use the investor ‘s draft agreement and sign the agreement for the purchase or sale of the surface right directly between the Owner and the Investor, immediately using the investor’s format .

SURVEY AND BUROCRATIC ITER : IBS and the Partner Engineering Companies, will follow the operational steps and the bureaucratic process through highly qualified personnel and technicians with experience gained over decades of professional activity . The Team is able to operate throughout the development of the AU : inspections, surveys, geological examinations, and all the specialized reports, Engineering and planning, presentation of TICA requests, requests, meetings of any kind at any level with the foreseen Authorities, until obtaining the AU ( Single Authorization ) turnkey, for the construction of the Photovoltaic Plant .

TIMING : Depending on the Regions, times and methods may differ, however the times for the bureaucratic process take effect after the positive outcome :
- Of the preliminary analysis information and documents relating to the land and after the signing of the preliminary contract with the property .
- Verification of documents sent to the Service conference in the Region in close collaboration with our designers .

AGREEMENTS : we will sign agreements and NDA ( Non Disclosure Agreement ) for data processing and the exchange of confidential information .

SITE PAGE FOR THE SCOUTING TEAM : web site page addressed to the Scouting Team

( for owners and signalers ):

GUIDELINES : Information Guide by means of a PDF file which aims to illustrate the various aspects related to Photovoltaics, and to the New Photovoltaic Plants to be installed on Terrain and the parameters to select suitable sites .

INFORMATIVE VIDEO : video in Youtube to explain the process linked to the presentation of the sites and their characteristics, to select and present suitable sites, together with the various steps of the process .

GUIDE ON HOW TO TRACK THE KMZ PERIMETER IN GOOGLE EARTH : a guided illustrative page on how to trace the KMZ file in Google Earth, which is indispensable for performing preliminary checks on the site, both conformation and network connection costs .

VIDEO ON HOW TO TRACK KMZ : 2 minutes video in Youtube that explains with a concrete example how it is possible to easily trace the perimeter and save on disk the file with extension .kmz to send to analyze the site .

GREENFIELD SITE WEBSITE TO COLLECT INFO : Excel file to enter the data relating to the site, general information, the coordinates of Google Earth and KMZ with highlighted the perimeter of the land, if of interest the transfer of the right of surface or sale, if mortgages are present on the ground, the presence of medium voltage cabins adjacent to the site, another important to report .

FAQ : all the questions and answers, and suggestions to save time and make communications more effective and efficient for owners and Scouting Teams who intend to send sites .

COST LINE SIMULATION AND CONNECTION TO THE NETWORK : Excel file to simulate the costs of connection to the power line for low and medium voltage . It is sufficient to enter the values in the yellow boxes ( where values are currently shown as an example ) and the connection cost is automatically calculated . For high voltage, CONTACT US .

STATE OF ADVANCE AU ( Single Authorization ) : in this section, our collaborators can monitor the progress of the AU ( Single Authorization ) for the sites presented .


EN Grid Parity Stakeholders


Contact us via e-mail showing your references

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EN Lands suitability for photovoltaic plants

EN preliminary information photovoltaic

Characteristics and requirements of lands :

EN photovoltaic size inclination electric substations

To install photovoltaic plants the farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, reclaimed lands or former landfills must have some fundamental requirements :

- For industrial lands and former pits : starting from 3 hectares
- For farmlands : starting from 6 hectares

- With the tracker technology : in case of uniaxial trackers the inclination must be below 15 % .
- Fixed system : in case of fixed installations the inclination must not exceed 25 % .

- MEDIUM VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS : for MV installations, the substations must be adjacent to the land, a few hundred metres away . There are 2 types of medium voltage substations : concrete substations and pole mounted substations .
- HIGH TENSION SUBSTATIONS : they can be found a few Km away depending on the size of the land . The bigger the land, the greater is the distance to connect it with the network . If the land is small, the substation must be nearer .
By opening the orange link it is possible to read the characteristics of the transformer and distribution stations as well as the medium voltage and the high tension substations .

- The lands must not have restrictions .

- Farmlands : Lombardy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Piedmont, Tuscany, Latium, Molise, Basilicata, Campania, Apulia, Sicily, Veneto, Calabria and Abruzzi .
- Industrial lands and former pits : every region .

EN our Offer photovoltaic


PURCHASE : It is possible to proceed with the purchase of the spot bulk buying all the land, sometimes including some unfitted parts that will be quantified after the drawing up of a layout with the illustration of the panels arrangement and the installed power .

BUILDING LEASE ( DDS ) AND ITS CESSION : It is possible to pay an annual fee, an income that in the photovoltaic sector is called “ Cession of the Building Lease ” which lasts for 30 years . With the methods agreed an amount multiplied by the number of hectares is paid annually . The DDS includes the disposal of the installation provided for by law and the restoration of the land to the previous conditions .

DISCOUNTED BUILDING LEASE : The payments for the sale of the building lease are paid in a single discounted solution .

EN photovoltaic send us information about a land


1. DOWNLOAD THE PACKAGE TO COOPERATE : This ZIP file contains 5 documents
3. WATCH THE VIDEO TO FIND OUT HOW TO DRAW A KMZ PERIMETER : KMZ how to draw the perimeter of a plot

EN contact us for photovoltaic


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Send us an e-mail or call the number +39 348 29 20 146.


SOLAR ROOFS :Go to the Solar Roofs web page, Industrial Covering
WIND ENERGY : Go to the Wind Energy web page
POSITION OF THE SUN The position of the sun and interactive maps

EN photovoltaic go to Home Grid Parity page


EN photovoltaic guide for landowners



This article is for private shareholders or companies that want to rent their land in order to install photovoltaic systems and have useful information on the sale or rental of land for photovoltaic systems .
In the following article we will try to illustrate the most important topics : we will clarify all the central aspects that are useful for landowners, so that they can better understand how to handle negotiations and pay more attention to middlemen who can be more or less competent .

The rent of an agricultural, industrial, building land, a former pit or a landfill to build a photovoltaic system can be a sustainable choice for the planet . It can be a support for renewable sources of clean energy and at the same time an advantageous opportunity of profit. Keep reading to understand how it works .


Is renting a land for the installation of photovoltaic solar panels a good deal ?
Is renting lands for the installation of photovoltaic power stations safe ? Or is it better to sell them ?
Renting lands to install photovoltaic power stations is a good idea, but after that who will be in charge of their disposal ?
Which are the main requirements and characteristics that make an agricultural or industrial land interesting for the installation of photovoltaic power plants ?
Which are the necessary authorizations that a land should have in order to be adequate for the construction of photovoltaic power plants ?
What does the rental contract ( cession of the building lease ) stipulated between investors and landowners provide for ( whether it be for agricultural and industrial lands, landfill or former pit ) ?
What should the landowner pay attention to ?
How to decide between the different offers and the deposits that sometimes are provided at the signing of the preliminary agreement and sometimes after the agreement with Enel or Terna ?
Why is it important to request a layout together with the receipt of the rental offer ( cession of the building lease ), sale, or discounted DDS ?
This is how you can rent an agricultural or industrial land, a former pit or landfill for the installation of photovoltaic power plants .


The rent of an agricultural land, a former pit, a landfill reclaimed or to be reclaimed and an industrial land used for the installation of a photovoltaic system, is based on the availability and use of a building land . “ Building ” means that the land has obtained the authorizations issued by the authorities, the permission and authorization for the connection to the electricity network .



A lot of farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, in order to be suitable for the installation of photovoltaic systems, must have basic requirements, otherwise it is not possible to rent or sell lands for the installation of a photovoltaic system . In the photovoltaic sector and business the following characteristics are the most important ones :


There are 2 fundamental conditions for the exposure :
- Level ground
- Hilly ground with a southern exposure

It is a relatively easy requirement to verify, since a compass can be sufficient to check the exposure of the land and with the ” Show Elevation Profile ” function on Google Earth it is also possible to display the slope graph .


If there is a level ground, according to the technology used :
- With fixed installations you can also install 1 MW per 1 hectares
- With Trackers ( the uniaxial ones for example ) it is possible to install around 1.1 – 1.3 MW in 2 hectares .


An essential element is the conformation / type of land . It must be a level ground or have moderate slopes ( topographic slope ); in case of hilly terrain, a study should be carried out in order to verify if the ground is exposed in a southerly direction and if there are no slopes that will make the installation of panels difficult . Nowadays even if with technology we can work with high slopes using fixed installations, this involves enormous expenditure and sometimes the business plan of a project can be penalized .

Sometimes the land can also have moderate slopes, but in a northerly direction : the slopes penalize the land, because those kind of inclination reduce the output of photovoltaic panels .


The absence of restriction means that the land must not have national, regional, provincial or municipal restrictions ; otherwise, we will only consider the part that is exempt from the constraints . The landowner can check if the land has restrictions by going to the town hall and paying for the issue .

Apart from the exposition, the other crucial aspect that needs to be verified is if the farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, reclaimed and non – reclaimed landfills, are affected by landscape, hydrogeological and hydraulic restrictions, SIC and ZPS restrictions , naturalistic and water protection restrictions as well as restrictions linked to areas adjacent to motorways, railways, rivers, watercourses and others .

The complete analysis of the restrictions is carried out by our internal engineering service, however it is very useful to have the CDU ( Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ) that the landowner can request at the town hall ( usually the Town Planning / Environment / Territory office ). The CDU is a document issued by the public administration which contains the urban planning indications concerning a building or a land .

The cost of requesting the CDU can vary from 30 – 40 Euros up to about 60 – 70 Euros depending on the town councils : it can take from one week to more than one month . It is an official document and is drawn up taking into account national, regional, provincial, municipal and other restrictions .
It will be attached to the papers once you decide to sign the Preliminary Agreement to activate the authorization process, which starts with the connection request to the electricity network ( TICA ), the environmental impact assessment ( EIA ) and other subsequent steps .


The adjacency of the lands to an electricity substation or power line is essential . The lands ( farmlands, former pits, industrial lands or landfills ) must be near to an electricity substation, to a medium or high voltage power line, or to a transformer station . This is because creating a new power line involves enormous expenditure .
The adjacency to electricity substations and the connection to the electricity network is perhaps the most important requirement . It is the sword of Damocles because it determines whether to continue or not with a project .

This is a very important characteristic if you want to rent farmlands, industrial lands, former pits and landfills for the construction of photovoltaic systems . A photovoltaic system makes sense only if it is connected to the power line : if the connection costs exceed the maximum allowed, unfortunately the land will not be considered suitable, even if it is a level ground and has no restrictions .

It is not easy to understand the electrical aspect and evaluate whether the land is suitable or not . Various factors must be considered, such as :

- The size in hectares of the land
- The region where the land is located
- The average annual statistical radiation at that latitude
- The type of technology used : for example an uniaxial tracker or a panel with a fixed system, the one that best fits the photovoltaic system that needs to be built .
- The investor ‘s preferences concerning the type of technology that will be used .
- For installations that need to be connected to an Enel medium voltage substation, it is necessary to know the distance in meters between the land and the medium voltage cabin ( concrete substation and pole mounted substation with a transformer attached ) and the distance between the land and the Enel substation 132 KV or 150 KV .
- For the lands where photovoltaic systems will be connected to a Terna substation, meaning those projects in which a high tension is used, it is important to measure the distance between the land ( farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, landfills ) and the electrical substation of Terna at 150 KV or 220 KV or 380 KV . It depends on the power that needs to be installed which is linked to the size in hectares of the lands .
- In case of big lands where large powers are needed, it is possible to build a cabin can that would be quite expensive but it will be possible to bear all the expenses . For small – scale photovoltaic system projects, building a substation or passing the power line over the ground to create a new power line is very expensive and is not convenient for the investment .

Terna and Enel constantly check the structure of the network and, according to their priorities, if there are requests for connections in certain areas they are ready to invest . They can plan the construction of new substations, or the expansion or renovation of lines and increase the capacity of already existing substations ( however this takes a long time and often it is not possible to wait ).


Renting or selling lands to build photovoltaic power plants has an economic advantage, both in the case of a farmland, former pit or landfill . It is important that the photovoltaic power plants are installed in a professional way, according to the latest technologies and through trustworthy and bankable investors that have gained experience in this sector .

If the check on farmlands, former pits, industrial lands and landfills are successful, meaning that there is a level ground, the land is near to the connection to the electricity network and has no restrictions, it is possible to sign the preliminary agreement between landowner an investor . Then it will be possible to choose between different solutions :

THE RENT OF LANDS OR TO BE MORE PRECISE CESSION OF THE BUILDING LEASE ( DDS ). Usually after 30 years with the payment of a rent, an annual or a six – monthly one; the amount for the rent of farmlands goes from 1800 Euro to hectare per Year to 2500 Euro per hectare per year, up to 3000 Euro per hectare per Year ( for the rent of land, if the connection is on the ground or adjacent to the ground : the electrical substation is 150 KV, 220 KV, 380 KV ) .For industrial lands the amounts may be slightly higher even if for the DDS there are not big differences between farmlands and industrial lands .

THE SELL OF LANDS and purchase of the land by an investor at a price per hectare that needs to be negotiated between the parties ; the amounts are strongly linked to the connection costs of the photovoltaic plants that will be built . The expected average annual irradiation, as well as the average prices for the region considered, the slopes and the conformation of the land itself must also be taken into account . As for the sale of land, sometimes the landowner wants to sell in bulk . However, a part of the land can be unusable because it has restrictions . How to solve this problem without breaking up the estate ? In many cases, it is possible to overcome this problem by buying the land in bulk ( this is the “ body selling ” method ). However it is easier for the investor to purchase suitable parcels only, the ones without restrictions (“ measure selling “ method ). The investor attributes a lower price to unsuitable parcels and finds a selling price that is fair for both parties .

DISCOUNTED RENT OF LAND : It is a method that allows the landowner to rent his land for thirty years to build photovoltaic systems . The landowner remains the owner and receives the rents in a single solution that has a 50 % discount . These are favourable terms if the landowner wants to receive the amount immediately while retaining the title of ownership . Obviously, in this case, the investor renounces to the financial benefit of reducing the payments for the rent of land, and at the same time he does not have the ownership : in this case there is a disadvantage . For these reasons, the discounted amounts regarding the cession of the building lease cannot usually exceed the amounts that, in case of purchase, should be paid .
It is a question of fully understanding the needs of the landowner and suggesting a contractual solution that best fulfils the needs of the parties .
IBS has no advantage over one of the 3 possibilities to proceed, therefore it is neutral and can facilitate a negotiation that satisfactory is for everyone . The same goes for the amounts that need to be paid to the landowner, in case of sale, DDS ( building lease ), discounted DDS . In this case IBS will be able to find a crossover between the parties .


The rent / sell of a land can be applied to farmlands, industrial lands, former pits or other lands that are granted for photovoltaic systems . However,

MIDDLEMEN : It is better to be aware of those people who are not specialized in the photovoltaic field and middlemen who promise off – market amounts . The rules in the photovoltaic sector are precise and the Grid Parity amounts that can be paid without government incentives are known and within certain standard values . A reliable investor or a competent operator in the photovoltaic sector will not waste his money and he will need a profit of margin that is the result of the following equation :


For this reason, if the land is very expensive, outside the market values and the connection is not economic, the photovoltaic project will not be sustainable . Therefore you need to ask yourself whether the person who made the offer, is informed and / or competent .

DEPOSITS AND ADVANCES : The same applies when high amounts are promised to the owner, as a deposit or advance, directly at the sign of the preliminary agreement . This also suggest that it is important to know more about the person that makes the offer .This is because as long as Enel or Terna do not confirm the connection solution ( i.e. in which substation the photovoltaic system should be connected ), it is not possible to confirm the connection costs and the feasibility of the project . Therefore the first deposit is bearable after about 2 – 3 months or within the first 6 – 8 months maximum ( if there are delays or there is an Enel / Terna coordination when photovoltaic systems require it ), when Enel or Terna confirm and officially communicate where our photovoltaic power plant should be connected . At that point every information for the business plan will be available and it will be possible to proceed with the operating project, paying the connection and the deposits to the landowners . Before this moment, we could also make estimates, studies on the feasibility of the substations where a connection is possible, however, only the operators Enel or Terna can confirm the authorization and the photovoltaic project .

LAYOUT : For these reasons, we advise the landowners to ask to those people who send them an offer for the rent of land ( or sale or transfer of the building lease ), a layout of the plant that should be built, together with the power that is expected to be installed, the arrangement of the panels on the usable surface and any particles or areas that have restrictions ( or the configuration of the land that oblige us to reject those areas ) . This will oblige your interlocutors to take a position and the responsibility . If they cannot send you a layout, you need to ask yourself why . Most of the times it is because these people do not have a real buyer and they only want to have preliminary agreements and options on lands . Then they want to arrange a signalling fee with an investor ( at best ) or with other middlemen . However, usually the contracts for the options on the lands, that are submitted and signed by the landowners, who are unaware of this, are ineligible . For this reason, in order to be carried out, they need to be signed again with different clauses . Or we have been contacted several times by landowners who told us about those people ( middlemen but unfortunately in some cases investors too ) who once signed the preliminary agreement, ask to negotiate it downwards after receiving the TICA . Later the landowners noticed that it did not meet their expectations and it was not what was originally promised . This usually happens in the case of off-market prices .

For these reasons, asking for a layout of the photovoltaic power plant that will be built, clear the ground from shady individuals . Anyway the layout of the plant is obligatory in order to have a good offer, it is easier to understand the variables involved and the precise amounts for the rent ( cession of the building lease ) or sell of a land for the construction of a photovoltaic power plant .


The rent of farmlands, former pits or reclaimed lands for the installation of a photovoltaic power plant can be a great opportunity . Renting a farmland or allowing the use of an industrial land for the photovoltaic plant can be a great source of income and a thirty-year rent .
If the lands do not have restrictions ( farmlands, industrial lands, landfills, former pits ) it is possible to proceed with the signing of a preliminary agreement, the request of the connection to the electricity network and the planning of a photovoltaic power plant, according to the national rules provided for by law : a single authorization ( AU ) which is not provided for small lands of about 2 hectares installing less than 1 MW where it is possible to use a PAS ( it is a procedure that aims at the construction and exercise of photovoltaic power plants ) .
The licensing process on former pits or industrial lands is easier and quicker because the destination and the code of the lands themselves is similar to the use that concerns the installation of photovoltaic power plants . For the farmland more passages and longer times are needed because the code of destination of the lands, to use as a building land for the installation of a photovoltaic plant should be changed .

Therefore, after having verified the constraints, and having created the engineering layout of the preliminary design of the photovoltaic plants, in the past the connection through the ” General Minimum Technical Solution ( The STMG defines the connection criteria for photovoltaic systems above 1 kWp up to large plants .)” to Enel or Terna was required . Once confirmed by the network operators, it indicated the connection point, the new line that needed to be implemented and built, and an estimate of the costs for the construction . Once the connection solution proposed by Terna or Enel was evaluated and accepted, it was possible to move on to the next step and to send the design of the final project, through which Enel or Terna were authorized to issue the STMD .

Currently in conformity with the resolution no. 99, 2008 ( also see enclosure A to the enclosure ), Enel or Terna do not send the STMG and then the STMD anymore : they directly send a single estimate of connection that in the photovoltaic is known as TICA “ Testo Integrato delle Connessioni Attive ” ( amalgamated law of the technical and economic conditions for connection to electrical networks ).

TICA : Literally Amalgamated Law of the Active Connections. It is the first thing to do to ask for the connection to the electricity network, generally to Enel, or Terna in case of high tension plants . These are the societies that organize the power lines in the photovoltaic sector . TICA estimates the connection to the electricity network and its costs .
For the construction and exercise of the photovoltaic power plant, these activities depend on the release of the DIA ( Dichiarazione di Inizio Attività ) by the municipality at a territorial level or on the release of the single provincial authorization according to the article number 12 of the legislative decree no. 29, 2003 .

DIA : it is a necessary document for the rent of a farmland, industrial land or former pit for the construction of a photovoltaic power plant . DIA, it is the acronym of “ Dichiarazione di Inizio Attività ” and needs to be submitted to the municipality in which the lands are located . Thanks to the DIA the provincial council can release the single authorization and it is possible to start with the work . The DIA is discussed during the conference of regional authorities ( Conferenza dei Servizi ) and the several competent administrations that need to decide .

Generally speaking the single authorization ( AU ) is an obligatory choice for photovoltaic power plants that exceed a determined threshold of power . The licensing process through the single authorization ( AU ), is executed according to the principles that allow a easier procedure through the institution of regional authorities and the convocation by the provincial government, no later than 30 days . Every representatives of the competent territorial administration, who provides and issues the approval regarding the subject of the discussion, is invited to take part in the meeting of the regional authorities as well as the managers of public activities that want to report possible interferences created by photovoltaic plant that are still in progress .

Practically, in order to obtain building lands for the construction of photovoltaic power plants, in the case of the construction of big power plants, the licensing process requests and consists of authorizations : without them it is not possible to start with the work . Among these authorizations the one of the Ministry of Economic Development is essential in order to build the power line, there is the authorization for the archaeological bonds, the authorization from the Basin Authority, the authorization for the landscape bound, the authorization for the environment and the one for the municipal restriction : in short, the authorizations from all the institutions that need to decide for the construction of a photovoltaic power plant .


The kind of agreement or contract that is used to rent a farmland in order to build a photovoltaic power plant is defined as “ cession of the building lease ” or “ selling ” or “ cession of the discounted building lease ” .

Sometimes, for the draft of the preliminary option submitted to the landowners for the signing, the landowners make use of law firms that do not have a specific competence in the photovoltaic field . And sometimes, the lawyers that defend the landowners ( farmlands, former pit, industrial lands, it does not matter except for some specific events ) demand structural changes that most of the times cannot be done . This is because the agreements and the rules for drawing up a contract should be “ eligible ” meaning that they need to protect the investor against the risks connected to the licensing process . For example in a country like Italy, famous for its slowness at a bureaucratic level and the several authorities that need to approve the cession of a single authorization which gives the suitability for the building and construction of photovoltaic power plants through solar panels .
Due that these amounts are not small it is advisable to rely on experts in the photovoltaic field and ask for a second opinion : in this way it will be possible to proceed without problems or surprises and everything will be easier .


When an investor or an engineering or planning company pursue the authorization procedures ( farmland, industrial land or former pits ) and meet all the requirements in order to be considered suitable to install a photovoltaic power plant, the important thing to do is to draw up a contract or a draft of a preliminary rental option (or better “ cession of the building lease ”) or purchasing by the investor or engineering company with a proxy by the investor himself .

The main points of the building lease contract are :

- The annual rent : the amounts are normally paid to the landowner in a single sum for the cession of the building lease . If the lands are near an electric substation the price increases .
- The duration of the rent ( cession of the building lease ): 30 years
- The time of payment : usually the annual rent in advance is paid to the landowner .
- Restoring lands and places : after 30 years from the cession of the building lease, the investor who rents the land in order to build the photovoltaic power plant must dismantle the plant itself . In addition to those laws, which are valid on a national level and protect the landowners, some regions ( such as Lombardy ) require the investor to deposit a bank guaranty in security of the disposal of the plant with the amounts provided for the activities .


Are you the owner of a land or a roof and want to earn something from it ? Is there somebody who wants to invest in the photovoltaic field ? What is the building lease for the photovoltaic plant ?
The cession of the building lease is the perfect solution for the owners of lands or roofs who want to make them available for the installation of the photovoltaic plant and want to invest in them .
On one side there are those people who have suitable surfaces for the photovoltaic ( for example : the roof of a store or warehouse, a sunroof, a land ) who are not ready to take upon themselves the installation or the management of a photovoltaic plant that produces clean energy .
On the other side there are those people who invest, purchase the legal ownership of the area or the covering, install a photovoltaic power plant and produce clean energy in order to obtain a marginality after the selling of the energy .

The cession of the building lease for the photovoltaic is an interesting solution :

- The owner of the roof transfers the building leases of an unproductive area and rents it ( for farmlands it is a bit different because they can be used for agricultural purposes, for industrial lands it depends ).
- Those who buy the building leases and become the owner in order to build a photovoltaic power plant, can benefit from it without being the owner of the land or the roof in which it is realized .
- Basically the advantages of surface rights are : whoever becomes the owner of the area, has the availability of the surface on which the photovoltaic plant should be built, without being the owner, being the owner of the photovoltaic plant without being the owner of the roof or the ground on which it is installed . As a quid pro quo the owner of the plant pays to the transferor ( owner of the roof, land ), an annual rent in cash or in the case of roofs also part of the energy produced .


Through the building lease it is possible to distinguish and divide the document of title of the roof or of the land from the document of title of the building, in particular the photovoltaic power plant .
The building lease gives the right to build the photovoltaic power plant or, generally speaking, a construction on a surface ( roof or land ) without being the owner of the roof or of the land, that is the surface itself .
Paradoxically with the purchase of the building lease it is possible to realize elevations of small buildings, that is having the permission to build and then sell apartments that, for example are in a roof spaces .
Who is selling and buying the energy produced ? The energy produced by a photovoltaic power plant can be sold in situ or to a single person ( which is the most convenient solution in order to avoid energy dissipation ) or sold to the national electricity network .


The hunt for farmlands, industrial lands, former pits is open everywhere nationally . The lands that are already authorized, meaning those lands where it is possible to build the photovoltaic plants immediately, are building lands . The building lands are those lands that concluded the licensing process of the single authorization and that received all the necessary authorizations, the network connection and the diverse authorizations to start building photovoltaic power plants .
Other people, the so – called “ developer ” work in the Greenfield sector : they do the hard work of finding websites, doing checks and planning . They are assisted by companies that have a significant engineering track record .

However the photovoltaic business in Grid Parity ( that is government incentives ) is lucrative and the investors have greater conviction and capital . This is because the market trend of energy will bring to an adequate marginality in order to justify an investment in the Green Economy .


The photovoltaic business started in 2006, after the gualification according to the DECREE no. 37, the 22nd January 2008 Former law 46 / 1990 letters a) and b) that controlled the installation, transformation, development, maintenance of plants and electrical and electronic systems .

The production of energy through renewable sources is absolutely a development compared to carbon or the energy sources at high environmental impact . Sometimes on the other hand there is a blot on the landscape after a heavy installation of photovoltaic panels and installations in some agricultural areas .
Without doubt when we install on roofs, warehouses, shelters, sunroofs or domestic production of energy for private costumers and companies, we avoid spoiling the landscape, great production of electric energy that is concentrated on one single point : in this way the energy produced will be transformed and transported with considerable dissipation and losses and risks that derive from the transport of energy and the creation of electromagnetic fields .

However roofs, shelters, warehouses and self production are not enough to move the total national production toward renewable sources ; the big plants can produce big amounts of energy that are comparable to the small nuclear power plants, without the problem of producing radioactive waste .


Investing startup photovoltaic

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IBS Energy Srl ( Ltd. ) is a startup, a limited company that deals with the authorizations of new Grid Parity photovoltaic and wind power plants, that is, with no government incentives. In this particular case, investing in a startup has the objective of financing ground – mounted photovoltaic plants until they get to the Ready to Build or Turnkey stage . This implies an investment pitch, writing of an industrial and business plan, legal and financial aid and meetings aimed at the settlement of the investment .


IBS ENERGY SRL ( LTD. ) Its core business is related to the development of Grid Parity photovoltaics in Greenfield modality . The absence of incentives is the cornerstone of the investment, as in the past they were often revised by the State, posing many problems for the investors . There is only one exception : disused quarries or industrial lands, as sometimes investors expressly ask to participate in public auctions or to subscribe to the registro degli impanti ( register to which one subscribes to obtain incentives ). However, IBS always suggests to proceed once the project is sustainable even with no incentives .


IBS ENERGY, as a startup and owing to its targeted organizational choices, it is an agile company from a structural point of view, deals with scouting and origination of sites and also signed outsourcing contracts, part of the bureaucratic authorization procedure, with engineering companies .
IBS is currently in co – development mode , that is, an investor finances projects depending on the milestones agreed on and corresponding to the pivotal moments of the authorization process .

IBS Energy, in case of an emerging collaboration with a foreign investor who wants turnkey plants, for example, apart from the development they also offer the construction of buildable installations . Therefore, they intend to find an investor who finances through internal financing a SPV, to be created and then capitalised for this purpose, giving part of the shares to the investor .

IBS Energy, once obtained the AU Autorizzazione Unica ( see glossary ), will cede the project to financial traders . This is a very important aspect, mostly when it comes to the private equity investors we are looking for .

IBS Energy will raise capital to launch a new project, which implies an internal capital and therefore a greater flexibility and operation independence. However, this entails more important marginalities for the investor .

In other words IBS Energy, instead of relying on an external investor, they will either use the raised capital to carry on the authorization process of the identified sites and then cede the project once it is buildable, or build a photovoltaic park, as there are bankable companies in the EPC sector that can take care of it ( BOS and O&M ).

Actually it is a different way of carrying out the same activity, however, the funding is not external but internal .


IBS Energy Srl ( Ltd. ) has ongoing projects in different italian regions : Abruzzo, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Lazio, Molise, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Veneto; where there is a demand of connection to the electrical networks, and there are projects at an advanced stage . As there is a continuous scouting of sites and numerous other projects are being signed, numbers are expected to go up week by week .


The process is the following :

- IBS performs checks and analysis to determine the site suitability for the installation of a photovoltaic park : electrical simulations, connection costs to the electricity grid, screening ( with restrictions, like national, regional ones ), plant layout, financial simulation and business plan, obtaining a profit expectation of the turnkey plant .
- If the site is eligible , then a preliminary contract is signed with the owners of the lands .
- The site is then presented to an investor, and if the latter is interested, the procedure to the obtaining of the Autorizzazione Unica begins . The first step is a request to the operators of Enel and Terna for connection to the national electricity grid, and the last step is the obtaining of the Autorizzazione Unica, from which the installations and the sale of energy .
In a few words, our activity starts from the scouting / origination of sites phase ( mostly agricultural lands, industrial lands, and disused quarries ) through some collaborators all over Italy . Once the analysis are carried out ( slopes, restrictions, connection to the electricity grid and business plan), we contractualize the eligible areas with the owners through engineering company, getting started with the authorization procedure .
Pursuing the growth objective, we want to diversify the line of business and also carry out a project as a financially independent company, until the ‘’ Ready to build ’’ stage and then cede it to an investor . This will reassure those who want to invest in this initiative/company as this contract makes it possible to figure out revenues ( through a business plan ) along with the costs and the payments procedure .


IBS Energy is a company that counts on a skilled Team in the renewable energy sector, and also partners and experts all over Italy that deal with scouting of agricultural lands, industrial lands, abandoned quarries, landfills, coverings .
IBS Energy works with engineering companies with a long – term experience as to the procedures to obtain the authorizations for new photovoltaic, wind power plants and other renewable sources .
IBS Energy signs agreements with investors and financiers to finance the co – development of the photovoltaic stations and, if demanded by the client, also as to construction of turnkey solar parks, ones authorized .


In case you are interested, send :

- Presentation of the investment
- Revenue account


IBS ENERGY home page
DEVELOPMENT and milestones co – development


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Thank you for the attention

IBS Energy

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Private equity investment Private Equity is a financial activity which typically refers to investment funds, usually organized as limited partnerships, that buy and restructure companies not publicly traded .

Venture Capital investment Investors in venture capital put a small percentage of their total funds into high – risk investments . Venture capital is a type of financing that investors provide to startup companies and small businesses that are believed to have long-term growth potential .

Specialized investment fund An investment fund is a collective investment undertaking . It is constituted and managed by an administrative body . This definition is taken from the text of financing according to the Italian legislation . A specialized investment fund focuses its actions on certain sectors, such as the Renewables, for instance .

Family Office Family offices are private wealth management advisory firms . A family office can be a single – family office, supports only one family aid, or a multi – family office / multi – client family office, supports a number of families ; working efficiently both financially and administratively .


Greenfield investment Greenfield investments are a type of foreign direct investment, where a company starts its operation in other countries as its subsidiary and invests in the construction of offices etc.
As to the energy sector, it deals with photovoltaic projects, in which one starts from scratch looking for suitable lands etc. , and after signing a preliminary contract linked to the AU ( Autorizzazione Unica ) one proceeds until the project is buildable . The investor invests in the development since the beginning, and also finances through agreed payment steps according to predefined milestones .

Brownfield investment It is used in foreign direct investments . Unlike the greenfield investment, buildings are already constructed . For example, as to the photovoltaic and the wind power plant, the investor finances the project once this already reached one or more milestones as to the authorization process : achievement of a TICA ( Testo integrato connessione attive : it is a document that states technical – economic terms and conditions for the connection to the grid of electric power production plants . ) /STMG ( Soluzione tecnica minima generale : minimum general technical solution ), achievement of a VIA ( Valutazione impatto ambientale : Environmental Impact Assessment ), achievement of a AU ( Autorizzazione Unica ).

Investing in a Photovoltaic project Ready to Build As the concerned bodies already confirmed their interest and 127 days for anyone who wanted to oppose the construction have passed, it is a low – risk investment . Therefore, the connection to the installations and the consequent electricity production and sale are obstacle – free .

Investing in a photovoltaic project through Autorizzazione Unica : As it is similar to ‘’ Ready to Build ’’, it is a low – risk mode, too . Obviously the higher the risk, the lower the development costs . When the risk is very low, like in this case, the cost of the Autorizzazione Unica is higher .

Investing via SPV ’s A SPV ( special-purpose vehicle ) is a company or a legal entity ( except for banks ) that carries out specific financial activities that will then be transferred to a third party and sometimes with the aim of carrying out one or more securitisation . In this particular case, real estate titles, every agreement signed by the SPV are directed towards this entities . For example : demand for TICA / STMG, etc. The investor, right after creating the SPV, will capitalize it in the building and executive phases of the wind power and photovoltaic plant .

Investing in a Turnkey plant That is, finance a project that obtained the Autorizzazione Unica, which after its publication in the gazette gave the all-clear for the construction, and that through planned works has obtained the connection to the national electricity grid . This investment is possible either by purchasing the buildable project and proceed with the construction or by purchasing the already built asset and connected to the electricity grid . If this investment is done via SPV ’s, there is a higher financial risk and IRR on investment is higher .

Investing in Energy sector stocks The acquisition of shares of a society is not a complex task, however, some precautions should be taken to ensure that the investment is profitable, reducing both short and long – term financial risk . In particular :
1. Expected profit margin
2. The value of the company in the market
3. Financial strategy
4. Purchasing terms
If the company belongs to the energy sector and if its profit motive and mission is the development of photovoltaic and wind power projects, both technical and administrative due diligence must be carried out to ensure that everything has been conducted in compliance with the law .


Investment pitch : a brief pitch, that lasts about 30 seconds, to get investors for a startup or project .

Private Equity : it focuses on generating capital gains . That is, investors purchase a stake in a business, take an active role in its management, and lastly draw a profit from the increate value of the business by selling or floating it .

Venture Capital : startups with a potential to grow need a certain amount of investment . Investors invest their capital with a long – term growth perspective .

Capital investment or capital expenditure ” CAPEX ” : they are funds used by a company to upgrade and maintain physical assets such as property, plants, buildings and more .

Joint Venture ( JV ): a joint venture is an arrangement between business entities, also from different countries, with the aim of carrying out a specific project. Each entity agrees on how to divide up income and expenses .

Financial risk : it is the potential losses of an investor when investing in a business that uses borrowed money . Some financial risks include credit risk, liquidity risk, operational risk . There could be significant losses as well as unexpected profits .

IRR : Internal Rate of Return is a metric which estimates the profitability of potential investments .

Discount rate : makes the actual value of an investment equal to zero and is given by :

Summation ( Rt / ( 1 + IRR ) ^ t )) = 0
Where Rt = Net cash flow during a single period t

ROE ( Return On Equity ): it is a measure of financial performance given by :
ROE = Net income / Shareholders ’ equity * 100
When a company incurs a loss, return on equity is negative .

ROI ( Return on Investment ): Return on investment is a financial ratio used to calculate the benefit an investor receives in relation to their investment cost .
ROI = Net income / Cost of investment

Administrative and technical Due Diligence : investigation and in-depth analysis of datas and information relating to what is being negotiated . In case of a photovoltaic project, it can be either ‘’Administrative ’’, aimed at verifying the accuracy of the agreements, legal ownership of tangible and intangibile assets, or ‘’ Technical ’’ if it is aimed at verifying all the requirements that a photovoltaic system demands . For example, costs of connection to the electricity grid, national, regional, local planning constraints, bankability of the agreements and purchase of lands or sites being negotiated, etc.

Ready to Build : a permit that will allow the building and the start of works on site, in this particular case of photovoltaic and wind power plants .

Autorizzazione Unica : an authorization which constitutes the necessary and obligatory title for the construction and commissioning of PVs . It was first introduced by article 12 of the Italian Legislative Decree of 2003 no. 387 .

Grid Parity : grid parity occurs when alternative energies generate power that costs less than, or equal to, the price of power from the electricity grid .

Milestones : It is usually used in subjects such as project development and engineering . It is a point in time within a project life cycle which measures the progress of a project .

Government incentives : in this particular case linked to renewable energy ( photovoltaic etc) and represent the remuneration given by a public body or state entity for the production of clean energy .

GSE ( Handler of energetic services ) : it is an italian Joint – stock company, 100 % overseen by the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance .

BOS ( balance of system ): refers to the components and equipment that transfer the energy produced by the solar panels in the national electricity grid . The efficiency of the modules will allow the conversion of solar energy into electricity without excessive efficiency losses . With ‘’ BOS ’’ we also refer to the verification of the system once built and connected .

WI-FI : a wireless local area network that uses radio waves to connect computers and other devices to the internet .

O&M ( operations&maintenance ): it refers to the daily operations, the activities needed to preserve an asset : in this particular case, of the photovoltaic and wind power plant .

TICA ( testo Integrato delle connessioni attive ) : Literally Amalgamated law of the active connections . It is a document that states technical – economic terms and conditions for the connection to the grid of electric power production plants . In the case of Enel, this is a document which also indicates the connection costs, the 30 % fee to be paid during the acceptance of the estimate and the balance .

STMG ( soluzione tecnica minima generale : general minimum technical solution) : it is a document that defines the connection criteria for photovoltaic systems above 1 kWp up to large plants .

VIA ( valutazione di impatto ambientale : environmental impact assessment ): it is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project ( in this particular case of a photovoltaic or wind power plant ), which will either get accepted or rejected by the competent authorities .

AU ( Autorizzazione Unica )

Authorization procedure, depending on the case it can be :
- Autorizzazione unica issued after a procedure, in compliance with the modalities established by the Law and it applies to plants > 999 KW .
- Authorization for plants FER that implies an analysis of the authorization procedures concerning the construction and operation of power plants .
- To inform the Municipality and fulfilments to make the authorization procedure for the production of energy up to 999 KW or for the installation of panels on roofs easier .

Environmental and urban planning constraints :they are restrictions and limitations on the free use of land or of a private property . They can be landscape restrictions, but also hydrogeological, archeological restrions etc.

FER : as to the photovoltaic, FER, FER 1 and FER 2 decrees refer to the installation of plants > 20 kWp . New or fully constructed or reactivated plants < 1 MWp . Enel : Enel S.p.a. is an italian multinational distributor and manufacturer of electricity and gas, both in Europe and all over the world .

Terna : An Italian electricity grid operator . With more than 74.000 Km high voltage lines operated, they play a central role .

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