breaking news IBS

BREAKING NEWS – CONTACT US – for further information


- RENEWABLE GRID PARITY PV ITALY – WE ARE LOOKING FOR LAND PLOTS TO BUILD GRID PARITY PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATIONS : IBS, as sole spokesperson, will be the legal person that will organize all the bureaucratic procedure from the submission of the request to connect to the electrical line to the obtaining of the Autorizzazione Unica, in order to start building the installation . Agreements are being made with the investors, who want to buy the Authorizations, once they are granted . Investors are interested in installations ; whose size goes from 5 MW to 50 MW or more without limits . We encourage anyone who can point out not only plots, but also ready to build Authorization, to contact our managers .


- ITALY : on behalf of many purchasers ready to buy we look for installations or photovoltaic parks linked to the grid, the earth, the pursuit, bus shelters, rooftops .
- ITALY : we are seeking concessions both for photovoltaic and eolic projects in order to build installations of nominal output 10 – 20 MW and more without limits .
- POLAND : we are seeking concessions and projects for parks to be set up from 1 MW without superior limit for specialized Fund within the Photovoltaic .
- PROJECTS AND ABROAD INSTALLATIONS : for investors we are seeking installations connected to the grid already that may benefit from incentives or buildable projects with all the ready authorisations and tariff with state body both in the Photovoltaic and in the Eolic field .

- Availability of jobs within the construction sector and financed infrastructural construction job order to be performed in some non-EU countries . We will provide further information after request by interested Companies .

- Availability of trade structures at income in the market. In this moment mandate for sale of a commercial centre .
- On behalf of an investor we look for a heaven earth building in the city centre of Milan with active lease fee .
- We are looking for investors for important projects of housing development with a viability plan already performed and with operator available to detect the real estate already .

- Food & Beverage Products list and offer
- Fuel and products Oil & Gas : procedures and products list directly from the refineries .
- Chips and Pellet : we have producers in America and Canada, Russia, South America, South Africa who can supply products in whole ships at competitive prices.




News Business Opportunities Abroad and Funds

AGRIBUSINESS and FOOD FARMING CHAINS : for tomato, dairy and meat, and poultry food farming chains, greenhouses / systems for protected crops or agribusiness projects CLICK HERE .

FOREIGN COMMISSIONS : we have proxy and contact, through our network, with the leaderships of primary importance firms on the national and international scenery. These are firms interested in commissions in foreign countries on industrial sectors, construction, and energy. Following a few examples:
ENERGY: power station, gas turbines, steam turbines (120 MW), intelligent energy solutions, generating sets, marine generating sets, pumps, lighting tower also with lithium batteries, electrical generators, energy transformation, and distribution. Pipelines gas, refineries, service etc.
CONSTRUCTIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURES: hospitals, airports, bridges, dams, schools, harbors, hotels, roads, nonpetroleum perforations, etc.… In the case of dwellings or private facilities, a local high standing promoter is necessary.
HOSPITAL SECTOR AND MEDICAL DEVICES: furniture of beds and recovery rooms, operating rooms, planning and supplying “turnkey”, furniture with stainless steel design for operating rooms and sterilization rooms.

HOTEL SECTOR, CONTRACT & RESIDENTIAL: furniture ” interior design” and “living”, furniture “stuffed and curtains”, with possible supplying “turnkey”, for four/five/five-star luxury hotels, for potential clients all over the world. Kitchen furnishings, both for Hotels and for residential construction.

ELECTRICAL SUBJECT: electrification, machinery, revamping, optical fiber, etc.
AGRICULTURE: milk industries, tomatoes industries, processing plants, agricultural projects with the sale of animals and industries, machinery included etc.
WATER SUBJECT: purification, desalination, perforations, etc.
PACKAGING SUBJECT: creation of industries in food and pharmaceutical packaging, etc.
In case of contacts with the general contractor, institutions, able to produce commissions in a juridical context as an announcement, direct award, creation of a local company, joint venture please take contact with IBS through the page Contacts on the Menu.
Funding: in the case a funding would be requested in countries with a limited financial capacity, specialised funds are connect to the network, which can value if intervene and finance the activities especially in the case of major works, after verifying the availability of the country Central Bank where the works are budgeted, to issue appropriate guarantees.

BRAZILIAN BUSINESS TOUR , BUSINESS MISSION ITALY – BRAZIL. The Brazilian Business Tour, an important event promoted by industrial institutions, Italian and Brazilian bilateral associations and institutions, will occur in different cities like Recife, Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Florianopolis, São Paulo. The tour has the status of a business mission intended to create new business opportunities between Italian and Brazilian firms, it provides an institutional introduction to which meetings B2B in business rounds format will follow.
Main sectors:
Agro-industry (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Ceará, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco)
Footwear (Ceará, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais)
Cosmetic, Pharmaceutical e Biomedical (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Ceará)
Energy (Ceará, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco )
Infrastructure (Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro)
Steelworker (Santa Catarina, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro)
Mining (Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Ceará, Minas Gerais)
Nautical and Naval (Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul)
Oil & Gas (Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco)
Textile (Santa Catarina, Caerá, Pernamubuco, Minas Gerais)
For detail information, to access to the reserved page to download the brochure it is necessary to send your references and business data through the page CONTACTS of the website.

BULGARIA BUSINESS MISSIONS : through the General Confederation of Bulgarian Industry, business missions, meetings B2B and partner research, tax benefits and productive hub. Furthermore, a wide range of services is provided by professional offices of excellence in the legal, tax and fiscal, administrative fields, employee management and payslip included, as well as regulations related to labor law and quality assurance.

FUNDING FOR START-UP CANARIES, TENERIFE : business opportunities, tax breaks, funding and funds for innovative Start-ups on the sectors IT, electronics, automation, scientific research, nanotechnology, biotechnology, other news. The Special Zone Canaria (ZEC), Free Zone Tenerife (ZFT), customs and fiscal facilities, and other news.

CHINESE INCOMING FIRMS IN ITALY : Chinese delegations in Italy, firms selected by CCPIT and Chinese institutions, which meet Italian firm with specific purposes in the context of focused B2B meetings, strategic and commercial partnerships. Sectors: textile, mechanics, automotive, energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, medical, technological and innovation patents, Information and Communications Technology ITC, and lastly food and beverage and food farming products and other news.

MADE IN ITALY EXPORT IN CHINA : through Italian companies based in China and property digital agencies, the Italian firms can export the Made in Italy in China. Through e-commerce platforms and social channels, the Italian products are offered to 600 millions of people (on average connected to the internet every day), through B2C and B2B channels, everything managed by an advanced system ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). At the expense of the Italian firm a commercial commission on the sold out that includes front end, back end, lead to cash, operation services and shipping to the final purchaser. It’s like the Italian firm has in outsourcing its own distribution branch in China. The Italian firm would take care of providing the product that wants to commercialize cleared through customs in China, plus potential promotions. For some products, they can transit FTZ (Free Trade Zone) paying customs duties (that are the import expenses or the customs clearance of the product), after the sale has been perfected, with the possibility of serving also bordering countries that have FTZ agreements with China (for example Malaysia). Also the production of certificates in order to insert the product in China in accordance with the law is by the firm and an assistance for that is provided. All the categories of product are allowed (food, clothing and fashion, furniture, luxury, etc.), however when we will receive an expression of interest we shall do a preliminary feasibility analysis. Please submit the request for further information through the page CONTACTS.

OPPORTUNITIES ON ECOWAS COUNTRIES : through non-governmental organizations NGO and a delegate of ECOWAS, supranational entity linked to 54 African states, it is possible to identify focused possibilities of investment, both in the social field and in the business and different fields, from buildings, to energy and infrastructures for different types of investors. Through ECOWAS it is possible to establish a direct dialogue with the leaders of the member states institutions, with people who cover the highest offices. It is possible to obtain news and first-hand information, together with submitting developing projects, on the basis of strategical development lines, planned with Development Banks and with International Donors.

RUSSIA: Possibility for Italian Firm to be represented in Russia in trade show contexts, in business meetings, or in events organized to promote bilateral business opportunities between Russia and Italy, by salespersons, agents, or commercial consultants Italian – Russian. In addition to a private channel, opportunities made available by the General Confederation of Russian Industry and by Russian consuls in the framework of cooperation with Italian industrial associations also exist. This cooperation makes accessible packages for SMEs with extremely contained prices, with an array of services that range from a support for an opportunity scouting, to an operative support also structured for firms interested in Russian territory, which want to install in Russia, or participate to commissions, in the areas of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, other more strategical regions, but also territories with high potential and less known, together with countries with Free Trade Agreement and free exchange with Russia, as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Serbia. Other sectors that we point out are: oil and gas, automotive, medical, agriculture, biotech and tender for commissions in different fields.

KAZAKHSTAN BUSINESS : Business opportunities in Kazakhstan, representative office in prestigious structure near government institutions, with possibility of rents at very low prices for offices and headquarters or for outsourcing services with local personnel. Opportunity on the renewable energy sector, at Expo 2017 in Aksana and other news.

JAPAN, KOREA, MADE IN ITALY : opportunity of Made in Italy export in Japan and Korea. “Tesori d’Italia” magazine and promotion of Italian brands of excellence. Meetings B2B with buyers, distributors. Expository spaces in Nagoya at Galleria Italia with over 25.000 visits of specialized operators.

UGANDA : business opportunity in Uganda, list of active services, opportunity on the renewable energy sector, photovoltaic parks and PPP with purchase of energy produced, together with different types of opportunities, for example on the construction sector, electrification, public works, on the mining field.

MAURITANIA FISHING SECTOR : opportunities on the fishing sector in Mauritania, an extremely fishy zone of West Africa, through the elaboration of fishing products and successive commercialisation on the region and adjacent countries.

PHOTOVOLTAIC PARK IN VENTURE CAPITAL : investors for the construction of photovoltaic plants with PPP and rates to arrange with government authorities, (depending on where the parks would place, on the average solar radiation, and if the target areas are devoid of electric covering, therefore on the country priorities). The whole thing in territories of high radiation and in the face of multi-annual purchase agreements of the produced energy, guaranteed by insurances recognized by the International Monetary Fund, however in areas not subjected to disorders or risks of political, economic or operative nature, considered above of the acceptable threshold.

HIGHLIGHTS : business opportunities on foreign countries both on the European Union and extra-EU countries in different commodity-related sectors and other news.

ICE BRUSSELS : tenders, contracts, third countries programs, extra-EU tenders, tax benefits, funding and opportunities through ICE Brussels and other news.

ITALIAN REGIONAL FUNDS: Allocated funds for the development of areas in the center and in the south of Italy. These are funds and funding that favor occupational projects or innovative patents and innovative start-ups that have repercussion on the territories in terms of employment and revival of the productive and socio-economic industries. For information and news contact us for an estimation of your entrepreneurial project. It is advisable to have a preliminary synthetic business plan.

News Food and Beverage and Commodities

AGRI-FOOD CATALOGUE AND OFFERS : agro-food catalogue with agricultural and food products of excellence as Parmesan Reggiano, different cheeses, Parma ham, hams and cold meats also PDO, durum wheat dried pasta in different formats and different protein content, Neapolitan fresh pasta, rice, tomato, fresh and frozen fish, sauces and preserves, vegetables, mushrooms, truffle, fruits, legumes, cereals, coffee, milk, ice cream, plain and sparkling water, white wines, red wines, sparkling wines, Muscats, olive oil and extra virgin olive oil, and other Made in Italy products + some imported products, some commodities as sugar, flours, wheat, vegetable oil both rough and refined (sunflower oil, corn oil, soy oil) etc. included. Continuing offers, spot offers, stock offers.

ALLERGENS-FREE PASTA : we are responsible for finding pasta buyers and distributors with innovative features, in the different variation of fresh pasta, dried pasta, filled pasta, completely allergens-free (no gluten, no eggs, no lactose, no mono e diglycerides), also with certified vegan and BIO versions. A perfect combination of tastiness and health. Global innovation, pasta is supplemented by fibers and vitamins with the addition of vegetables and legumes; in this way, it has also a glycemic index very low.

FOOD & BEVERAGE TOP OF THE LINE : BIO and top of the line food and beverage. Firms of made in Italy excellence, products at the top in terms of product quality, BIO certification, organoleptic properties and health. From rice to pasta, from wine of high-quality grapes to extra virgin oil of primary quality, products with unique nutritive properties.

MIXED BERRIES AND FROZEN MUSHROOMS: a Russian producer market leader of mixed berries and frozen mushrooms is looking for buyers and strategical partnership to develop the opening in Italy and Europe.

WINE, WINES, WINE CELLARS FROM OLTREPO’ PAVESE: IBS is pleased to promote high quality wines from best Wine Cellars, origin from Oltrepo’ Pavese in Italy. RED WINES : O.P. BARBERA, also Oak barrel (barriques) aged. ROSSO RUBINO, sweet red wine made from Croatina grapes (100%). O.P. BONARDA, from pure Croatina grapes. O.P. BUTTAFUOCO, made by blending Croatina, Barbera and Uva Rara grapes. VINACERO, made from Pinot Noir grapes vinified red. O.P. BARBERA this is the not sparkling version of Barbera. WHITE WINES : O.P. PINOT NERO, made from Pinot noir (85%) and Chardonnay (15%) grapes. O.P. RIESLING ITALICO, white wine made from 80% Italic Riesling grapes and 20% Rhine Riesling variety. CROSE’ , rosé wine made from Pinot Noir grapes vinified rosé. O.P. CHARDONNAY, white aromatic dry wine made from 100% Chardonnay grapes. PINOT GRIGIO, white wine, full, yellow pale, with delicate fragrance and pleasantly soft flavor. LACLIMA, chardonnay, oak barrel (barriques) aged. LACLIMA is made with the grapes from our “Prumù” vineyards. SPARKLING WINES : PINOT SPUMANTE CHARMAT (SPARKLING), made from Pinot Noir grapes, vinified white by Charmat method. ROSE’ SPUMANTE CHARMAT (SPARKLING), made from Pinot Noir grapes, vinified pink by Charmat method. PINOT SPUMANTE BRUT (SPARKLING), made from Pinot Noir grapes (85%) and Chardonnay grapes (15%). MOSCATO DI VOLPARA, traditional recipe, sparkling, and passito which is made from Moscato grapes left to dry on the wine stocks until late November. For further information please contact us.

WHISKY: a distillery in Slovenia can provide high-quality whiskey with industrial production in bulk or in bottle at prices of great interest for wholesalers and sellers.

MINING PRODUCTS: haematite, limestone, bentonite, barite crystals, white and ochre talc, calcium carbonate, limonite, directly from the producer through property mine, importing firms or buyers on the paint sector or users of the above-mentioned products.

PELLET PRODUCERS : dimension 6-8 mm, colour both and dark pellets, competitive costs per tonne, detailed information available (product fiche and description), supply both through packaging bulks as big bag 1000 kg, and bags from 15 kg. Ashes 0,23 – 0,27% very low, because the used raw material is first-rate wood used for the design and construction of wooden houses and the remains are used for the pellet production. Pellet both for civil use top of the line, and for industrial use. Logistics and delivery both by truck and by ship. Minimum order 1 container or 1 truck.

WOODEN TRUNKS AND FIREWOOD PRODUCER : firewood and wooden trunks producer. For an estimate contact us indicating quantity, diameter, type of wood and humidity. Logistics through ship, train and truck.

VEGETABLE OILS : We make available vegetable oils, refined, crude or degummed products at competitive prices through Refineries located in Ukraine, Russia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Bulgaria and Hungary. Available vegetable oils : sunflower oil, csfo, corn oil, soybean oil, palm oil, cpo, colza oil, palm methyl ester, palmrdb – cp 8 / cp 10, UCO ( used cooking oil ) . The packaging can be both in PET bottles with a capacity of 1, 2, 5, 10 liters, and in bulk or flexitank, depending on the type of product. CIF delivery basis, 2.00 % performance bond. For further information, please contact us.

SUNFLOWER OIL PRODUCER : sunflower oil producer with Black Sea origin, raw or refined product, it is possible to provide both bulks and bottles, competitive price, minimum 1 container/month by ship or road transport minimum order 1 truck.

COCOA : unrefined cocoa in seeds to grind, origin Ivory Coast, the world’s largest producer of cocoa beans for the following chocolate production.

COMMODITIES : different commodities, from the top quality made in Italy products listed at the Borsa di Parma (such as Parmigiano Reggiano, Prosciutto di Parma and other cold cuts, tomato-derived products, fodder, grain, meal etc.) , to vegetable seeds (sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm oil, rapeseed oil), to petroleum products, (fuel, oil and gas), metal and others. For INFORMATION, requests and other news send us a mail.

STOCKS : stock of merchandise, of various typology, from food, to wines and beverage, sauces and spices, clothing and accessories (shirts, bathrobes, etc.), furnishings and bed sheets (mattress covers, rags, etc.), household articles (lamps, etc.) and kitchen (pans, knives, etc.), design articles, clocks, jewels, article for the house-cleaning, etc.

FUELS AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: IBS has direct relationships with official agents of Refineries from Russia, Middle East, South America, Libya, Iraq and Iran. The FOB and CIF purchasing procedures and the main products provided are indicated in the specific page. Click on the link to visit the Fuels page. Complete list of Products :
MAZUT 100 GOST 10585 99
MAZUT M100 GOST 10585 75

Niche and foreign partnership business news, latest news

Thanks to our foreign network, we have direct contact with agents and ownerships, opportunity promoters that we recommend to follow. For requests or offers contact us.

REAL ESTATE MOROCCO : real estate project in Morocco in Casablanca, luxury apartment buildings with advanced domotics, ventilation systems, smart city project.

PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS: buyers, distributors and strategical partnerships for pharmaceutical products in surgery and regenerative medicine, tissues, equipment, and biotechnologies are required.

MERGING AND ACQUISITION OPERATIONS: merging and acquisitions in the sectors biomedical pharmaceutical and orthopedic devices, ICT augmented reality and internet of things, food, catering, plastics, electromechanical, components. Kind of deals: start-up, turnaround, acquisition, acquisition/capital increase. Available info: risk level, actual enterprise value, turnover, EBITDA (%), net funding position, growth potential / achievable turnover, requirement object of the round, share sold with the round, expected IRR, way-out period (nr. years), way-out cash multiple, exit strategy, potential partners of the operation. Write us an email indicating your business data and your contact personal references and detail information will be provided.

CONCESSIONS OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES sale of concessions on the renewable sector – PPA (power purchase agreement). Examples: aeolian project Brazil, aeolian project Greece, photovoltaic project Jordan, photovoltaic project Egypt and photovoltaic Morocco. Turnkey plants also available.

KNOW-HOW SALE : stone elements for interiors sector for extra-EU countries, assistance on the phase of productive and operative facility start-up, training of the staff included.

OIL PRODUCTS : through a distributive company product in Italy with 26 platforms of ownership dislocated on the national territory, we can facilitate the contract for the supply of the following products. METHANE through primary refineries and societies with the monopoly of the distribution in Europe of the product therefore with a discount compared to secondary distributors. LPG and PROPANE, DIESEL (EN 590 – 10 PPM, PETROL. For big buyers, end users or end buyers of big quantities this company can manage directly the relation with the refineries, therefore, can organize the transport of big volumes with competitive prices by ship. Also of JP54 and other products.

MINING INVESTMENTS in Morocco, Tanzania, Colombia and in addition investments in Cu, Ni, Graphite, Lithium trough companies located in Canada e Switzerland. Top-level lawyers and banks.

INNOVATIVE DROPSHIPPING START-UP : sometimes indicated as drop ship, innovative start-up which presents a better business model than the business model of the companies on the market. Dropshipping permits an increase of the sales volume, enabling the management of the logistics also on foreign commissions. The peculiarity is that the goods are in the warehouse of the supplier and the seller, who is a separated entity, can perfect the sale and the good will be directly sent from the warehouse to the end user, only after the payment is perfected. All the sale process and the integrated supply chain are managed by a website. Contact us for updates and latest project news.

HELICOPTER BUYERS SCOUTING : American-made helicopter 8 passenger seats for money transport, transport to platforms, borders patrol, law enforcement. Much lower costs than the average market costs. Buyers and distributors scouting.

PILLOW FOR BEDRIDDEN INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES : innovative start-up and patent made by specialists in physiotherapy, that have produced a new pillow for bedridden which solves or improves a lot of problems that worry the people forced to long hospital stays or bed rests due to serious diseases or clinical pathologies. Search for investors.

INVESTMENT IN ARTWORKS: artworks of primary importance and notoriety, direct contact with owners or owners’ direct agents. Procedures supervised by accredited experts with multi-year activities in the field and high standing. Utmost discretion and confidentiality.

REAL ESTATES FOR SALE : real estates for sale in Italy and in other countries, hotels of virtue in Milan, Rome, Venice, Florence and in primary European cities. Shopping centers, SNF (skilled nursing facilities) in Italy. Farms and vineyards of virtue for sale with or without annexed restaurant and accommodation in the territories of the Italian wine excellence.

Services news

FOREIGN DESK : active services in foreign desk and in the branches of IBS partners abroad.

TRADE AND EXPORT FINANCE : selection of commercial and financial partners, creation and management of export contracts, searching for and negotiation of banking tools for export and trade finance (documentary letter of credit LC, stand by letter of credit SBLC, bank guarantees, forfeiting, etc.), export credits management. Through our partners, we are able to establish relationships with the main financial centres of the world, such as London, New York, and Hong Kong, and with banks and institutional agencies for export support and development.

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL STRATEGIES : the aim of this project is the obtaining of a financing, within sustainable projects, credible business plans, presentable companies, due diligence, and experts in the financial field.

QUOTE COMPANIES ON THE STOCK EXCHANGE : consultation to quote a company on the Stock Exchange, quotation on the Stock Exchange and high finance for companies operating in the mining field and in biotechnologies and pharmaceutical sectors.

INNOVATIVE PLATFORM E-MAIL AND TEXT MARKETING : a platform to set or support marketing and communication business strategies through a highly technological and innovative system. Advertising campaign custom-made able to show you concretely the power of your system to increase sales, e-commerce, or advertise initiative and events both for mobile marketing and PC. An integrated system of customer journey, micro-contents distributed over time by text and email, solutions landing page and story telling. On the basis of the way of approach, the behavior of the potential consumer is measured and analyzed by the mobile analytic and customer forms. The interactions between users are analyzed, measured with a temporal view. Personalisation of contents for the future communications. The platform no longer provides a simply custom target but a predictive target. Tens of millions of contacts just in Italy and extended international presence. Promotions, lead, coupons, dynamic surveys, booking, deal, mflyer, donations and story telling. Tracking, lead scoring, predictive marketing.

GEOPOLITICS & INTELLIGENCE, RISK ASSESSMENT : geopolitics and intelligence, risk assessment, country profile, geopolitical risk analysis, observatory conflicts, actor profile, country security assessment, travel security plan.

ARTICLES INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS : different articles of geopolitical, socio- economic, technical subjects, concerning different regions and areas divided in continents.

SACE INSURANCE OF THE CREDIT : SACE and insurance of the credit, Country Risk Map, risk non-payment counterpart sovereign, banking, corporate, contractual violations, capital transfer and other risk linked to internationalisation, detailed for each foreign country, with insurance solutions of the credit and insurability conditions.

SEND US IN FAIR IN YOUR PLACE : IBS sends a consultant to the fair of interest between those planned in the different foreign countries, it collects a certificate and agreed number of commercial contracts and business cards, without the Italian company having to commit the valuable time of their collaborators. Centralizing the service, through a person who is present and has proxy for more than a company, you get savings in costs and time.

BUSINESS MATCHING : business matching, meetings B2B, commercial and entrepreneurial missions. Business meetings upon request according to the needs of the companies.

SERVICES FOR PATENTS AND START-UPS : services for owners of patents and start-ups through professionals with a high expertise in the management of inventions, patents, product industrialization, star-up development.

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES : investment opportunities for investors, also innovative start-ups and financial investments.

TRADES PLATFORM platform B2B, business to business Pandora Trades International.


- Business to Business B2B (Wikipedia)
- Geopolitics (Wikipedia)
- Business Intelligence (Wikipedia)
- Letter of credit (Wikipedia)
- Authorized economic operator AEO (Wikipedia)
- ECOWAS – CEDEAO (Wikipedia)
- Joint Venture JV (Wikipedia)
- Venture Capital (Wikipedia)
- Allergen (Wikipedia)
- Biotechnology (Wikipedia)
- EN 590 (Wikipedia)
- Diesel fuel (Wikipedia)
- Gasoline (Wikipedia)


contact IBS by mail





EN Grid parity Italy Home page

EN Grid Parity closest electrical substation connection



Those who are interested, carefully read the following points and
Download the HANDBOOK and the following documents in the DOWNLOAD section


SOLE SPOKESPERSON : IBS looks for the right areas where to place the installations and provides for all the bureaucratic procedures from the grant application from Enel / Terna to the grant issuance .

INVESTORS : the investors are already ready to buy the licenses / grants Grid Parity as soon as they will be issued .

GUIDELINES : it is important that the plots respect the following terms . For this reason, we recommend you to read them carefully . Thank you for your collaboration . We hope you will have a productive long-term collaboration with us .

- Landlords in Italy
- People in charge of plot announcements
- Rental agencies
- Technicians and operators in the renewable energy sector, especially in the PV sector
- Professional organizations : Agronomists, Surveyors, Engineers, Architects, Experts ( Land Surveyor, Engineer, etc)
Professional studies relevant to the sector

EN how to cooperate Grid Parity Italy

SIZE OF THE GRID PARITY INSTALLATIONS THAT WILL BE BUILT : from 5-10 MW to 40 MW-50 MW or more . Download Characteristics of the sites to be suitable

HECTARES OF PLOTS NEEDED FOR 1 MW IN GRID PARITY : almost 2 Hectares every Megawatt depending on whether solar trackers are used or not . Plots have to be adjacent or at least 1 – 2 Km distant from each other, so that the connection in the substation can take place without any problems

LEASEHOLD ESTATE OR PURCHASE RIGHTS : it is possible that landowners sign a contract in which the investor pays a leasehold estate for 25 years + 3 years or + 5 years or the investor can buy the plot . Land plots fit the requirements all over Italy ( North Italy, Central Italy and South Italy )

Investors are interested in land plots all over Italy and its regions : it is important that lease charges or plot sales and soil radiation allow to obtain a return on investment consistent with the business model .
Some investors prefer the following regions : Abruzzo, Basilicata, Campania, Lazio, Molise, Puglia, Sardinia, Sicily, Umbria . Some investors consider the region Calabria .
IT IS IMPORTANT TO VERIFY that there are no urban restrictions and limitations on building GRID PARITY PV systems on plots in each region in Italy .
REGARDING SARDINIA : it is important that plots are industrial and not agricultural .

SUMS PAID TO LANDOWNERS FOR THE LEASEHOLD ESTATE : the sum paid to landowners in Euro per Hectare per Year for the leasehold estate will be decided with the investor and the owners, depending on the Region where the plots are and on the investor type . The investor can also pay the plots ’ leasehold estate in a single discount rate solution .

SUMS PAID TO PLOT OWNERS IN CASE OF SALES : the sums paid per Hectare in South, Central and North Italy will be discussed individually and negotiated with the investors and the owners . The investor knows the variable costs per hectare depending on his own financial model .



Ous investors also consider purchasing ready to use licenses where the installation can be built immediately .

EN steps to point out land plot grid parity



SCREENING : landowners or people in charge of plot announcements who are in touch with the owners will be asked to send :

- PLOT TYPE : flat, sloping, soil pitch
- GOOGLE EARTH and IMAGES with the accurate coordinates and the highlighted plots perimeter.

This will allow us to : verify the plots, conduct simulations, determine the radiation in that area, verify if the plots are adjacent or if the distances between them are consistent with the requirements needed for the construction of GRID PARITY installations .

After a first and quick check is made in order to give the green light to the construction, we will need to sign the prior agreements of the following documents :


INFORMATION ON THE CLOSEST ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION OR ELECTRICAL ROOM AND RELATED CONNECTION : it is just as important to know the plots distance from the closest Enel / Terna electrical substation, if there is average or high voltage ; to know the electric line capacity, the possibility to connect in substation and the costs of a connection in the electrical plant of an already existing substation . The creation of a new substation can be done for GRID PARITY PV installations starting from 30 MW – 40 MW . At the same time, the adjacent active high voltage line will be directly intercepted . In case of any doubts, you can send pictures of the aerial electric line both average and high voltage or pictures of the electrical substation or room, asking for advice .

PRIOR AGRREMENT THAT LANDOWNERS WILL HAVE TO SIGN : if the results on the tests made on plots and on the possibility of connection in the substation are positive, we will sign a prior agreement and start the working phases and bureaucratic procedures . IBS will provide the Autorizzazione Unica ( an Authorization which constitutes the necessary and obligatory title for the construction and commissioning of PVs ) with the help of experts :
- Autorizzazione Unica ( AU ) including, geological prospecting and exams and range reconnaissance
- Design and presentation of TICA ( Testo integrato delle connessioni attive, is document that states technical – economic terms and conditions for the connection to the grid of electric power production plants and it refers to a connection request made starting from January 1st 2009 ) and different proceedings, participation to any kind of meeting with the Authorities in charge until the AU is obtained and PV installations can be built .

TIMINGS : even if each region has its different timings and procedures, completing the whole bureaucratic procedure to receive the Autorizzazione Unica usually takes about 15 -18 months . Timings start after the positive result of :
- the preliminary analysis of the plot documents and after having signed the preliminary contracts with the owners
- the analysis of the documents that will be sent to the conferenza dei Servizi present in the Region ( an institution of the Italian legislation that simplifies the activity of the Italian public administration ) which collaborates with our architects .

AGREEMENTS : with the people in charge of plot announcements or partners that will facilitate plot announcements or landowners ’ announcements, we will sign the agreements that protect them for the recognition fees . We will also sign a NDA ( Non – Disclosure Agreement ) on the exchange of confidential information both with the person in charge of plot announcements and with the landowners . IBS wants to have a productive long-term synergy with those who will want to cooperate .

EN work with us grid parity



We are looking both for people directly in charge of plot announcements, different types of operators who are in touch with landowners and also people who aim to become our Area Managers . The Area managers’ job will be that of coordinating the people in charge of plot announcements, collect proceedings and being responsible for the information . They are also a reference point between landowners or plot announcers and IBS in case of any problems .

send to orange


EN stakeholders


EN Grid Parity Stakeholders

EN test and documents download grid parity



GUIDELINES : it is an Information Handbook in PDF which aims is to research the right areas and to operate independently making the information exchange more efficient .

INFORMATION VIDEO : the video ’ s aim is to facilitate the process and to reveal in advance the information that will be needed in the different phases. In this way, it gives an immediate overview .

GREENFIELD PRELIMINARY FORM OF THE AREA : this initial document has to be downloaded in order to send the first information by plot owners or announcers with the google earth picture of the plot and its coordinates and perimeter attached ( Site characteristics agricultural land to be eligible )

SIMULATOR OF THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN THE ELECTRICAL LINE COSTS AND THE BUDGET : it is an excel file that simulates the low and average voltage connection costs . We suggest you to write the required values into the yellow cells ( where some values are written as an example ) and a calculation and first estimate will be made automatically . Regarding high voltage, CONTACT US .

PROGRESS REPORT OF THE AUTORIZZAZIONE UNICA : in this section our co – workers, partners, investors and announcers are able to monitor the progress report of the Autorizzazione Unica regarding the plots, where the procedure to obtain this authorization in Grid Parity together with the plots data is taking place

EN download guidelines grid parity

EN Download information video grid parity

EN download greenfield form green parity

EN download electrical line costs grid parity

EN progress report of the AU grid parity



Contact us via E-mail with your personal information in order to reach us or to begin working with us . One of our managers will contact you within 24 hours and will give you the necessary information :

Mail : info(a)
Skype : doingbusinessibs ( location Roma )

send to orange

Notes : In the E-mail given to contact us the at sign is written with this symbol (a), instead of this one @ in order to respect our company policy regarding cybersecurity On the Internet there are some browsers and automatic programs that could use the active email in the websites and create harmful SPAM communications . However, by replacing the symbol @ with (a) this problem is avoided . Thus, for everyone’s safety, we ask you to take note of the email and to write us from your email account or server . Or, you could click on the following image . This will direct you to the page where you can CONTACT US through the website special area . Thank you for your cooperation .



Fotovoltaico Tecnologia e dispense


The solar radiation is the electromagnetic energy that is emitted by the process of the fusion of hydrogen in the sun and it turns into helium atoms ( He ) .
Solar energy, that in a solar year crosses the atmosphere and arrives on earth, it is only 1/3 of the total energy that is intercepted by planet earth out of the atmosphere and the 70% of the energy ends in the sees .
The remaining energy ( 1,5 x 1017 kWh ) , that in one year intercepts dry land, is the same as thousand times of the present total world energy consumption .
Irradiation intended as solar irradiance or as power density of solar irradiation, is intercepted out of the atmosphere thanks to a surface that is perpendicular to sunlight ( it is also known as solar constant ). Irradiation is equivalent to 1353 W / m2, and during the year it is variable to ± 3 % due the elliptical earth orbit .
The following figure illustrates the irradiation development , through readings out of the atmosphere in a year :

Fotovoltaico densità di potenza radiazione solare PV

The peak value that is detected on the earth’s surface is about 1000 W / m2 , at noon, on a summer day, clear sky, optimal sun condition.
The solar radiation that comes to the earth’s surface, a distinction can be made between direct radiation and spread radiation . Direct radiation affects the surface through a very specific and unique angle of incidence, while spread radiation affects the surface with various angles.

When the direct radiation can’t affect a surface because there is an obstacle in the middle, thanks to the spread radiation the shaded area won’t be completely obscured.
This aspect has got technical density, especially for photovoltaic installations that can also operate only through the spread radiation.

fotovoltaico principi fisici solare PV

Furthermore, inclined surface can receive reflected solar radiation ( reflection ) from the land or from overwater in its front or horizontal surfaces ; such phenomenon is defined as “ albedo “ and it contributes to increase the process.

Direct radiation, spread radiation and albedo are received by a surface and the related proportion depend on certain elements :

- First of all on the weather conditions: in a cloudy day spread radiation prevails ; in a clear day , especially with dry weather , direct radiation prevails , and it can reach 90 % of the total irradiation ;
- The slope in relation to the horizontal plane of the surface : any horizontal surface will receive the higher spread radiation and the minimum reflected radiation, if there are no objects around in an upper altitude in relation to the surface’s one ;
- Presence of reflective surface : particularly the higher contributes is due to the reflection that is gave by clear surfaces . Moreover reflected radiation is higher in winter because of the reflective effect of snow and it decreases in summer months due to the effect related to the absorption by land and grass .

fotovoltaico BIPV PV

The slope or grade that will allow to make the stored energy utmost, could vary from location to another : changing location, the relationship between spread radiation and total radiation will vary, because increasing the grade of the surface that picks up, the component of spread radiation will be reduced and reflected component will be increased.

Practically, the optimal situation is recorded when the surface has southern exposure , and there is a rake angle that is equivalent to the site’s latitude : directing to south there will be a maximization of the filtered solar radiation that is received throughout the day and the slope is equal to the latitude that during the months of the year minimises the variation of solar energy that is filtered as a consequence of the sunlight oscillation of ± 23.5 °, compared to the perpendicular one of the harvest surface. If we name with ID the direct radiation, and with IS the spread radiation and with R albedo , then we can determine the total solar radiation that will affect on a surface :
IT = ID + IS + R


Photovoltaic effect turns the direct photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity through physical phenomenon in which light radiation interacts with electron of semiconductor materials.
The solar cell represents the physical object by which such phenomenon manifests itself and it is in substance a diode, that is characterized by a vast surface of several dozen cm2 .
To understand the photovoltaic effect is relevant to describe conceptually how a diode works ( p-n junction ) , and since today the crystalline silicon ( Si ) is the more used material for the creation of solar cells, silicon diode will be analysed .

fotovoltaico materiali semiconduttori PV

The silicon atom has got 14 electron, 4 of these are valence electron, therefore they can chemically bond in pairs with other valence electron of different atoms . In a chemically pure silicon crystal, every single atom is bonded through covalent bond with other 4 silicon atoms, so ,because of chemical bonds, in the crystal there aren’t electron which are free .

In the event that several silicon atoms in the crystal would be replaced by other phosphorus atoms ( P ) that is characterized by 5 valence electron, 4 of these will be used in chemical bond with adjacent silicon atoms, while the fifth electron could be separated from the phosphorus atom through thermal energy and it will be free to move in the crystal lattice .

Similarly, silicon atoms can be replaced by boron atoms ( B ) that has got only 3 valence electron and , in this case there will be a missing electron to saturate chemical bond with adjacent silicon atoms . This missing electron will be a positive electron and it will be called “ electron hole “ .

The following picture illustrates with a graphic what has been described : in the first the structure of the crystal lattice of silicon ( Si ) is shown, in the second there is how the structure of the crystal lattice varies when is carried out a doping through phosphorus atoms ( P ) and in the last case, modification of the crystal lattice are shown after the doping with boron atoms .

fotovoltaico tipo p tipo n potenziale elettrico PV

In the doping through phosphorus ( P ), atoms carry free negative electric charge and material is called “ n “ type, while in the doping and therefore in the replacing of silicon atoms by boron atoms ( B ) they carry positive electric charge and material is called “ p “ type . The p-n junction ( diode ) is determined by aggregating a “ n “ type bar with a “ p “ type bar .
Material “ n “ free electron will have in their left a region in which there aren’t free electron and this will lead to a flux of such carriers to the left in order to re-stablish balance between positive and negative electric charge . Similarly, the electron hole will find in their left a region in which there aren’t electron hole and so there will be a flux of positive electric charge to the right . As a result of the activation of such spread process , on the left side there will be an excess of negative electric charge, while on the right side there will be an excess of positive electric charge .

It follows that, in the region of interface between the two materials an electric field will be determined and it will tend to increase ever more, proportionally to the fact that the electric hole and electron keep spread to the opposite sides . This process keeps going until the creating electric potential will assume a size that will stop a further spread of electron and electron hole .
When such balance will be reached, a permanent electric field in a material will be created without using external electric fields . Through these concepts, it is easier to explain the photovoltaic effect . Assume that a particle that is a sunlight ( photon ) come in the “ p “ type region of the material . If the photon have at his disposal an higher energy of the gap band , in other words the minimum energy that is needed to determine the bond cleavage in the silicon lattice, it will be absorbed and will lead to the manifestation of a pair of electron – electron hole . The released electron during this phenomenon can move to the right because of the electric potential .

Contrary, if the photon came in the “ n “ zone , the creating electron hole will move to the left .
The flux that will be activate, will lead to an accumulation of positive electric charge to the left and negative electric charge to the right . This will create an electric field that is opposite of the one that is bonded to the spread mechanism . The more will be the number of photon that will reach the junction, the more fields will tend to erase each other , until there won’t be an internal field that separate every further pair of electron – electron hole .

This is the requirement that determines the open circuit voltage of a photovoltaic cell ( see open circuit voltage of a photovoltaic modules ) . Putting electrode ( metal contacts ) on the surface of a photovoltaic cell, it is possible to use the created potential. Such flux will create an accumulation of positive electric charge + to the left and negative electric charge – to the right , creating an opposite electric field as a sign of what it is created through the spread mechanism .



In the solar cell solar radiation turns into electricity .

The solar cell is a device that is composed by a subtle slice of semiconductor material, that is often silicon ; it has a thickness that could vary from 0,25 mm to 0,35 mm, often in a square shape or with a surface of 100 cm 2 . For the production of cells , silicon is a most frequently used material and it is used in the electronic industry, where the process cycle leads to very high costs, costs that couldn’t be justified if we consider that the required degree of purity in the photovoltaic field is lower than the one which is essential for electronic .

There are also other materials that can be used to create solar cells :

- Monocrystalline silicon: energy performance 15 – 17 %
- Polycrystalline silicon : energy performance 12 – 14%
- Amorphous silicon : energy performance lower than 10 %
- Other materials : cadmium telluride, gallium arsenide, gallium and indium thallium arsenic and copper .
However, now the most used material is monocrystalline silicon, which makes record higher performance and greater prolonged duration compared to other materials that are usable for the same purpose .

fotovoltaico sezione di una cella fotovoltaica PV


The solar cell is an intermediate product in the photovoltaic industry field : it provides limited current and voltage values, if they are compared to those that are usually required in users devices, moreover cells are extremely fragile, not electrically isolated, and they haven’t a mechanical support .

Cells are therefore aggregated and assembled with the aim of building a unique structure that is called photovoltaic modules ( see also Solar Panel ).
Photovoltaic modules have a more robust structure and it is easier to handle and on them solar cells are properly placed ( see hybrid solar cell ) .
Photovoltaic modules ’ size can vary, but those that are more common have surfaces which can vary from 0,5 m2 to 1,3 m2 , usually with 36 cells that are electrically linked in series .

fotovoltaico tipi di celle FV moduli fotovoltaici PV

Photovoltaic modules have a power that can vary from 50 Wp to 150 Wp related to the type and the efficiency that characterizes the solar cells which make up modules .

The most important electric features of photovoltaic modules are :

- Peak power ( Wp) : it is the power that comes from photovoltaic modules in standard conditions of utilisation STC : Irradiation = 1000 W / m2: Temperature = 25°C ; A.M. = 1,5
- Rated current ( A ): it is the current that comes from photovoltaic modules in the work-point
- Rated voltage ( V ): it is the work-voltage of photovoltaic modules

fotovoltaico curva I-V caratteristica PV

Wp ( Watt peak ) is the size that is taken as reference of photovoltaic modules and it has the aim of expressing the electric power that comes from photovoltaic modules in standard conditions of reference ( considering standard conditions with Irradiation = 1000 W / m2 ).


The photovoltaic system ( if you want see current source ) is composed by photovoltaic modules that are aggregated and linked in series and in parallel ( series and parallel circuits ) in order to reach optimal and desired operating conditions .

The base elements of the photovoltaic field are photovoltaic modules . More photovoltaic modules are mechanically assembled to each other determine the “ photovoltaic panel “ , while photovoltaic modules or panels are electrically linked in series and they allow to obtain the rated voltage of distribution, and they form the “ string “. Finally, more strings must be linked in parallel and this determinates the “ field”. United photovoltaic modules constitute the generator and they are built on a mechanical structure that is able to support the modules and it is oriented in order to maximise the solar irradiation .

generatore fotovoltaico PV

The quantity of electric power that is produced by a photovoltaic system can vary in a year, in proportion to sunshine in location where the system is built and depends on latitude .
Depending on the application for which the system was designed, it must be sized observing the following criteria :

- electric load
- peak power
- possibility to connect to the power grid or not
- latitude of the site and annual average irradiation of the site where there is the photovoltaic system.
- specification of the building’s architectural type
- specification of users load’s electric type

For example it is assumed that to the latitudes of central Italy, 1 m2 of photovoltaic modules of good manufacturing on average could produce :

0,35 kWh per day during the winter period
0,65 kWh per day during the summer period
>> 180 kWh per year


A photovoltaic plant or a photovoltaic system is an aggregate of mechanic, electric and electronic components which detect / intercept and subsequently transform the available solar radiation energy, making possible to use solar energy in the form of electric energy .

Systems in this typology can be divided in two categories, regardless of the usage and size of power of themselves :

- those isolated , “ stand alone “ as well or
- those connected to the electric grid or grid connected

Isolated “ stand alone “ systems, by virtue of the fact that they are not connected to the electric grid, must generally and necessarily have a storage system or storage of the energy that is produced . The energy storage is needed because the photovoltaic field is in position to supply electric energy only during the day, while often the higher request of users focuses on the afternoon or in the night . During the insolation is therefore necessary to have a produced energy storage and not to use it immediately, energy that is provided to the load when there is a reduction or absence of the available one.

sistemi grid connected PV

Configuring the plant through this method , means that the photovoltaic field is sized in order to allow the supply of the load and the charging of storage batteries ( rechargeable battery ) in the insolation hours .
In the systems connected to the grid, usually there are not storage systems because energy that is produced during the insolation hours is immediately placed in the electric grid ; on the contrary, during hours of lower insolation or without insolation, the load is powered by the grid .
If the continuity of service is considered, a system of this typology will be more reliable compared to a stand alone photovoltaic system, that after a failure, it can’t have the possibility to be powered in an alternative way . “ High reliability “ systems can be designed though an isolated system ( stand alone ) with diesel ( for example hybrid diesel – electric ) .

impieghi stand alone PV

The aim of a grid connected system is therefore to allow the feed-in in the highest quantity of energy .
In the physic point of view the structure of a photovoltaic system, either isolated or connected to the grid, can be different ; usually 3 important blocks can be highlighted :
- photovoltaic power station
- power conditioning system
- system for data acquisition
Attention is being paid to the fact that connected to the grid systems without storage, in these cases the grid serves as power reservoir with unlimited capacity . The load is represented by connected to the grid user instead, like for a grid connected system .


The main components of a grid connected photovoltaic plant are :

- Inverter for connecting to net
- Device for interfacing with electric grid
- Bi – directional meter for energy

The inverter is a fundamental component in the grid connected photovoltaic systems because it is able to maximise the production of electric current of the photovoltaic device, by optimising the transfer of electric energy between photovoltaic modules and load .

Inverter as a device can turn direct current which is produced by modules 12 V, 24 V, 48 V, and so on ) into alternating current ( usually 220 V ) in order to supply the load – user and / or feed the energy in the grid, with which it can work with an interchange system .

Grid connected inverters have usually got an electric type device which allow to extract full power from the photovoltaic system in every moment . The device tries to reach the maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) and it adapts features about the production of the photovoltaic power station to the need of the load .

sistemi grid connected schema PV

The inverter is also important because usually a photovoltaic system is able to give current and voltage values which vary on the basis of irradiation + temperature variables, on the contrary of the load, that usually needs constant values of voltage of supply .

Indeed, electric grid interface devices have the aim of ensuring that the form of the electric energy wave , which is fed into the grid, have got all the features that the local supplier of energy requires .

Finally, the energy meter will measure the energy that the photovoltaic system can produce during its operating period .


The main components of a stand alone or isolated photovoltaic plant are :

- photovoltaic modules
- load regulator
- inverters
- storage system or storage batteries

In this photovoltaic plant’s typology, electric energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules , is also stored in storage batteries . Through a load regulator, load is supplied by the stored energy in the batteries .

impianti fotovoltaici stand alone PV

The load regulator must preserve accumulators from the load in excess due to the photovoltaic system and it must protect accumulators from an excess of load due to the use . Both situations have harmful consequences for the correct functioning and for the durability of accumulators . Since usually the power that is required by the user, it is not always equal to the intensity of solar radiation ( and consequently this affects photovoltaic plant ’s electricity production ), a portion of electric energy that is produced by the photovoltaic field must be stored in order to be used when the user will need it . This is the aim of the storage system in these plants .

Therefore, a storage system is composed by a set of rechargeable accumulators, and it is sized so as to ensure a relevant autonomy of the electric load supply . Batteries with this aim are practically accumulators of stationary typology and only in particular cases using batteries as motor fuel is permitted . It is important that batteries for photovoltaic use must have the following features :

- Self discharge low value
- Long estimated duration
- that do not require maintenance
- that can work with a high number of charging and discharging cycle

In the case of stand alone or isolated system, the aim of the inverter is to transform direct current into alternating current . The direct current is produced by the photovoltaic field and alternating current is essential for the direct supply of users .
In this case, inverters must be sized in order to supply directly the load which will be connected to it .
Obviously, the inverter with this type of plant building ( i.e. isolated or stand alone plants ) doesn’t represent a component with a compulsory presence ; it is possible to supply directly the load in direct current and with low voltage .

efficienza e costo generazioni FV PV


There are description of the phases for sizing a photovoltaic plant and indication for designing a complete plant .


- Quantify presence of shadows ( vegetation, heights , buildings )
- Morning mists
- Fog
- Wind
- Snow

This information allow to determine the photovoltaic system ’s placement, optimising their exposure to the South, higher inclination on the horizontal plane, support structures and their features .


Energy = Power for the time of use

Isolated or grid connected utilisation consumption will be supplied through the photovoltaic plant and will be catalogued in terms of daily required energy .

Example :

- 2 15 W lamps must be supplied 5 hours per day
- 1 60 W CRT must be supplied 3 hours per day
Total energy that is daily needed = 2 x 15 W x 5 hours per day + 1 x 60 W x 3 hours per day = 330 Wh per day


To choose correctly the modules’ inclination, usually it must be equal to the latitude where modules are located, except for architectural needs .


Electric energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules is linearly proportional to the solar radiation which affects on the solar modules ’ surface ; the calculation can be made referring to the information about the site ’s solar irradiation .

A calculation method that is frequently used , is to detect EQUIVALENT HOURS of the site through appropriate tables and the hours are considered with the optimal photovoltaic modules’ inclination . “ EQUIVALENT HOUR “ is the period of time in which solar irradiation reaches an equivalent value of 1000 W / m2 . In a location of centre Italy, the average value related to 12 months of such indicator, the value can be 3, assuming a modules’ inclination of 45° .

For the calculation of the dimensioning of a photovoltaic plant, this method is used to identify the quantity of daily energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules . According to this method and knowing the “ monthly equivalent hour of the site “, it is possible to determine the peak power of our photovoltaic system with the following method :

Photovoltaic system’s peak power Kwp = daily need of Equivalent Hours energy


It is important to consider losses or voltage drops which are introduced by components that constitute the photovoltaic plant ( inverter, voltage regulator , batteries , cable connections and so on ).
Knowing that total losses of the photovoltaic plant are 30 %, it will be necessary to increase the Kwp ( peak power ) of the same percentage in the photovoltaic system .


The power of an inverter is calculated in a different way according to grid connected or isolated ( stand alone ) plants . In the case of a grid connected plant , the choice of inverter is based on the feature of the photovoltaic field : when the power of the photovoltaic system is fixed and therefore the number of photovoltaic modules as well, the typology of usable inverter is identifiable .
For an isolated plant, the maximum total power connected to the inverter will be calculated . For example , the case that was used before to calculate daily energy need :

Total power = 2 x 15 W + 1 x 60 W = 90 W

Substantially, an inverter of rated power higher than 90 W must be used .

Depending on the waveform that is produced, to choose the inverter for the isolated stand alone plants , different types of inverters can be used :

- pure sine wave inverters : they can reproduce a waveform that is practically the same as the grid one and they allow to supply any load typology

- trapezoidal wave and square wave inverters : they could not supply correctly, for example electronic type loads .


If low levels of sun occur, photovoltaic plant would have lower productions than those that are achievable in optimal days of sun, therefore when this occurs the storage can be sized in order to ensure a certain load supply, for a certain period of time ( maximum number of consecutive days), in which there is absence of sun .


The investment in photovoltaic plants implies a significant use of capital in the first phase and low expenses for parks maintenance .
Analysing all the economical and financial aspects related to a photovoltaic plant is quite complex, however there are some elements which must be considered :

- Every photovoltaic plant and installation needs to be analysed in its reference framework ( legislation, local condition . Solar irradiation level, available areas and so on ).
- It is fundamental to refer to the energy value that is produced and not to focus on the energy cost in order to operate correctly ; this because from a qualitative point of view, the energy that is produced through photovoltaic solar source is not the same compared to energy traditional sources, both for environmental impact and intermittent of produced energy and so on .
- Photovoltaic system’s life time is about 25 years now, even though some manufacturers give assurance for longer periods .
- Difficult links to the grid, for situation like mountain hut or isolated houses in low urbanized areas and so on .

There are cases where the initial investment is amortised ( see amortisation ) for the cost of user electrification that is higher than the cost for the installation the photovoltaic solar plant .
Usually for a photovoltaic plant there is a cost per kWh that is a higher product than the cost per kWh if is bought from the network ; as a result it is better to install a photovoltaic plant in line with present incentive forms ( Feed-in tariff ). A cost per kWh that is produced by a photovoltaic plant it can be compared to the kWh that is bought in network, if through financial types of contribution in high percentage .

fotovoltaico vari strati cella fotovoltaica PV


In 2001 it was created a national project called “ Tetti Fotovoltaici “ in Italy; it was characterized by various critical points that are inherent in the photovoltaic solar field development and they are :

- Advertising campaigns and information were not clear and sometimes they were wrong by responsible bodies
- Number of limited funding ( about 30 / 40 fundable projects ) if they are compared to the total demand that were received in each region
- Need to advance money by customers to buy the photovoltaic plant
- Presence of a maximum limit for the cost for the plant ; this has favoured the spread of low quality plants
- Absence of indications for the quality of modules that are used in terms of performance, efficiency and so on
- Absence of refunds of kWh that were produced by photovoltaic plant, only an adjustment between electric energy production and consumption
- Uncertainty for the effective final typal approval of photovoltaic plant .

On the contrary an elementary but effective project for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar field in Germany is given, and it was created in 2000 in which :

- there were not non – refundable contribution
- there were subsidised rate funding lasting 10 years
- there were facilities connected with the electric energy that was produced by the photovoltaic plant .
Such programme allowed to create photovoltaic plants as investment, to realise high efficiency and quality plants, to obtain the highest production possible and users were stimulated to do effective maintenance actions on time .


Environmental impact in the solar renewable is low or it doesn’t exist, because of the absence of the release of polluting substances in the environment ( air, water, see pollution ). There is a reduction in gas that are responsible of the feared greenhouse and of the phenomenon of acid rain .
The photovoltaic conversion from solar energy into electric energy represents the renewable type source which is more environmentally friendly .

Photovoltaic solar plants don’t emit polluting materials, vibration and since they are modular, they go along with the site’s geomorphology where they are installed ; finally they can produce energy near electric loads, so succeeding to prevent transmission losses .
By the way, the environmental impact is not zero : some problems remain and there are limited typology of environmental impact that affect the approval or acceptance of plants and they are the following :

- productive process of components and the pollution that comes from it
- usage and saturation of areas in territories which don’t allow other uses
- sometimes a significant visual impact ( visual pollution )
- impact on fauna and flora, i.e. on the local climate .

As regard to the pollution in the components production phase . The choice of raw materials can reduce the phenomenon, for the rest emission that come from productive process are the function of more or less advanced technology that is used during the production phase . The most used photovoltaic plants and photovoltaic systems are based on silicon ( a chemical element that is widespread on the earth’s crust ) both in the crystal form, poly – crystal and amorphous form .
The production process doesn’t provoke an excessive use of harmful or polluting substances and in is important to say that in the photovoltaic market, a part of the silicon comes from the reuse of waste in the electronic industry .

fotovoltaico solare PV

It must be highlighted that some typology of solar cell may involve potential risks in case of fire, because toxic gasses can form after a combustion ; obviously when photovoltaic panels can be no more used , they are properly disposed ( photovoltaic waste ) through adequate system of photovoltaic panels recycling . Photovoltaic parks installation and therefore the need of space and territory depends on how the photovoltaic is used : decentralised or centralised mode in big plants .

In the first case and in the decentralised mode, the used part of territory is reduced because the photovoltaic plant is installed in surfaces that were already removed from the natural environment, for example roofs, building ’s facades or balconies of existing buildings, car parks and their structure, service areas near cliffs, dangerous places and sides of the road etc. The expansion potential for the decentralised photovoltaic and photovoltaic systems is large, and the degree of penetration and development is connected with a substantial costs reduction .

Analysing the second case, i.e. centralised photovoltaic production plants ( mega watt ) , where the energy need is, the efficiency of modules conversion and site’s insolation are optimised and they need significant territory extensions in order to provide overall an appreciable contribute .
Reasons of aesthetic type led to a failure of some projects and photovoltaic systems, where a strong visual impact depends on the size of the park that affected heavily the territory ; this impact is very reduced in the decentralised use, for example roofs and facades .

Big or medium sized photovoltaic plants will have a larger visual impact that amplifies in the case of beautiful countryside .
Another problem that is possible to find concerns the reflecting surfaces and the disturbance that is connected with enormous surfaces near residential areas, roads etc., and with the actions that are necessary in order to mitigate the effects modifying the slope or building appropriate protective shields through arboreal elements or shrubs, without incurring to create shadow zones in the photovoltaic field ( see ENEA research ) .

FV a concentrazione 1500 X PV

In the decentralised use of photovoltaic solar systems the impact on flora and fauna related to the limited subtracted ground is negligible since the absence of noise and vibration .
When photovoltaic panels subtract solar radiation to the environment, aspect that could involve light modification on the local microclimate, is appropriate to bear in mind that only about 10 % of energy of the sun that affects for time unit on the surfaces of the photovoltaic field, will be converted and transported to another place as electric energy while the remaining part will be reflected or will go through modules .

In the multitude of territorial institutional and social contexts, and in the past experiences turns out that a soft technology for the environment to, as well as solar photovoltaic energy, is not exempt from environmental impact that can create difficulties in the population’s acceptance of green projects and they are useful from the energetic point of view .

The size of a solar plant and the impact that is determined in the solar photovoltaic are infinitely lower than the older energy technologies ( energy from coal, nuclear energy etc. ), however they are enough to create position and opposition that are difficult to pass, therefore, the identification of the right site, the design of the plant and the realisation of the authorisation procedure will give better results if appropriate evaluation and consideration on the environmental impact will be made, in advance with accuracy and involving social parts .



PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS : it is based on some elements such as economic benefit, possible urban restrictions, presence or absence of incentives, costs for the request for a point of connection to the institution which deals with the grid .

FINAL PLANNING : it includes authorisation, final planning as built, technical documentation must be finished and sent for the request to put the photovoltaic plant in the grid .


A correct data collection is needed in order to start a feasibility study : there must be drawings and photos in which there is the orientation of the site where the park will be built, data related to electric energy consumption and supply ( if there it is ), information about the structure where the photovoltaic plant will be installed ( permissible load for the coverage ).


The space necessary for realise a photovoltaic plant depend on the site where the photovoltaic must be installed, on the technology and therefore the efficiency of the chosen photovoltaic modules .
Sometime high efficiency and value photovoltaic modules must be used because of the high consumption and the small available space ( see CIGS modules )



Speaking of energy, the grid parity represents the point when the electric energy that is produced through the plant ( that are supplied by renewable energy sources ), is characterized by having the same price as the energy that is produced through other sources of traditional or conventional energy, such as methods that use fossil sources or different sources, for example the nuclear energy .

In the Italian energy market, especially in the last years and in the photovoltaic area, it was recorded a phenomenon of the spread of investment in this area thanks to these incentives . When the incentive system through energy accounts ( on the base of the incentives for the electric production through the solar source in July 2013 ), the Grid Parity has became more popular, in terms of “ parity “ between cost of electric energy that is produced by a photovoltaic plant and cost for buying the energy from the grid .
Following the enactment of the Strategia Energetica Nazionale SEN 2017 by MISE ( Ministry of Economic Development in Italy ), there are important aims as regards to the photovoltaic production in the area of electric energy production mix : 72 Twh until 2030, compared to 24,8 Twh that were produced in 2017 . The concept of market parity as grid parity’s evolution is taking off .


A study made by Department of electrical engineering in the University of Padova, highlights how in Italy the grid parity was achieved in 2013 : therefore the price per kilowatt – hour for cars ( the consumption obtained by photovoltaic panels is the same as the price of the energy that is possible to buy from the electric grid ).
According to an other study made by a Spin off in the University of Roma Tor Vergata, some definition related to the photovoltaic grid parity have increase and this concept is developing :
- Observability : intended as competitiveness as cost of generation of renewable Kwh
- Reachability : intended as competitiveness related to the profitability of the investment .

schema elettrico impianto fotovoltaico connesso in rete PV

According to the terminology in use, a photovoltaic plant in the grid parity means production of electric energy through solar sources and such production is obtained without incentives, i.e. through an economic return that is equivalent to the sum of :

- a proportion of the electric energy that is switched with the grid and whose has got an economic value of Dedicated Withdrawal or Net metering
- no cost of acquisition for the electric energy as regard to the self – consumed quota ( statistical ratio Solar Photovoltaic GSE )

Trade arrangements managed by GSE, can include a modes of operation of the total or partial self-consumption plant, on the basis of the plant’s power class in Kwp and of the producer costumer ’s energy -intensive profile ( new definition of energy – intensive companies of Anima ) that has got responsibility for the photovoltaic plant .
A cost of generation of photovoltaic kWh ( Levelised Energy Cost ) is mapped to the photovoltaic plant in the grid parity, as well as a IRR ( Internal Rate of Return ) of the investment that is involved in the plant’s installation ; It must be compared to the benchmark values of IRR, with the aim to understand if it is appropriate the investment ’s risk and the obtaining of the accessibility condition and therefore the obtaining of the Grid Parity .

Producing electric energy through solar photovoltaic sources without incentives and without self-consumption leads to the concept of market parity or parity generation . Chile is an example, but there are other examples in the world where the photovoltaic wins without incentives on the conventional plants of coal energy or energy from other sources according to the data related to the electric market . The discriminatory is the high cost of electric energy together with the strong solar irradiation . The market parity is made when electric energy is produced through solar photovoltaic sources but without any incentive .

The market parity is obtained thanks to multi megawatt photovoltaic plants that are connected to the distribution grid in medium – voltage, or utility scale photovoltaic plants that are connected to the transmission grid in high – voltage .

To obtain the economic value in the market parity, the value of the official electric energy must be sought in the power exchange GME . Market parity represents the Trade Off between :
- generation cost per photovoltaic kWh LCOE and
- price in the electric market of electric energy

processo fabbricazione impianti FV in poli Si PV

The electric energy is produced and then is fed into the grid and is commercially levied through the “ indirect withdrawal “ from the GSE, and it has got a value for the zonal time price .
In an alternative way, this electric energy can be sold directly in the market of electric energy of the power exchange GME or it can be bought through a trader through two – year contracts for a fixed price ( 48 € / Mwh in 2017 ).
A group of researchers in the Polytechnic of Milan, thanks to a study about this concept, they highlight how the expression grid parity is usually intended as parity between electric energy production cost made by a photovoltaic plant and the cost for the buying of the energy from the grid .

However, usually “ grid parity “ is when it is convenient to invest in a photovoltaic plant, both from a economic point of view and good profitability of the investment, where there aren’t incentives . Speaking of photovoltaic in Italy, the grid parity represents a reachable purpose, with substantial difference and therefore a higher or lower convenience of the investment, depending on the typology of plant, locality and usage of the energy that is produced. There are studies that summarises the differences between the grid parity model and market parity .


Authorisation for photovoltaic plants

Depending on cases, the authorisation to build photovoltaic plants in Italy starts with a simply communication of a prior installation to the municipality, however sometimes the process can become more elaborate and bureaucratic : it depends on single regional rules that have to regulate permission according to certain criteria, which must necessarily adhere to the national guidance .
Furthermore, the area in which the plant will be installed and the size of the photovoltaic plant affect this process as well .

For each photovoltaic plant type there is a specific authorisation, both for a photovoltaic plant that is installed on a roof a building and for the one that is installed on the ground and so on .
First of all it is necessary to contact the technical office of the municipality of the territory in which the plant will be installed, however the Province ( Provinces list ) has got competence and responsibility for the big plants or for photovoltaic plant that are next to protected areas, in some case the responsibilities belong to the Region ( Regions list ) or to the Superintendence ( superintendence list and Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities ).


Except for the big photovoltaic plant on the ground or next to protected areas ( official list of protected natural areas ), where the process can become complex, usually the prior communication to the Municipality is enough in order to start working on plants such as domestic plants or small industrial plants . Since November 2015 an additional simplification of the bureaucracy has been in force : it is a simplified procedure to build a connection and start working on small photovoltaic plants on the buildings’ roof . This procedure allows to use a Modulo Unico ( a type of model ) in order to comply with obligations under the relevant laws : municipal authorisation , request application to Enel / Terna in order to connect with the grid, dispatch of practice for Net Metering to GSE . Link to the decree of simplification of authorisation for residential photovoltaic plants


Simple authorisation title, it is the legislation for plants assimilated to activities of free building ( denuncia di inizio attività in edilizia ) . It is sent with telematics in some municipality and it is a prior communication to the municipality of a determinate territory, there is a tacit consent , and it is actually a communication of start of work . Contact point to refer to : Technical Office of the related Municipality .

When it is applied :

It is a request that is applied to plants which cannot benefit from the unique procedura autorizzativa semplificata ( a procedure ) under the power of 20 KW ; the communication to the municipality is suitable for small plants on the roof where the simplified procedure is not applied . The prior communication is enough for photovoltaic plants that are on the roof or are integrated in the roof with same inclination and equal to the to brim’s orientation where they will be installed ; a modification of the building ’s template that houses photovoltaic panels mustn’t be verified . Criteria are considered valid only if plants are not installed in areas subjected to protection or constraints of the legal code of cultural heritage and landscape . Otherwise other procedures are compulsory and the competence could move from municipality, province, region to the superintendence in order to grant authorisation .
The prior communication to the municipality is also a suitable authorisation for photovoltaic plants and from renewable sources that are compatible with the “ Net Metering” . Following there are some guideline :

Plants must not :

- provoke an alteration of the size of a building
- provoke an alteration of the surface of a buildings
- alter the intended use of a building
- modify the number of building units inside the building
- involve an increase of the number of urban parameters ( building codes )
- affect the structural parts of a building
- be on buildings that are in historic centres ( A area General Urban Development )
The prior communication to a determinate municipality as single authorisation typology, requires that the holder of the plant that will be built, has got the full legal participation ( Property ) on areas or on goods subjected to works that will be carried out in order to build the plant .

Building Integrated Photovoltaics


When photovoltaic plants that will be installed are between 20 kW and 50 MW or in the case in which the proposer has not the full ownership on the areas or on the buildings, it will be necessary the Autorizzazione Unica AU ( A type of an authorisation ) and the competence will move from municipality, province or region .


The contact point for the granting of the authorisation is only the system operator ( Enel / Terna ) . Enel Distribution becomes the single mediator for the applicant for the handling of the case .
The Procedura Autorizzativa Semplificata was created in november 2015 in order to speed up the authorisation process for the installation of small photovoltaic plant on the roof . The authorisation process as bureaucracy involves exclusively the compilation and the next dispatch ( in 2 phases ) of a Modello Unico .
This “ Modello Unico” is accessible through telematics from the producer of the system operator on internet, in this case Enel Distribution . Through the gateway a first part of the model can be made out before the start of works and then a second section when works are finished .
Through this procedure, in 2 phases, the municipality is warned of the “ start of work “ and the request of installation of photovoltaic plant is sent to Enel, and a copy of the instance of request in order to access the net metering will be sent to GSE . The Modello Unico works as authorisation function for some photovoltaic plants . The Modello Unico has the big lead : the applicant can interface only with Enel in order to handle administrative and bureaucratic aspects and it permits the applicant to proceed to the presentation with different timing, 2 modules complying the authorisation request in order to create and install the photovoltaic plant .
The first phase of the model, before the start of works, includes the communication of “ start of works “ to the municipality, cadastral data of the plant ( visura cadastral ) and biographical data of the applicant . The second phase of the model, when works are finished, includes the communication of “end of works”, technical data of the plant, declaration of conformity and instance of start Net Metering .

It is possible to adhere to the simplified procedure and it concerns about new small domestic plants and small industrial plants . These are the requirements for the accession to the simplified process for those who want to install a photovoltaic plant :

- connection to a point of withdrawal in existing low voltage, where other plants of electric production are not connected
- lower or equal power to the power in the withdrawal point
- plant until 20 KW of power
- plant made on the roof
- connection to the grid through “ Net Metering “ method with GSE

Substantially the typology of plants which can be installed : new plants on the roof of houses, small companies, laboratories, sheds and condos .



Renewable energy
PV, Solar Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic Geographical Information System ( PVGIS )
Grid parity
TICA ( testo integrato connessioni attive )
Valutazione Impatto Ambientale V.I.A.
Autorizzazioni Fotovoltaico ( AU autorizzazione unica, PAS procedura abilitativa semplificata )
Developer of photovoltaic parks
Green Field Investment
Attualizzazione ( Discount )
Buyer, Investor
Unit of measurement : Power ( Watt, Megawatt MW, Watt peak, Megawatt Peak MWp ), Surface ( Hectare )
Technical terms related to land : CDU ( Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ), Visura Cadastral for lands , Particelle Lotti, Agricultural soil Land typology
Google Earth ( Localizzazione terreni )
Electric Substation
Enel , Terna ( Handler of electricity grid )
GSE ( Handler of energetic services )
Professional association : Agronomists, Surveyors, Engineers, Architects, Experts , Professional office
NDA Accordo di Non Divulgazione ( Non Disclosure Agreement )

contact IBS by mail

Translated by : Matteo Aristei



PV photovoltaic development in Grid Parity


Our company, in collaboration with structural design companies, is developing photovoltaic power plants in Grid Parity in Green Field in Italy through new Single Authorizations .
As to GREENFIELD, we talk about new authorizations in the Photovoltaic sector in which the investor is a part of the development process from the beginning, and intervenes during the authorization process supporting the costs through agreed payment steps according to predefined milestones . The process starts with confirmation of specific sites of interest ( agricultural, industrial, ex – quarries ), continues with the presentation of the request for connection to the national electricity grid addressed to the competent authorities, until obtaining the Single Authorization . In some cases with sites where the authorization process has already been activated by our companies, the BROWNFIELD mode is also possible .


In the field of photovoltaic development we will deal with:

- PRELIMINARY CHECKS : analysis of site conformation and slopes, radiation intensity, shaded areas, constraint analysis and planning restrictions, possibility of connection to the electricity grid in the cabin and connection costs, layout drawing, preliminary signature of option with the owner of the land, and of all the activities of preparation of the dossier relating to the site of interest .

- DESIGN, ENGINEERING AND AUTHORIZATION PROCEDURE : all the steps from the start of the connection request process to the network, up to the scheduled time based on national and regional procedures, to the authorization, in collaboration with our engineering partner companies of an important track record of photovoltaic power plants already successfully authorized .

- EPC : IBS can provide the investor with an excellent EPC service with advanced technology and competitive prices for the construction of the Photovoltaic Plant to deliver the Turnkey Photovoltaic park .

STRENGTH : IBS has a scouting team in all the Italian regions for finding suitable sites, and in JV with structured engineering and design companies, it develops the entire authorization process from the connection request to Enel or Terna until the release of the buildable ” Single Authorization ” concession .


– Italian and International Investors
- Investment funds, SGR
- General Advisor
- EPC ( Engineering, Procurement and Construction ) in a Joint Venture with Investment Fund
- JV Developers with Capital Funds


REGIONS : it is possible to build plants in almost all the Italian regions .
Initially the Investors were more interested in the South, Central Italy and Islands ( especially Sicily, Puglia, Basilicata, Lazio ), but we are witnessing a growing interest in Sardinia, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Calabria, Umbria and the regions of central and northern Italy ( Tuscany, Emilia Romagna, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Piedmont ) due to system logics and future opportunities related to the network and industrial sectors .
The economic parameters are carefully analysed to guarantee for rents or land purchase, in combination with the radiation in that area, an adequate economic return compatible with the economic model of the individual investor . It is important to verify that the sites are not affected by constraints and in the case of particular restrictions, industrial or former quarries are preferred, instead of agricultural land .

DIMENSIONS AND SIZES OF PLANTS : normally we are required to install sites starting from 5 – 10 MW to go up, even if occasionally some investors show interest in 2.5 – 3 MW peak plants or in isolated cases of plants below 1 MW to be connected in medium voltage through PAS ( Simplified Authorisation Procedure ).

EXTENSION IN LAND HECTARES : is an aspect strongly linked to the type of technology to be used ( single axial tracker or fixed system tracker ) and to the type of panels . Normally 1.6 – 2 Hectares are required for each installed Megawatt of power up to 1 Hectare for each MW in the case of particular fixed technologies designed to optimize the installed power .

ASSIGNMENT OF SURFACE RIGHTS OR BUY THE LANDS : Land owners are interested in both methods of proceeding . In the case of a contract for the sale of surface rights, the duration is usually 30 years .

ADVANCES OR CAPERS FOR DDS OR PURCHASE OF LANDS : The topic related to the advance or down payment is relevant for easier negotiation with the land owner . The investor is usually willing to recognize a deposit for TICA or STMG for the site, when Terna or Enel confirm the power that can be connected to the electricity grid through the electrical substation identified as the connection point and the related costs . However, occasionally some investors consider it appropriate to make a payment of an advance or down payment at the signing of the preliminary option contract for DDS ( sale of surface rights ) or purchase of the land .

EURO A MW AMOUNT FOR DEVELOPMENT : The amount in Euro or Fee to be paid for each MW of installed power for the development of the Single Authorization . It is to be paid to the Development Engineering and Design Company, of which IBS is a partner . It is an important parameter to confirm the interest in proceeding with the signing of the Development Contract with the Investor, and will be the subject of negotiation between the parties . This aspect is closely linked to what follows, namely the payment Milestones ( risk capital and success fee ) linked to the Development itself .

STRUCTURE OF PAYMENT MILESTONES : that is, when development payments are made, and % for each phase . IBS can send a draft milestones structure combined with the MW Development Fee . Although this aspect is highly customized and the result of negotiations between Developers and Investors, the milestone structure traditionally provides for 4 to 6 payment Milestones .


- MILESTONE 1 Approval of the project : presentation of the Dossier and preliminary contract signed with the owners of the land
- MILESTONE 2 Preliminary phase : acceptance of TICA
- MILESTONE 3 Pre – authorization phase : Environmental impact assessment , Single Authorization ( VINCA, VIA and AU )
- MILESTONE 4 Construction project
- MILESTONE 5 to 120 days from obtaining the Single Authorization


The following direct development costs are normally excluded from the MW fees and Development Fee :

- Any charges for setting up and managing the SPV
- Expenses for requesting the TICA ( request for connection to the electricity grid )
- Eventual Extraordinary specialist reports during the authorization process ( geognostic, geological, hydraulic, acoustic, archaeological )
- Charges envisaged by the Network Operator for connection solutions and advances on grid connection costs
- Possible advances to land owners and charges for registering contracts for the granting of land rights, notary reports, brokerage fees to Real Estate Agencies
- Examination costs at the appropriate public bodies concerned
- Costs for issuing guarantees in favour of public bodies and / or network operators .

DRAFT OF THE DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT : a draft of the development contract is very important to be sent so that the Engineering Company that will sign the development agreement with the investor can view it .

DRAFT OF THE PRELIMINARY OPTION TO BE SIGNED WITH THE PROPERTY OF THE LAND : although it is a purely contractual aspect, our experience suggests that we analyze the document to realize if this latter will substantially facilitate or complicate the negotiation with the ownership of the site, and the signature of the same, also to provide some suggestions aimed at speeding up the practices and at the same time preserving the bankability of the agreement for the due protection for the investor . Therefore a draft of the preliminary option would be desirable to be analyzed by us simultaneously with the negotiation of the Development Milestones and Fees .

EPC : EPC and BOS ( Balance of System ) activity is optional and at the discretion of the investor, so in case of interest it will be our care to provide the necessary advice .

( for owners and reporters )

SOIL CONFORMATION : if it is flat, inclination and conformation of the site
- GOOGLE EARTH and the perimeter of the land together with the coordinates . This will allow us to determine, through simulations, the radiation and expected profitability of the plant .

CATASTAL DOCUMENTS : Land register and parcel lots, CDU ( urban destination certificate )

SUBSTATION OR CONNECTION CAB : distance of the land from the Terna or Enel substation, presence of medium or high voltage, actual line capacity, if possible connect to the substation, connection costs to the existing substation stall . Possible creation of a new user substation in the case of PV Photovoltaic Power Stations of 30 MW – 40 MW up and actions to intercept the high voltage line of proximity .

PRELIMINARY WITH THE PROPERTY OF THE LAND : sometimes the preliminary contracts already signed with the properties of the land are turned over to the investor who confirms the interest in a site . However, it is normally preferable to use the investor ‘s draft agreement and sign the agreement for the purchase or sale of the surface right directly between the Owner and the Investor, immediately using the investor’s format .

SURVEY AND BUROCRATIC ITER : IBS and the Partner Engineering Companies, will follow the operational steps and the bureaucratic process through highly qualified personnel and technicians with experience gained over decades of professional activity . The Team is able to operate throughout the development of the AU : inspections, surveys, geological examinations, and all the specialized reports, Engineering and planning, presentation of TICA requests, requests, meetings of any kind at any level with the foreseen Authorities, until obtaining the AU ( Single Authorization ) turnkey, for the construction of the Photovoltaic Plant .

TIMING : Depending on the Regions, times and methods may differ, however the times for the bureaucratic process take effect after the positive outcome :
- Of the preliminary analysis information and documents relating to the land and after the signing of the preliminary contract with the property .
- Verification of documents sent to the Service conference in the Region in close collaboration with our designers .

AGREEMENTS : we will sign agreements and NDA ( Non Disclosure Agreement ) for data processing and the exchange of confidential information .

SITE PAGE FOR THE SCOUTING TEAM : web site page addressed to the Scouting Team

( for owners and signalers ):

GUIDELINES : Information Guide by means of a PDF file which aims to illustrate the various aspects related to Photovoltaics, and to the New Photovoltaic Plants to be installed on Terrain and the parameters to select suitable sites .

INFORMATIVE VIDEO : video in Youtube to explain the process linked to the presentation of the sites and their characteristics, to select and present suitable sites, together with the various steps of the process .

GUIDE ON HOW TO TRACK THE KMZ PERIMETER IN GOOGLE EARTH : a guided illustrative page on how to trace the KMZ file in Google Earth, which is indispensable for performing preliminary checks on the site, both conformation and network connection costs .

VIDEO ON HOW TO TRACK KMZ : 2 minutes video in Youtube that explains with a concrete example how it is possible to easily trace the perimeter and save on disk the file with extension .kmz to send to analyze the site .

GREENFIELD SITE WEBSITE TO COLLECT INFO : Excel file to enter the data relating to the site, general information, the coordinates of Google Earth and KMZ with highlighted the perimeter of the land, if of interest the transfer of the right of surface or sale, if mortgages are present on the ground, the presence of medium voltage cabins adjacent to the site, another important to report .

FAQ : all the questions and answers, and suggestions to save time and make communications more effective and efficient for owners and Scouting Teams who intend to send sites .

COST LINE SIMULATION AND CONNECTION TO THE NETWORK : Excel file to simulate the costs of connection to the power line for low and medium voltage . It is sufficient to enter the values in the yellow boxes ( where values are currently shown as an example ) and the connection cost is automatically calculated . For high voltage, CONTACT US .

STATE OF ADVANCE AU ( Single Authorization ) : in this section, our collaborators can monitor the progress of the AU ( Single Authorization ) for the sites presented .


EN Grid Parity Stakeholders


Contact us via e-mail showing your references

send to orange



agribusiness filiere e agrifood


ABOUT US: IBS in partnership with Rubival International Srl, specialized in the agribusiness sector, in launching, implementation and coordination of food chains projects, intends to present some examples of food chain: dairy chain, tomato chain, poultry sector, processing plants, machinery, agricultural projects, selling of livestock, greenhouses, and systems for protected crops.

TARGETS: In the context of Agribusiness projects and chain, IBS and Rubival collaborate with the main companies specialized in the Agribusiness, and they have the suitable technical specialized competencies for the complete coordination of projects in the agri-food sector. IBS and Rubival can count on an internal operational unit and a qualified work team that includes agronomists, marketing experts, business planning, project management and also competencies for a 360-degrees management of projects including commercial and contractual contexts.

FOREIGN PROJECTS AND INTERNATIONALIZATION: In the context of foreign projects of internationalization or for foreign commissions where is requested to create from scratch an agri-food chain, or to respond with specific solutions to specific problems in the agribusiness sector, the work team is able to ensure the proper management of processes also abroad, through analysis and accurate strategies.

STAKEHOLDERS: The following information summarizes the competencies within IBS and Rubival through a list of some companies that have participated in practice in foreign projects. The projects have seen the intervention of authorities and subjects that have guaranteed the function of the export-credit insurance. Between the stakeholders also national and supranational authorities that have participated in the planning stage, arranging through suitable competent offices some geo-climatic and geological information of the interested lands and regions to the interventions.

PROJECT REFERENCES: This document, describes an example of chain and assortment of companies selected for the project dimensions and for the intervention typology. In other projects, the companies that will be involved could be the same or other companies, according to the project to realize. Specialized companies and with ten-year experience internationally have numerous references every time willing to accompany of a planning proposal.




agribusiness filiera del latte


SPECIAL FERTILIZERS: Society leader in the Agribusiness sector that produces special fertilizers starting with raw materials of a very high quality able to optimize and obtain greater performances and organic efficiency of nutrient components. It is able to develop a complex and detailed nutritional strategy for each cultivation, linked to the soil type, to the growth environment and to expected results, the whole thing thanks to vertical competencies and to know-how purchases directly in the field globally on the most important agricultural areas of the world, from the Mediterranean basin to the Centre and South America, to the principal Arabic countries.

HIGH TECHNOLOGY FOR THE AGRICULTURE: Society founded and working in the agribusiness field since 1950, a leader in the production of machinery and systems for water and sewage distribution through the use of VRT satellite technologies. The company has gained a prime position in the production and selling of high technology plants and agricultural machinery for the agriculture and for breeding.


RUMIN-ART, SOLE, TERRA, ACQUA: Company equipped with specialization in feeding-stuffs, for all the requirements, from the cultivation to agricultural businesses (from sowing to cultivation, to conservation and harvest, rumen construction, supply, monitoring). The company develops studied products for any animal species: both milk powder, and food, supplements, and products specifically optimized for animals health as well as the environmental protection.


BARN EQUIPMENT: Company at the forefront in the zootechnics and agribusiness world for almost 50 years, with high innovative technologies in creating modern and functional breeding farms, focusing in particular on the general well-being of the animal.
It designs barns, plants and zootechnical centers both for cows and female buffalos and more. It has a wide range of equipment focused on the breeding of productive livestock: porks, sheep, goats, poultry and rabbits. It produces prefabricated steel structures, which apply in the zootechnics sector, but also in the agricultural and industrial sector in general.

MIXER-WAGONS, TELESCOPIC HANDLERS: Company who can plan, produce and sell worldwide mixer-wagons designed for the cattle industry, for the zootechnics sector and also produces telescopic handlers widely used in the agricultural sector, in the industrial and construction sectors. The company, founded in 1973, manages to preserve the tradition of a solid family guide, combined with dynamism and with an efficient organization as well as modernity of a big international group, today present in each continent with its own branch and distributors network and dedicated retailers. Well-know brand in the context of agribusiness and a name which is synonymous with reliability. It is also well-known for its continuous technological development and for a qualified assistance, as well as for an efficient service of after-sales support offered to their customers (Service and Spares).


COMPLETE MANAGING OF THE MILKING: Agribusiness company leader in the Italian market designs equipment and milking plants as well as innovative solutions for a global approach to breeding, using the most advanced technology currently available, in order to optimize the management of the modern agricultural dairy business. Modern and sophisticated technologies are successfully applied to dairy cows, female buffalos, goats, and sheep. A wide range of products for every breeding requirement: from milk extraction to milk refrigeration, robots to automate processes, pasteurization, and calfs automatic feeding, so a for a global 360 degrees management of processes, in conditions of hygiene and healthiness.


QUALITY AND SAFE HANDLING OF FOOD: World leader company in the agribusiness sector specialized in the provision of establishments and process machinery for the agri-food sector, equipment for the treatment of dairy products, a wide range of milk pasteurization units, UHT lines ( Ultra High Temperature), self-cleaning centrifuges and in line milk and cream standardized, completed with a new generation of membrane filtration systems. The level of engineering is very high, there is a constant research of solutions and quality performances, innovative process technologies to get a wide range of liquid food, such as products with solid content or high-viscosity products. Modern control and industrial automation systems to ensure the highest reliability and efficiency, from the littlest and simplest in their architecture plants to the most complex production lines for the management of complex processes and productive systems. Rationalize of energy, water, and natural resources consumptions, leading at the same time to a maximization of the production efficiency.

ASEPTIC PACKAGING OF LIQUID PRODUCTS: for over 30 years the company has worked in the Agribusiness sector and now offers high innovative global solutions to packaging in a completely aseptic way liquid products in a wide range of poly-laminate cardboard containers (applicator, secondary packaging, Ultra-High-Temperature UHT sterilization system/pasteurization, packaging). The company equipped with ISO 9001 certification by the DNV, present in the list of milk packaging material suppliers which have been approved by FDA. The managing system of food safety certified through the scheme FSSC 22000, such that enables it to produce packaging material certified FSC™ and PEFC™.


NITROGEN REDUCTION AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION: Company leader in the context of the biogas sector and systems created and optimized for manure and organic compound processing with nitrogen reduction. Great references due to the fact that it can boast more than 250 bio-energetic project worldwide.


SLAUGHTERHOUSES, WITH DEBONING AND MANIPULATION OF THE MEATS, PLANTS FOR CATTLE, PIGS AND SHEEP: Company with significant expertise in the planning and realization of complete lines for the slaughtering, working and deboning of cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. In the context of the Agribusiness, the company offers advanced technological and user-friendly solutions completely in accordance with European and USDA health regulations into force. Complete lines and equipment concerning stables, halls for cattle, pigs, sheep and goats slaughter, halls for the working and deboning of pigs, machines for processing by-products.


FOOD INDUSTRY REFRIGERATION: Experience, undisputed quality, reliability and complete safety in the design and in the realization of refrigeration facilities for agri-food industry that the company exports worldwide. Use of “cold” for refrigeration and food conservation, cheese and cold cuts drying and ripening, cooling of cereals contained in silos and refrigerated transport, production of big systems for industrial refrigeration in the Agribusiness.


agribusiness filiera pomodoro


Global group turned to Agribusiness, which is able to integrate competencies, scientific resources, technical and commercial support, in order to guarantee to people who work in agriculture a complete and unique offer of seeds, crop protection, a coherent whole of integrated solutions which are able to maximize the profitability of the entire farm and to satisfy the most demanding requests of the agri-food chain, focusing their attention on innovation, high quality and sustainability, to produce more and better.

SEEDS: obtaining excellent results from crops in term of quality and productivity, relating to the environment, climate and soil condition and to technical nature means used in the context of cultivation, also thanks to advanced and excellent quality seeds, turned to sectors of small-grain cereals, corn, industrial and horticultural crops.

CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS: to protect crops through a wide and organized range of crop protection products for the majority of plant health problems: from weed management to harmful insect control, to fungal diseases, for a broad-spectrum protection of crops in line with a modern sustainable agriculture.

CROPS, HORTICULTURE, AND VALUE: high contents in terms of innovation and high-value, products valid for crop protection both chemical and biological, a wide range of integrated productive solutions, which comply with the diversified needs of the entire chain.


The project of chain for the industrial tomato production has as purpose incrementing qualitative and quantitative yield in view of a lower and more efficient use of resources as soil, water, crop protection products and nutrients. Agreements relating to genetics, innovative crop protection products combined with a crop protection and crop enhancement protocol, to get a “quality chain” of industrial tomato. The protocol offers to farmers:

•INNOVATIVE GENETICS: for a high productive and transformation yield for tomato puree, finely chopped tomatoes, peeled tomatoes and diced tomatoes and to increase the resistance of different types of cereals to stress and pathogens, in different growing conditions.

•CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS: that are able to protect plants and to improve their physiological efficiency, carrying out a positive on productive and qualitative yield, optimizing the water efficiency or the sugar content or other functional components, with a significant reduction of the apical rot (physiological imbalance that can reduce substantially yields and quality of processed products).

A high-quality level of the product at the beginning of the transformation process is essential to get high-quality products: the quality is created in the field and is kept throughout the chain, through to the end-user.


The first tomato chain in Italy composed of companies that cover the entire chain: the study of soils, fertigation, transformation, plant nursery activities, commercialization, production of industrial and harvesting machines.

MEDIATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION: A company operating in the mediation of agri-food products in the formats both for industry, catering, and retail, distributed worldwide, with a network of foreign collaborators, transformation industries, distribution chains and importers.

PRODUCTS FOR THE AGRICULTURE: A company in the agribusiness that has provided products for the agriculture and zootechnics sectors for 25 years. Seeds: targeted selection (cereals, fodder plants, and vegetables) for the needs of the cultivation geographical area.
Fertilizers: specific products for the indicated crop, “sophisticated” solutions to “controlled transfer” to guarantee balanced growth and high-quality productions.

Crop protection products: low environmental impact crop protecting products to safeguard health.
Solutions for zootechnics: genetics, food and nutrition, environment and animal sanitization.
Specialized technical support: technical/commercial staff for the best solution according to productive targets, after-sale assistance for the best investment yield.

RAW MATERIALS AND SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS FOR FOOD: A company which has been operating for 35 years in the agribusiness sector, in particular in raw materials, semi-finished, canned fruit and vegetables, finished goods. Industrial food packaging, second-hand machinery for the food industry.

PACKAGING MACHINERY: A leader company in the construction of labeling and cartooning machines and special lines for cylindrical and metal cans for over 70 years.

MACHINES FOR FILTRATION, IRRIGATION, AND MONITORING: A company that designs and supplies filtration and micro-irrigation plants, weather stations, Tele control systems of plants and soil moisture, IT solutions and databases, flexible tanks for the storage of liquids, in every sector of agriculture.

PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES: Consultation for industrial layouts in the agribusiness industry sector, and in particular in the canning industry, provision of machines and lines in existing establishments, development and planning of new production lines, solving problems concerning quality and/or production yield, analysis and validation of stabilization thermal processes, 360 degrees consultation on the finely chopped tomatoes production.

FOOD INDUSTRY PLANTS: A leader company in design, construction, and sale of plants intended for the food industry. The company implements lines for tomato and fruit manufacturing to obtain tomato paste, tomato puree, fruit juice, jams and other by-products and it is able to realize complete turnkey projects. Construction of enzymatic inactivation plants, extraction of juice or pulp, concentration, clarification, filtration, pasteurization and sterilization with subsequent aseptic filling, in cans and jars.

MOVEMENT OF GOODS: A specialized company in innovative systems of palletisation and movement, to guarantee the supply of high-quality products with the greatest energy saving and the lowest maintenance costs for the client.

ECOSYSTEMS: This company works in the agri-environmental sector: in agronomic rehabilitations and improvement of agricultural soils.
It has a laboratory for physicochemical and microbiological analyses in the agronomic, environmental and industrial fields.
It has a research laboratory where innovative projects in the agricultural, ecologic, industrial and agribusiness sectors are developed.

SELF-PROPELLED MACHINES: World leader company in the construction and commercialization of self-propelled machines for the tomato harvest. These machines are innovative, technologic and more functional. The tomato harvesters are the feather in the cap of the company, but also the machines for strawberries, onions, cucumbers and peppers (the only company who can make a machine for the pepper) are very good. The company has designed optical selectors, for their machines, which can recognize flaws and colors of fruits independently of natural lighting conditions. This guarantees the quality of the products, rejecting unripe or dirty tomatoes, soil and stones during the harvesting, assuring the quality of the raw material. The launch of even more eco-friendly machines is foreseen, to minimize both consumption and environmental impact. At the same time, the machines will be easier to handle, user-friendly and with a high productivity.

LOGISTIC OPERATOR: Operator in Italy leader in the sector of logistics and FMGC transport, can boast more than ten years of deliveries, and partnerships with the most important companies of the large-scale distribution.

PACKAGING: A company that has been for 20 years in the context of tomato by-product and fruit packaging on national and international markets with its production of cylindrical and truncated cone-shaped barrels to ensure very good services in the field of movement and transport of foodstuffs, and high savings in the field of storage, security and logistics.


agribusiness filiera polli progetti avicoli


The company has a wide experience in the agribusiness, realizes turnkey projects for the production of eggs and broilers, poultry plants, laying hens systems, alternative systems / cage-free, free-range systems, chicken manure treatment. It designs prefabricated barns of all sizes, brooders for chickens, laying hens, broilers, breeders, feed and egg collection systems, silos, chicken manure removal, watering, heating and ventilation systems, air intake systems, electrical installations and alarm systems, lighting systems, computer control systems.


The company propose solutions at the forefront of building plants for laying hens, from the first day of life until the end of the production process, fully integrated systems for the broiler farming, automated and computer systems on watering, feeding, egg collecting, Universal Plus enrichment, cage doors, air conditioning and heating, removal, drying and storage of chicken manure, computerized management, barns, accessibility, cleanness.


The company is a leader in the design, construction, and installation of equipment used in slaughtering plants for chickens, turkeys, rabbits and porks. Thanks to experience gained since 1956, the company can offer to their clients a complete range of machinery that cover all stages of the process: collecting and transport of live chickens, their slaughtering, evisceration, cooling, sectioning and then debone. The company uses an innovative method called LAPS, to stun and slaughter the poultry, so it can guarantee the observance of all requirements indicated by the existing legislation for animal welfare.


This company is a world leader in the manufacturing of lines for the slaughtering of chickens, rabbits, and quails, as well as cockerel, plants, and equipment for turkeys, gooses, ducks, guinea fowls, and partridges and pigeons. It designs, realizes and installs machines, plants and supervision software for slaughtering lines and for training services, technical assistance, after-sale assistance and all the spare parts.


A well-established company, a leader in Italy and Europe in the slaughtering sector and in the processing of red meat as cattle, horses, porks, sheep, goats and white meats as chickens, turkeys, and ducks. The company designs, builds and installs turnkey slaughtering plants, it is specialized in poultry plants, it has an EU sanitary certification and produces plants in full compliance with CEE and USDA sanitary regulations. It produces with renown, formalized, codified and controlled cycles which allow, first of all, the availability of the products as well as the management of potential non-conforming products. Slaughtering plants for cattle with a production of up to 80 units/hour, porks up 500 units/hour, sheep up to 600 units/hour, white meats up to 10.000 units/hour.


agribusiness serre e sistemi colture protette

A company operating in the agribusiness entitled to design and installation of greenhouses and systems for the protected crops operating with the ISO 9001 quality system. It has been working for more than 20 years in the high-tech plant design and installation sector, in the continuous improvement of the products, technologies, processes, services and flows in global terms. It can realize turnkey projects, from the foundations to the roof, integrated systems for the protected crops, greenhouses, aluminum pallets, computer fertigation systems, high-tech plants, controlling all the activities: both the plant design and installation part and the complementary part as civil works of substructure, greenhouses, greenhouses for experimentation and educational activities, working areas, internal transport systems, vision optical system of wiring, pallets, heating systems, fertigation, ebb and flow, water systems, thermal protection, fog, special plants, monitoring systems and computers for greenhouses, electrical system.

The company studies and realizes personalized projects according to the specific needs of every client, and carries out all the necessary civil works: soil bearing capacity, greenhouse capacity, excavation works, earthquake zones, collection or disposal, drainage, drains and conveyance of rainwater, shafts for ducts, cement corridors, foundation plinths and pallets, ebb and flow on the concrete. The company is also specialized in facilities:

• Glasshouses designed and realized to contain the most advanced technological installations.
• Installation of steel, aluminum and glass greenhouses from the smallest dimensions to the biggest sizes.
• Creation of experimental greenhouses.
• Glasshouses or arch greenhouses with a plastic cover, with the installation of specific plants able to create the ideal microclimate for every kind of horticultural and flower experimentations.

The control and computerized monitoring of every system allow to store and compare in time the process values that can influence the crop growth.


contact IBS by mail

Opportunity from Europe through the ICE Agency in Bruxelles

Agenzia ICE Bruxelles Opportunità dall'Europa

Opportunity from Europe through the ICE Agency in Bruxelles

We report the opportunities from Europe through the ICE Agency in Bruxelles In the Newsletter of the ICE Agency you can see:

- selection of the EU announcements;
- selection and preview of the EU contracts;
- important news from Bruxelles;
- programs for the countries with EU external assistance;
- selection and preview of the extra-EU announcements;
- focus and monthly in-depth analysis about current events for the SMEs.



LINK 8th year Newsletter no. January 2020
LINK 8th year Newsletter no. February 2020
LINK 8th year Newsletter no. March 2020
LINK 8th year Newsletter no. April 2020


LINK 7th year Newsletter no. January 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. February 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. March 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. May 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. July August 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. September 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. October 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter November 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter December 2019


LINK 6th year Newsletter no. January 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. February 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. March 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. April 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. May 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. July August 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. September 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. October 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter November 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter December 2018


LINK 5th year Newsletter no. January 1st 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. February 2nd 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. March 3rd 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. April 4th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. May 5th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. June 6th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. July August 7th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. September 8th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. October 9th 2017


LINK 4th year Newsletter no. January 1st 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. February 2nd 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. March 3rd 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. April 4th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. May 5th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. June 6th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. July – August 7th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. September 8th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. October 9th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. November 10th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. December 11th 2016


LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. January 1st 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. February 2st 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. March 3rd 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. April 4th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. May 5th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. June 6th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. July and August 7th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. September 8th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. October 9th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. November 10th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. December 11th 2015

In the following months you will find the next monthly newsletters

SITE ICE Agency Bruxelles

Credit Risk, Trade Export Finance

credito trade export finance



For financial partners research, research and negotiation banking instruments for export / trade finance (documentary credits, stand by, international bank guarantees, forfeiting, etc.), export credit management CLICK HERE


Through the following contact format indicate:
- The course/s of interest through the identification number from 1 to 14.
- The city/ies closest to your residence or where you are willing to go to participate in the course of interest to you.
- Specify if are also willing to the provision of the course through distance education (digital platform).
- Your complete references to allow us to contact You.
- Further requests.


Through the expressions of interest to courses, according to the number of accessions room will be organized, both at distance and in locations closest to the residence of participants, using also dates of courses already planned in collaboration with other training organizations on which the teacher works. The cost of participation depends on the above-mentioned parameters and will be communicated following the pre-enrolment. The didactic administrative office of IBS thanks for your collaboration.


contact IBS by mail


- SECTION A: list training courses Foreign Trade, Credit Risk Management
- SECTION B: detail information on each and every course
- SECTION C: consultancy paths and advanced consultancy
- SECTION D: extra information on methodology, competencies, and certifications
- SECTION E: information on spokesman and consultant
- SECTION F: publications and tools on trade, export finance, credit management (available on request)

credito corsi trade export finance

SECTION A: Specialized training offer “Techniques of Foreign Trade”, Trade & Export Finance and Credit Risk Management


• Form n. 1 – Incoterms® 2010 the application profiles of the commercial terms in international sales, problems, operational implications, to optimise the use and reduce risks.

• Form n. 2 – International payments : payments that can be activated in foreign commercial transactions and related peculiarities, criticality.

• Form n. 3 – The documentary collections and instructions for use : transfer of operational competences on the Documentary Collections, characteristics, problems, regulations, functioning.

• Form n. 4 – International payments & credit risk management : weighted management of the insolvency risk in the context of the international sale, in the short, medium and long term, instruments among which financial instruments.

• Form n. 5 – Documentary credits : characteristics and peculiar aspects, legislation UCP 600 ICC and 745 ICC uniform international banking practice.

• Form n. 6 – New codification of the uniform international banking practice & operational management of the letter of credit : news after the Pub.n no. 745 ICC. Hyper-specialized learning process on documentary credits, operational management, news on the uniform international banking practice, impact on document production to accompany a credit.

• Form n. 7 – Workshop – Operational management of credit letter depending of the new codification of the uniform international banking practice : hyper-specialized learning process, management of two letters of credit, from the contractual agreement to proceeds, analysis of the credit and production of documents starting from the invoice and packing list.

• Form n. 8 – Documentary credits and transport documents : in the preparation of transport documents, analysis of the discordance while examining the documents accompanying a letter of credit. Specialistic learning process to understand problems and to produce conforming documents.

• Form n. 9 – Notice of refusal in the documentary credits and in the context of international bank guarantees : understand how to structure properly a notice of refusal during a non-complying presentation, in the case of documentary credits and international bank guarantees. How to behave with banks and beneficiaries after the document examination. Exercises and practical cases of real commercial transactions.

• Form n. 10 – The LC Import and the responsibility given to the bank for the letter of credit issue : in the issue of a documentary credit, how to give the bank the responsibility in the issue of the LCs, optimize the process, allowing the national importer to reduce risks in the purchase from abroad. Dynamics and problems in the designation and application for documents and transport insurance.

• Form n. 11 – International bank guarantees characteristics of the “guarantees” in use in the context of international trade, detail, criticality. Analysis of bank guarantees issued on behalf of the seller and buyer. Real cases, exercise on examination of payment guarantee.

• Form n. 12 – BPO – Bank Payment Obligation : new instrument of regulation for the firms that work abroad. Functioning and operational positioning of the BPO, examination of the principal articles of the URBPO ICC.

• Form n. 13 – Export Finance: Financial instruments for the global market : weigh up the financial and insurance instruments in service of the operators to finance and monetize your export credit. Processes and functioning of the forfeiting, insurance instruments Sace Spa and intervention of Simest Spa.

• Form n. 14 – Insurance of the export credit : weighted analysis of the insurance solutions to rule the credit risk in the sphere of international commercial transactions, in the short, medium and long-term, checking the referential normative framework, and the operational processes of the products Sace Spa, Sace Bt highlighting the functioning of the pertinent policies.


We consider appropriate to indicate that the form can be modified, integrated and made adequate to the needs of the customer with regard to the length, content, levels of deepening.


Addressee professions : Foreign Office agent, export managers, transport and banking operator, international trade operator.
Level of the course: intermediate
Length of the course: 4 hours
Objectives of the course: Despite the wide use of the Incoterms® 2010, there is still the need, from the international trade agents and operators, to understand better the problems and the dimension of operational consequences. Therefore, the objective of the form is to transfer adapted knowledge and technical skills to assimilate them and to optimize their use, in order to minimize the risks in the context of an international sale.
• Definition of Incoterms® or commercial terms and operational setting of application
• Chronicle and evolution of the Incoterms® from 1936 to 2010
• The Incoterms® and the process of containerization of the goods
• General principles of the Incoterms®
• Incoterms® and Documentary credits (Letters of credit – LC)
• The maritime terms and the multimodal commercial terms
• Sections and subdivisions of the official regulations
• From the EXW (Ex-works) to DDP (Delivered Duty Paid): punctual analysis of each commercial term;
• Deepening and Comments Wall Chart Incoterms® 2010
• Exam of practical cases
• Q&A – Questions and Answers Session.

Form n. 2: International payments

Formative objectives: This form sets the objective of explaining and clarifying the forms of payment that can be operationalised in a commercial transaction with a foreign country characterizing the concerning peculiarities (settlement, risk mitigation or financing).
Contents of the form:
• The Payment Conditions in the context of an International Sale Contract
• The payment in the Open Account mode
• The context of Open Account assisted by a demand guarantee or a standby letter of credit
o Differentiation between demand guarantee and SBLC (standby letter of credit)
o Study of practical cases
• Condition of advance payment assisted by an advance payment guarantee
o Exam of an advance payment guarantee
• Illustration of the Documentary Collection concept
o Documents against Payment: D/P
o Documents against Acceptance: D/A
o Documentary Collection: and the Financing Facilities
o Analysis and discussion of real cases.
• What is “the documentary credit”
o The documentary credit: definitions, characteristics and peculiarities, structure, details on the functioning, subjects, operational profile, reference standards
o The different types of documentary credits: “by payment”, “by deferred payment”, “by acceptance”, “by negotiation” and the related services of the banks
o Procedure of “Confirmation of a documentary credit”
• The Bank Payment Obligation: BPO (Bank Payment Obligation), correct definition, stakeholders, structure of the BPO and functioning
• Cheque, Bill of Exchange, Promissory Note
• Automated collections: electronic transfer of funds to the seller account
• Clarify the concepts and the tools of Settlement, Risk Mitigation or Financing
• Exercises
• Q&A Session (questions and answers).

Form n. 3: Documentary collection and instructions for use

Addressees and professional profiles to which the course is addressed: Foreign office agents, export managers, banking operators, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level: for the discussed themes, the level is advanced
Length of the course: 1 day;
Didactic objectives: This form wants to place itself near the ambitious objective of managing to transfer specialized operational expertise on “Documentary Collections”, showing their characteristics and representing the most peculiar aspects.
In a distinguishing way, the problems and complexities linked to the loss collection of documents, as well as dynamics characterizing the disinvestment of the underlying credit claims, in the D/A sale (Documents against Acceptance) will be sounded out. Moreover, ample space will be dedicated to the study of regulations URC 522 ICC (Uniform Rules For Collection). To conclude, some practical cases will be examined to better gain familiarity with the operation of the instrument.
Contents of the course :
• The transport documents used in the international trade: CIM (Convenzione Internazionale per le Merci in ferrovia), AWB (Air Waybill), CMR (Convention des Marchandises par Route), MTD, Bill of Lading
• The main forms of settlement in the international trade
• The documentary collection: definitions, stakeholders, regulations, and operation working methods
• “Collection Cycle”: the stages of the documentary collection
• D/P (Documents against Payment) versus D/A (Documents against Acceptance)
• What are the differences between “Clean”, “Documentary” and “Direct” Collections?
• When it is appropriate to apply the documentary collection: the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument;
• What are the roles and the responsibilities of the banks participating in the process
• When collection is dishonored: actions, close examination of notices and procedures
• D/A (Documents against Acceptance): how to mobilize, therefore to convert in money the underlying credit claims
• How to prepare and organize the Bill of Exchange
• Rule the management of interests, banking charges, costs
• Analysis of the Documentary Collections: “Creation of Documents”, “payment in local and in foreign currency”, “protest” , “partial payments” and “case-of-need”
• How to clarify carefully and appropriately the “collection instructions” to the bank
• Analysis of practical cases
• Focus: URC 522 ICC (Uniform Rules For Collection): analysis of the main articles
• Assessment Test
• Decision-making case-study
• Q&A Session.

Form n. 4 : International payments and the efficient credit risk management

Addressees to which the course is addressed: Foreign Office agents of enterprises, export managers, and enterprise consultants.
Level: intermediate level
Length of the course: from 1 to 2 days
Didactic objectives: The objective of this form is to identify, explaining the characteristics, the instruments for a profitable and aware management of the credit risk in the context of the trade and international sales, in the short, medium and long term. Specifically, the instruments with a focus on the short term will be discussed, explaining, in particular, the financial instruments.
The Export Credit Risk Management
• Defer through a deferred payment, as instrument and means to create value for the client;
• How to rule the credit risk management: by what means?
• The distinction between financial instruments and assurance instruments
• Appropriate instruments in the short term and instrument in the middle and long term.
• Monitor the critical variables: country, amount, type of goods, client, bargaining power.
The financial instruments active in the short term and those in the medium / long term
• The documentary credit: definition of documentary credit, characteristics, and peculiarities, structure of an LC, functioning, stakeholders, operation, reference standards
• The different types of documentary credits: by payment, by acceptance, by deferred payment, by negotiation and the linked performances of banks
• The confirmation stage of a documentary credit
• How to mark the role, obligations, and duties of banks
• How to take correctly advantages of a documentary credit: how to produce appropriate documents, uniform and in line with the UCP 600 ICC (Uniform Customs and Practice, Rules and Use of documentary credits, contained in the Publication number 600 of the International Chamber of Commerce of Paris) and the new uniform international banking practice
• The international bank guarantees: payment guarantee and SBLC (stand-by letter of credit)
• Short accounts on the forfeiting and on the open lines.
The insurance instruments
• Details on the normative context: both international and community and national
• The consensus: definition
• EU directive 98/29 ( of the Council, 7th may 1998, concerning the harmonization of the provisions in the field of export credit insurance, for operations guaranteed both in the medium and long term) and EU communication on the short term
• The legislative decree 143/1998 containing provisions in the field of foreign trade and the decision CIPE n. 62/2007 operations and insurable risks by SACE S.p.a.
• The supplier credit: structure, functioning, operation. What are the insurance risks
• The policies Basic Online and Plus One
• Characteristics, operative functioning of the registration (change of ownership of a property) of Policy Sace Spa
• Insurance of export credit: key principles, fields of operation, prize, entirety, compensation expected by the policy, LMA, latitude, clauses of the first risk, recovery of the claim, and expected exemptions;
• Policies BT 360° and BT Sviluppo Export
• The policy Excess of Loss
• Observations and conclusions.

Form 5: Documentary credits

Addressees : Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level: level advanced course
Length of the course : from 1 to 3 days according to formative objectives.
Objectives: This form aims at the ambitious and challenging objective of conferring specialized operational expertise on the documentary credits (also indicated informally as letters of credit), defining accurately characteristics and remarking the most peculiar aspects and complexities. An ample space will be assigned to the analysis of the rule UCP 600 ICC and to the accurate and careful assessment of the new publication 745 ICC relating to the uniform international banking practice. Finally, various practical cases will be analyzed to understand in depth the operation and the application profiles of the instrument.
Contents of the course :
• Export Credit Risk Management: how to rule and manage the risk linked to the credit in foreign commercial transactions
• Differences in the form and substance between financial instruments and insurance instruments
• The documentary credit (also indicated as LC letter of credit): definition, characteristics and peculiarities, structure of a documentary credit, functioning, stakeholders and operation, relevant legislation
• Types of documentary credit: by payment, by deferred payment, by negotiation, by acceptance and linked bank performances
• How to delete the bank risk and country risk: the operation of “documentary credit confirmation”, “silent confirmation” and “del credere”
• How to determine the role of banks?
• What does “negotiation” mean?
• What is the meaning of “designated bank” and which performance?
• What is a Draft?
• What is the meaning of “certified”, “visaed” and “legalized”?
• In the case of “Transhipment prohibited”: can it be assumed that it is sure?
• What does “blank endorsed” mean?
• What are the consequences if you lost the documents?
• Explanation and deepening in relation to the operational management of a documentary credit / letter of credit: how to generate and present compliant documents in accordance with the legislation UCP 600 ICC and the new publication 745 ICC regarding the uniform international banking practice.
• Analysis and discussion of various real concrete cases.
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 6: The new codification concerning the uniform international banking practice and implications in the operational management of the letter of credit: news contained in the Publication n. 745 ICC

Addressees and professional profile: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants
Level of the course: advanced
Length of the course: from 1 to 3 days
Didactic objectives: This form wants to place itself as a learning process of a hyper-specialized nature on the theme of documentary credits and on their proper operational management. Specifically, the basic news introduced by the uniform international banking practice will be examined, estimating their influence and repercussions on the production of documents accompanying a documentary credit.
• The documentary credit: definition and explanation of the instrument, through the distinctive characteristics, structure and its functioning, stakeholders, types of documentary credit, operation and relevant regulation.
• Describe and define the “uniform international banking practice”: what are you talking about in a precise manner?
• The news in the publication ISBP 745 ICC :
Considerations and preliminary remarks, general principles of the publication:
• Purpose of the publication ISBP 745 ICC
• Explanation of “Certifications” and “Declarations”
• Illustration of “Copies of transport documents”
• Clarification on documents to which the art. 19-25 UCP 600 ICC should not apply
• Clarification on definitions of: “shipping documents”, “third party documents acceptable” , “stale documents acceptable”, “exporting country”, “third party documents not acceptable”, “shipping company” and “documents acceptable as presented”
• Why the production language of documents is important
• The procedure to “sign a document”
• How to distinguish “Originals and Copies”
• What are the “Shipping Marks”
• Examine “Non-documentary conditions”
How to prepare documents in full accordance with the new ISBP 745 ICC indications:
• How to organize the “draft”
• How to prepare the invoice
• Multimodal Transport Document versus Bill of Lading
• What “On board notations” means
• Bill of Lading versus Non-negotiable Bill of Lading
• How to arrange the AWB and CMR
• How to prepare the insurance certificate
• How to proceed to the preparation of the origin certificate
• How to organize the Packing List and Weight List
• How to prepare certificates of the beneficiary
• How to complete and prepare analysis, quality and quantity certificates, certificates of inspection, sanitary and phytosanitary certificates, etc.
Analysis and study of real practical studies with accompanying documents
Q & A Session.

Form n. 7: Workshop / Laboratory: How to operationally manage the letter of credit after the new codification of the uniform international banking practice

Addressees and professional profile of participants: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level: advanced, hyper-specialized learning process
Length of the course: 2 days
Objectives of the workshop: The workshop is intended to be a learning process and hyper-specialized training on the operational management of a documentary credit (sometimes indicated also as “Letter of Credit”), in the light of the normative implications after the new publication concerning the international banking practice by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) of Paris. In this form is included the operational management of two (2) letters of credit, through a learning process that starts from the contractual agreement to the collection. Participants will be involved, firsthand, in the analysis of the documentary credit and in the production of documents, setting up the analysis starting with the collection and the packing list. To optimize the operation the availability of a work station is necessary, at a rate of 1 for each 3-4 participants.
Contents of the Workshop:
1st part- theory:
• Export Credit Risk Management: how to manage with efficiency the risk of credit in the context of foreign commercial transactions
• Differences between the insurance and financial instruments
• The documentary credit/letter of credit: definition, characteristics and peculiar aspects, structure and architecture of a documentary credit, functioning, stakeholders, operational profiles and relevant legislation
• The different families of documentary credits: “by payment”, “by deferred payment”, and also “by negotiation”, and then “by acceptance”, and the consequent bank performances
• How to delete the bank risk and country risk: what do the terms “confirmation of a documentary credit” “silent confirmation” and “del credere” mean?
• Checking of the bank role: how to determinate it?
• What does “negotiation” mean in the context of a documentary credit?
• What does designed bank means and to which performance is referred to it?
• Analysis and discussion on practical cases.

2nd part –Exercises and Workshop
Participants, divided into groups in advance, will be involved in the preparation of documents accompanying two (2) documentary credits, characterised by an increasing level of difficulty. At the end of the Workshop a session of debate and close examination with analysis and comparison of results will follow.

Form n. 8 : Documentary credits and how to prepare transport documents

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agent and operator, banking profiles, carriers and shipping agents, enterprise consultants.
Level of the course: advanced, highly specialized learning process
Length of the course: 1 day
Objectives of the course: When examining and preparing documents accompanying a documentary credit (sometimes indicated as “letter of credit”), the largest number of discrepancies and inconsistencies concerns transport documents. Consequently, this form wants to be a specialized learning process of high expertise, based on the correct preparation of transport documents accompanying a documentary credit, with the aim to point out and assimilate the relevant problems, discordances in order to produce conforming documents without elements that can prejudice the success of the operation.
• The documentary credit: a digression among founding elements of a documentary credit, or sometimes indicated as letter of credit, from the definition to characteristics and structure, functioning, stakeholders, different types of credit, the operation and relevant regulations;
• The exemplary preparation of transport documents in full compliance with UCP 600 ICC and additional indications of the ISBP 745 ICC:
oThe “Multimodal Transport Document” document
o Peculiarities of the “Bill of Lading”
o “Sea-Way Bill” Document
o The “Charter Party Bill of Lading”
o Air Transport Document
o “Road, Rail” or “Inland Waterway Transport Documents” Documents
o Then “Courier Receipt”, “Post Receipt” or “Certificate of Posting”
• For each single transport document, these aspects will be analyzed: document issue, carrier identification, signature, shipping date, goods description, corrections, shipper and endorsement, notify party, consignee, possible transshipment, correct processing of all transport document copies.
• Analysis of artt. 26 and 27 of the UCP 600 ICC: in particular “On Deck”, “Shipper’s Load and Count”, “Clean Transport Document”,“Said by Shipper to Contain” and “Charges Additional to Freight”.
• Focus on: On board notations and concerning specific exceptions: complete analysis of possible options.
• Exercises and analysis of real cases
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 9: Notice of refusal in the context of documentary credits and international banking guarantees

Addressees: Foreign office operators, banking agents and enterprise consultants.
Level of the course : advanced, high expertise learning process
Length of the course: 1 day;
Didactic objectives: This form aims to understand the procedures to structure properly a notice of refusal in the context of a “non-complying presentation”, both in the context of documentary credits and in international banking guarantees. Specifically, more appropriate behaviors to use with banks and also beneficiaries after the examination of documents will be analyzed. During the learning process different real cases referred to concrete and really happened commercial transactions will be examined. To distinguish better and understand problems and complexities of a refusal notice, in the context of documentary credits and international banking guarantees, an exercise is also considered.
Contents of this form:
• The documentary credit (or letter of credit): starting from detailed definition, will examine characteristics, structure, functioning and operational profiles, stakeholders, types of documentary credits, operation and then the legislative framework.
• The role of the bank(s) in the context of a documentary credit
• “Complying presentation” versus “non-complying presentation”: effects and behaviors
• “Complying presentation” and subsequent acts or behaviors of the bank
• “Non-complying presentation” and consequent behaviors of banks: a detailed and complete analysis of the art. 16 UCP 600 ICC
• How to plan and organize correctly a notice of refusal
• In the case of an issue or putting in the circulation of an incorrect refusal notice: clarifications on the scope of the art. 16 UCP 600 ICC towards banks and also beneficiaries
• Notice of refusal: MT799, MT734 or manual?
• MT734 codes: analysis of “HOLD”, “NOTIFY”, “RETURN”, “PREVINST” codes
• Notice of refusal on the URDG 758 ICC regulations: focus and analysis of the art. 24
• SPECIALIZED FOCUS: a complete study of following real cases:
o LC (letter of credit) Iraq through Italian confirming bank
o LC (letter of credit) Jordan through Italian confirming bank
o Fortis Bank and Stemcor UK Limited versus Indian Overseas Bank
o LG Serbia through Serbian guarantor bank.
• Analysis and study of various concrete cases and exercises
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 10: The letter of credit LC Import: how to give to the bank the responsibility of the documentary credit emission

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators and enterprise consultants.
Level: advanced, high expertise
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: The objective of this form is to optimize the process by which you give to the bank the responsibility of emitting LC (letters of credit), allowing the national importer to define and ideally contain until neutralizing risks linked to purchase process from foreign countries. To sum up, dynamics relating to problems linked to the designation and request of transport and insurance documents will be subjected to accurate assessment.
Contents of the form:
• The documentary credit: definitions, peculiar characteristics, structure of the credit, functioning, stakeholders and responsibilities, concrete operation, relevant regulations
• Classification of different types of documentary credit: “by payment”, “by deferred payment”, “by negotiation”, “by acceptance” and corresponding bank performances
• How to protect yourself and safeguard your position from the potential risk of receiving non-compliant goods
• Consider “autonomy limits of a documentary credit”
• Use the credit in a foreign bank: which effects cause on the applicant?
• What if we exclude the application of the Art. 12 b UCP 600 ICC ?
• How to efficaciously manage the risk for the travel of documents
• Pay attention to the “language of documents”: we will examine the reason why
• The transport document: first of all, who should issue it? And secondly, who should sign it and how?
• The following outcome: “Transport document issued by a freight forwarder is not acceptable”: which are the effects and relative consequences on the credit?
• With regard to Incoterms®, why avoid the use of the term CIF (Cost, Insurance & Freight)
• How to divide and prepare the insurance certificate request
• Case histories: analysis of practical cases
• Exercises: during the exercise, the participant will take charge of giving to the bank the responsibility so that it takes charge of the documentary credit emission
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 11: International bank guarantees

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level of the course: advanced
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: This form aims to identify and transfer the founding characteristics of “guarantees” in use in the context of international trade, in order to examine and assimilate fully the peculiarities as well as the problems which characterize international bank guarantees. During the speech, the spokesman will analyze both bank guarantees issued on behalf of the seller and on behalf of the purchaser. This form, in addition, contemplates the study of various concrete cases of bank guarantees and a dedicated section to an exercise on the theme of the payment guarantee examination.
Contents of the course:
• International bank guarantees: description of characteristics and peculiarities, functioning, and operation, stakeholders, relevant regulations and functions.
• From the surety to the autonomous bank guarantee
• The distinction between “Direct bank guarantee” and “Counter-guarantee”: what are the differences?
• Description of different types of “guarantees”:
Payment Guarantee e SBLC (Stand By Letter of Credit)
Advance Payment Guarantee
Tender Guarantee (Bid Bond)
Retention Money Guarantee (type of banking surety)
Performance Guarantee
At last the Warranty Guarantee
• Regulations URDG 758 ICC: critical analysis of principal articles, inequalities compared to ISP 98 ICC
• Regulations URDG 758 ICC / ISP98 / UCP 600: analysis of differences
• How to divide correctly the text of a “guarantee”
• Case history: analysis of various concrete cases of Stand by Letter of Credit (SBLC) and international bank guarantees.
• Exercises: during the exercise, the participant may challenge himself on the theme of how to examine a payment guarantee – “The Cyprus issue”.

Form n. 12 : BPO – Bank Payment Obligation: the new instrument of regulation for all firms that work abroad

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles and international trade operators.
Level of the course: advanced, specialized learning process
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: Describe and clarify the operational functioning and positioning of a BPO (Bank Payment Obligation), through the exam of basic articles of the regulation URBPO ICC.
Contents of the course:
• Current scenarios and future prospects of international trade
• Positioning of the BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• Benefits/advantages for bank, purchaser, and seller
• Bank Payment Obligation (BPO): definition and overview, stakeholders, functioning, structure, operation, and peculiarities
• Definitions: what do “Baseline”, “Established Baseline”, “Obligor Bank”, “Recipient Bank”, “Submitting Bank”, “Payment Obligation Segment”, “Zero Mismatches” and “Transaction Matching Application” mean?
• BPO versus LC / LG : what are the differences?
• BPO (Bank Payment Obligation) and different possible methods of financing
• The Silent BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• What are messages “ISO 20022 TSMT” and messages “Transaction Matching Application”?
• What does “BPO Flow” mean?
• BPO (Bank Payment Obligation): Establishing a Baseline
• The BPO process of amending
• Fulfilling a BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• What do “Single Shipments” and “Partial Shipments” mean?
• In the case of a “Data Match / Data Mismatch on Data Set Submission”: what effects can be expected?
•“TMA pre-match facility”, “TMA data & message matching rules”, “TMA transaction states” and “TMA special requests”
• What does “Corporate to bank messaging” mean
• Actual operation and diffusion of the BPO (Bank Payment Obligation).
Focus : Deepening of principal articles of Uniform Rules for Bank Payment Obligation (URBPO), and of publication no. 750 ICC in force since 1st July 2013:
o Art. 3 : Bank undertaking is irrevocable and independent
o Art. 6 : Bank Payment Obligations versus Contracts
o Art. 7 : Data versus Documents, Goods, Services or Performance
o Art. 10 : Undertaking of an Obligor Bank
o Art. 12 : Disclaimer on Effectiveness of Data
o Art. 13 : Force Majeure
o Art. 14 : Unavailability of a Transaction Matching Application
o Art. 15 : Applicable Law
o Art. 16 : Assignment of Proceeds
• Assessment test and valuation
• Q & A Session
• Conclusions and observations

Form n. 13: Export Finance: financial-insurance instruments for the global markets

Addressees of the course: Foreign office agents, export managers, international trade operators, enterprise and management consultants.
Level of the course: intermediate
Length of the course: 1/2 days
Didactic objectives: This seminar sets the objective of considering and analysing in detail both financial and insurance instruments available for operators to finance and convert in cash their export credit. Both operations of forfeiting and insurance instruments proposed and available through Sace Spa using the relevant intervention and assistance of the Simest Spa will be examined carefully.
Contents of the course:
• How it is possible to finance international sales: with which instruments and how?
• The Forfeiting: what is it, the operation of the instrument, which cost and advantages
• The regulatory framework: both international and community and national
• What is “The consensus”
• Analysis of the “EU directive 98/29 of the Council on 7th May 1998” and EU communication on the Short Term
• Legislative decree 143 of 31st March 1998 and CIPE decision n. 62 of 20th July 2007
• What is the “buyer’s credit”: structure and functioning
• Open lines: description and operation
• What do “confirmation policy of documentary credit” and “ CreDoc online” mean
• The supplier credit: description, architecture and operational functioning. The insured risks.l
• What do “policies Plus One” and “Basic Online” mean
• What is the “transfer of Sace Spa policy”: characteristics, peculiarities and operational functioning
• Financial guarantees of Sace Spa: description and operational profiles
• Exercises and practical case: analysis of a plant sale in Ethiopia
• Conclusions and discussion.

Form n. 14: Insurance of the export credit

Addresses of the course: Foreign office operators, export managers, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level of the course: intermediate
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: The objective of this seminar is to consider and probe insurance solutions for operators to manage with efficacy the credit risk in the context of international commercial transactions, in the short and medium-long term. Specifically, the legislative framework and operation in the concrete of Sace Spa and Sace Bt products will be explored for an overview, highlighting the functioning of relevant policies.
Contents of the course:
• How to manage properly the credit risk: founding differences between financial instruments and insurance instruments
• The most significant advantages of the insurance solution
• Exam of the regulatory framework: in international, community and national contexts
• What does “consensus” mean
• EU directive 98/29 of the Council on 7th May 1998 and Eu communication on the Short Term
• Legislative decree 143/1998 of 31st March 1998 and the CIPE decision n. 62/2007 of 20th July ;
• The supplier credit: operational structure, functioning and insured risks
• Description and functioning of Plus One and Basic Online policies
• What does the transfer of Sace Spa Policy consist in: peculiarity, characteristics, architecture and operational functioning
• Insurance of export credits: foundation principles, contexts of application and operation of instruments, entirety, premiums, previewed compensation, LMA, what is intended for “the latitude”, recovery of the credit, exam of first risk clauses, checking of excess franchises.
• The BT Sviluppo Export policy and BT 360° policy
• The Excess of Loss policy.

credito consulenza trade export finance


The consultancy concerns operational contexts:

INCOTERMS® 2010: choose the most aligned commercial term to needs, how much it impacts on payments methods, on documentary credits, which obligations and which responsibilities of parties, etc.

DOCUMENTARY COLLECTIONS: instrument definition for contractual matters: (D/P) Documents against Payment versus (D/A) Documents against Acceptance; exam of obligations and bank role in full respect of URC Publ. 522 ICC regulations; which actions, exam of notices and procedures to use in case the payment wouldn’t be made; (D/A) Documents against Acceptance: how to monetize the underlying credit claim; how to plan the Bill of Exchange. How to manage interests, expenses as well as bank charges; how to the following peculiar aspects: “Creation of Documents”, “partial payments”, “payment in local and in foreign currency”, “case-of-need” and “protest” and how to correctly specify “collection instructions” to the bank.

DOCUMENTARY CREDITS: LC (letter of credit) definition in contractual terms, LC text analysis, possible proposal to amend, research of confirming bank, valuation of bank obligations and responsibilities, determine the compliance of documents as regards to regulations UCP 600 ICC and to the Uniform International Banking Practice relevant regulation, notice of bank refusal exam, manage possible controversy with the bank in the area of discordances, various communications, etc.

INTERNATIONAL BANK GUARANTEES AND SBLC (STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT): LG / Standby Letter of Credit definition in the context of the contract, checking of the LG / Standby Letter of Credit text, propose possible changes / integrations / or clauses, confirming bank scouting (or guarantor bank), which obligations and responsibilities of the bank, check of document compliance in full respect of regulations UCP 600 / ISP98 / URDG 758 ICC, right management of examination, administration of a possible controversy with the bank as regards to discordances, various communications, etc.

BPO – BANK PAYMENT OBLIGATION : complete assistance in managing of the instrument: definition of the contract with the client, research of the Obligor Bank / Recipient Bank, scouting bank for the issue of the “silent confirmation” (also called “silent obligation”), checking of contracts, identification of a Baseline, possible changes of the BPO, assistance in the case of Data Mismatch, support according to regulations URBPO ICC Publication n. 750.

INSURANCE OF THE CREDIT: isolate the most appropriate and convenient insurance solution for the need of parts involved, analysis of relevant contracts, etc.

EXPORT FINANCING: identify and manage the most appropriate instrument to finance exports of investment goods: forfeiting, open lines, Sace Spa policies and consequent transfer.

FORFEITING: scouting forfeiter to take advantage of a pro-sale discount of LC / promissory notes, to most convenient market conditions, the study of contracts, administration of the complete operation.

SACE SPA INSURANCE PRODUCTS: identify the most appropriate insurance product with regard to needs of parts.
Assist the client in the operational management of LCs (letters of credit), through an innovative service of assistance and technical consultancy. The service includes:
• possible involvement in the trade agreement between parts to characterize, upstream, connotations and attributes of the LC
• LC analysis and possible changes
• possible research of confirming bank
• production of documents relevant to the beneficiary on presentation of invoice, moreover packing list and other useful information for the production of documents
• manage relations with third party institutions (carrier, inspection company, etc.) to produce relevance documents
• prepare a draft of documents to generate by third party institutions such as CCIAA (Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Crafts, and Agriculture)
• exam of documents that have been produced by third party institutions (for ex. Eur1, ATR, Certificates of Inspection, Certificates of Insurance, etc.) where it isn’t possible to produce above-mentioned drafts
• possible presentations of documents at the bank in the name of the beneficiary
• possibly managing the controversy with the Bank as regards to discrepancies, regulations, etc.
- get to reset c.d. discrepancy fees
- minimize bank charges
- guarantee sure payments and “on time”
- reduce the DSO (Days Sales Outstanding)
- optimize the business treasury
- optimize the business relationship with the client
- optimally manage human resources in the company, assign them to other functions.
- after defining the credit, it is validated by a consultant
- the beneficiary takes charge of sending goods
- the beneficiary can send to the consultant the invoice, packing list and further possible information for the production of documents
- the consultant in this way can prepare:
• pdf files (which includes a possible “draft”, extra copy of documents, fax communications to send to third parties, etc.) with all documents relevant the beneficiary included, previewed copies by the credit
• a possible model of the Certificate of Origin (print on CCIAA form)
• draft of documents by third parties (transport documents, various declarations, etc.)
• mandate by which taking documents to the bank.
- The beneficiary will receive a communication with attached instructions to use correctly the credit via email / Pec with mandate – the whole to report on your own letterhead– pdf files of relevant documents, the whole to print and sign subsequently. The beneficiary will receive documents in the original format by third party institutions and he will deliver documents in the bank.



Creating value for importers, exporters through high value-added supply of specialised services in the context of international trade, in order to improve performances on international markets.


- Over 15 years of relations with institutions, banks, and industrial associations, national chamber-based systems, companies.
- ICC Certificates of Achievement on: Incoterms® 2010, Mentor 600, URC 522 ICC and Collections, URDG Master, ISBP Online, URBPO ICC, Introduction to Trade Finance, Going Global, DC Master, ISP Master.
- Formative and consultancy planning with Chambers of Commerce and ICE-Agenzia.
- Formative services of consultancy and assistance with high specialization in Trade and Export Finance.
- Administration of dynamics concerning the right management of credit risk in the context of international commercial transactions.
- Credit risk management, valuation, check, credit risk resolution through insurance as well as financial operations, in the short term through the Trade Finance and in the medium-long term through the activity of Export Finance.

- Specialistic expertise on different financial instruments in the short term: documentary credits, SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit), international bank guarantees and also bank payment obligation.

- Specialistic expertise in various thematic segments linked to Consultancy and Foreign Trade Training and:
• Internationalisation of Businesses
• Incoterms® 2010
• Export Management
• Documentary Credits, SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit)
• Documentary Collections
• International Bank Guarantees
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation
• Insurance of the credit
• Export Financing
• Sacebt and Sace Spa Insurance Products
• Forfeiting

ICC Certificates of Achievement:
• Incoterms ® 2010
• Introduction to Trade Finance (EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Certificate)
• URC 522 and Collections (ICC Uniform Rules for Collections)
• URDG Master (URDG 758 ICC)
• URBPO (Uniform Rules for Bank Payment Obligations)
• ISBP Online (ISBP 745 ICC), The new Uniform International Banking Practice
• Mentor 600 (UCP 600 & Documentary Credits)
• DC Master (Advanced Online Training & Instruction in Documentary Credits)
• Going Global – ICC training on trading internationally (EN)
• ISP Master (Advanced Online Training & Instruction on ISP98 ICC)
• “TFP Professional Award for top class winning answer under EBRD TFP Trade Clinic” magazine Trade Exchange – The Ebrd’s Trade Facilitation Programme, Technical Trade Finance Forum, by ICC Georgia 2015.

Formative partner and training activities, on themes linked to the internationalisation of businesses, planning to coordinate structured and customized training courses according to the customer. Addressees: commercial operators and export office agents, banking profiles, export managers, enterprise consultants or young students.

Taught lessons, slide projection, use of the flip chart, constant interaction with participants. Didactic activities attended by methodologies intended to allow the participant to feel protagonist of didactic learning process. Business concrete real cases, role playing, use of the business game, didactic methods and analysis of concrete cases, reconstruction of business problems, elaborating reference schemes that push to action and specific situations offered by didactics to test out acquired competences.

Exercises and practical cases, descriptive material, slides, and articles, in electronic format.

credito trade export finance specialist

SECTION E: Consultant profile, spokesman Dr. Domenico Del Sorbo

Dr. Domenico Del Sorbo, graduates in Economy of the International Trade and Currency Markets, MBA degree in International Business – MIB – School of Management – Trieste MBA Accredited AMBA and ASFOR. Deep connoisseur of business internationalization processes and of credit risk management in the context of international commercial transactions. Particularly expert of Trade ed Export Finance instruments. He obtained the following certificates: ICC Certificates of Achievement on Mentor 600 (UCP 600 and Documentary Credits), URDG Master (Online Training & Instruction in URDG 758 ICC), Incoterms ® 2010, URC 522 and Collections, URBPO (Uniform Rules for Bank Payment Obligations), ISBP On line (ISBP 745 ICC), DC Master (Advanced Online Training and Instruction in Documentary Credits), Introduction to Trade Finance (Online Training in Trade Finance), Going Global – ICC training on trading internationally EN (EBRD Certificate), ISP Master (Online Training Programme in Standby Credits and ISP98). Consultant and trainer at Chamber of Commerce in Italy, institutions, industrial associations, ICE-Agenzia. He has active collaboration with: Business School of Il Sole 24 Ore, Aldini Valeriani Foundation. He writes for newsletters of the Italian chamber-based system and for Mercato Globale. He is engaged in assistance activities and specialistic consultancy in the context of documentary credits, banking guarantees for different SMEs (small and medium enterprises). He is a consultant on behalf of Sistema Camerale Servizi S.r.l. (formerly Mondimpresa), Unioncamere Lombardia, Unioncamere Puglia, Unioncamere Campania, CCIAA of Chieti, CCIAA of Ferrara, CCIAA of Pescara, CCIAA of Forlì-Cesena.

Services for preparing articles on “techniques of foreign trade” themes and scientific coordination in the context of publications relating to international trade techniques.

SECTION F: Publications and Tools (available to users that will request them upon enrolment to the website)

• Global Trade Finance Program IFC
• Crediti Documentari : preparazione della Charter Party Bill of Lading
• La banca designata nell’ambito di un credito non confermato
• La banca designata nel frangente di un credito confermato
• LC Lettere di credito: dopo il cambio della normativa
• La banca emittente : in una LC credito documentario
• Il finanziamento della attività di esportazione attraverso le operazioni di credito documentario
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation : il nuovo strumento per regolare gli scambi degli operatori del commercio internazionale
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation : funzionamento ed operatività
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation: la normativa di riferimento
• LC – Crediti Documentari: “ on the basis of the documents alone “
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come allestire i ‘beneficiary’s certificate’
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come disporre la draft
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come predisporre il weight list
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come organizzare il packing list
• LC – Crediti Documentari: il ruolo banca avvisante
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come predisporre la Bill of Lading
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come disporre il documento di trasporto multimodale
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come allestire il Certificato di Origine
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come predisporre il documento di trasporto aereo
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come allestire la Sea WayBill
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come disporre il documento di trasporto su strada
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come preparare correttamente la fattura

• Guide: Export Credit Risk Management

AVAILABLE TOOLS ON REQUEST: Please send request through the section Contacts on the website.
• FIATA – Shippers Intermodal Weight Certification “ SIC “
• SWIFT Transportation Fields
• Clauses in Bills of Lading Allowing for Release of Goods without Requiring Presentation of the Original sheet
• Signing a Transport Document, under UCP 600 ICC
• Lost in transit documents, under UCP 600 ICC
• Form concerning the Certificate of Origin
• CMR form
• On board notation summary
• Swift Trade Messaging Trends 2015
• CMI Uniforms Rules for Sea Waybills
• Opinion Handling Procedures & TORs
• Financial Instruments Features
• Straight versus To Order Transport Document
• Movements
• Rotterdam Rules & Hamburg Rules
• Incoterms® 2010 and LC Documentary Credits
• LC – Documentary Credits: the role of the Bank
• LC – Documentary Credits: On Board Notation
• Settlement, Risk Mitigation or Financing?
• Financial sheet of Iran 2016
• Financial sheet of Saudi Arabia 2016
• ICC Notes, on the principle of strict compliance
• Recommendation 12 Measures to Facilitate Maritime Transport Documents Procedures
• Uniform Commercial Code
• UCP 700 ICC Wish List
• Map of the Credit Insurance
• Slides Bank guarantees in international trade
• United Nations Convention on independent guarantees and SBLC (Standby letters of credits)
• Slides – ISBP 745 ICC
• Slides – Incoterms® 2010
• Slides – Documentary Collection
• Slides – LC – Documentary credits
• Slides – Export Finance
• Slides BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• The Hague-Visby Rules
• Institute Cargo Clauses
• Warsaw Convention of 1929
• Montreal Convention of 1999
• FIATA, FCR Forwarders Certificate of Receipt
• Fiata – Negotiable Multimodal Transport Bill of Lading
• FIATA FFI, Fiata Forwarding Instructions
• FIATA FCT, Forwarder Certificate of Transport
• FIATA, FWR Fiata Warehouse receipt
• Marine Insurance, Act 1906
• Bills of Exchange, Act 1882
• ICC United Rules for Multimodal Transport Document
• CMR Convention
• CIM Convention
• Vienna Convention of 1980
• New York Convention of 1958
• Geneva Convention of 1930
• ICC – When a non-bank issues a letter of credit
• ICC – The determination of an Original document in the context of UCP
• ICC – On-board Notation Paper
• ICC – Transferable credits and the UCP 500
• ICC – Guidance Paper – Use Of Sanctions Clauses
• Form concerning the Certificate of Origin
• Rethinking Trade and Finance 2015
• Bill of Exchange
• Letter of Credit Instructions Form
• Fax Transmission Report


- IBS foreign DESK
- IBS Blog
- Country profiles and international or geopolitical articles
- Principal Documents in International Trade
- Credit Risk definition (from the website of the Borsa Italiana)
- ICE – Agenzia
- EBRD Bank
- European Central Bank
- International Monetary Fund
- Ministry of Economic Development
- Custom Agency
- Customs Glossary
- European Union Activities in International Trade



EN Lands suitability for photovoltaic plants

EN preliminary information photovoltaic

Characteristics and requirements of lands :

EN photovoltaic size inclination electric substations

To install photovoltaic plants the farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, reclaimed lands or former landfills must have some fundamental requirements :

- For industrial lands and former pits : starting from 3 hectares
- For farmlands : starting from 6 hectares

- With the tracker technology : in case of uniaxial trackers the inclination must be below 15 % .
- Fixed system : in case of fixed installations the inclination must not exceed 25 % .

- MEDIUM VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS : for MV installations, the substations must be adjacent to the land, a few hundred metres away . There are 2 types of medium voltage substations : concrete substations and pole mounted substations .
- HIGH TENSION SUBSTATIONS : they can be found a few Km away depending on the size of the land . The bigger the land, the greater is the distance to connect it with the network . If the land is small, the substation must be nearer .
By opening the orange link it is possible to read the characteristics of the transformer and distribution stations as well as the medium voltage and the high tension substations .

- The lands must not have restrictions .

- Farmlands : Lombardy, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Piedmont, Tuscany, Latium, Molise, Basilicata, Campania, Apulia, Sicily, Veneto, Calabria and Abruzzi .
- Industrial lands and former pits : every region .

EN our Offer photovoltaic


PURCHASE : It is possible to proceed with the purchase of the spot bulk buying all the land, sometimes including some unfitted parts that will be quantified after the drawing up of a layout with the illustration of the panels arrangement and the installed power .

BUILDING LEASE ( DDS ) AND ITS CESSION : It is possible to pay an annual fee, an income that in the photovoltaic sector is called “ Cession of the Building Lease ” which lasts for 30 years . With the methods agreed an amount multiplied by the number of hectares is paid annually . The DDS includes the disposal of the installation provided for by law and the restoration of the land to the previous conditions .

DISCOUNTED BUILDING LEASE : The payments for the sale of the building lease are paid in a single discounted solution .

EN photovoltaic send us information about a land


1. DOWNLOAD THE PACKAGE TO COOPERATE : This ZIP file contains 5 documents
3. WATCH THE VIDEO TO FIND OUT HOW TO DRAW A KMZ PERIMETER : KMZ how to draw the perimeter of a plot

EN contact us for photovoltaic


send to orange

Send us an e-mail or call the number +39-348-2920146


SOLAR ROOFS :Go to the Solar Roofs web page, Industrial Covering
WIND ENERGY : Go to the Wind Energy web page
POSITION OF THE SUN The position of the sun and interactive maps

EN photovoltaic go to Home Grid Parity page


EN photovoltaic guide for landowners



This article is for private shareholders or companies that want to rent their land in order to install photovoltaic systems and have useful information on the sale or rental of land for photovoltaic systems .
In the following article we will try to illustrate the most important topics : we will clarify all the central aspects that are useful for landowners, so that they can better understand how to handle negotiations and pay more attention to middlemen who can be more or less competent .

The rent of an agricultural, industrial, building land, a former pit or a landfill to build a photovoltaic system can be a sustainable choice for the planet . It can be a support for renewable sources of clean energy and at the same time an advantageous opportunity of profit. Keep reading to understand how it works .


Is renting a land for the installation of photovoltaic solar panels a good deal ?
Is renting lands for the installation of photovoltaic power stations safe ? Or is it better to sell them ?
Renting lands to install photovoltaic power stations is a good idea, but after that who will be in charge of their disposal ?
Which are the main requirements and characteristics that make an agricultural or industrial land interesting for the installation of photovoltaic power plants ?
Which are the necessary authorizations that a land should have in order to be adequate for the construction of photovoltaic power plants ?
What does the rental contract ( cession of the building lease ) stipulated between investors and landowners provide for ( whether it be for agricultural and industrial lands, landfill or former pit ) ?
What should the landowner pay attention to ?
How to decide between the different offers and the deposits that sometimes are provided at the signing of the preliminary agreement and sometimes after the agreement with Enel or Terna ?
Why is it important to request a layout together with the receipt of the rental offer ( cession of the building lease ), sale, or discounted DDS ?
This is how you can rent an agricultural or industrial land, a former pit or landfill for the installation of photovoltaic power plants .


The rent of an agricultural land, a former pit, a landfill reclaimed or to be reclaimed and an industrial land used for the installation of a photovoltaic system, is based on the availability and use of a building land . “ Building ” means that the land has obtained the authorizations issued by the authorities, the permission and authorization for the connection to the electricity network .



A lot of farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, in order to be suitable for the installation of photovoltaic systems, must have basic requirements, otherwise it is not possible to rent or sell lands for the installation of a photovoltaic system . In the photovoltaic sector and business the following characteristics are the most important ones :


There are 2 fundamental conditions for the exposure :
- Level ground
- Hilly ground with a southern exposure

It is a relatively easy requirement to verify, since a compass can be sufficient to check the exposure of the land and with the ” Show Elevation Profile ” function on Google Earth it is also possible to display the slope graph .


If there is a level ground, according to the technology used :
- With fixed installations you can also install 1 MW per 1 hectares
- With Trackers ( the uniaxial ones for example ) it is possible to install around 1.1 – 1.3 MW in 2 hectares .


An essential element is the conformation / type of land . It must be a level ground or have moderate slopes ( topographic slope ); in case of hilly terrain, a study should be carried out in order to verify if the ground is exposed in a southerly direction and if there are no slopes that will make the installation of panels difficult . Nowadays even if with technology we can work with high slopes using fixed installations, this involves enormous expenditure and sometimes the business plan of a project can be penalized .

Sometimes the land can also have moderate slopes, but in a northerly direction : the slopes penalize the land, because those kind of inclination reduce the output of photovoltaic panels .


The absence of restriction means that the land must not have national, regional, provincial or municipal restrictions ; otherwise, we will only consider the part that is exempt from the constraints . The landowner can check if the land has restrictions by going to the town hall and paying for the issue .

Apart from the exposition, the other crucial aspect that needs to be verified is if the farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, reclaimed and non – reclaimed landfills, are affected by landscape, hydrogeological and hydraulic restrictions, SIC and ZPS restrictions , naturalistic and water protection restrictions as well as restrictions linked to areas adjacent to motorways, railways, rivers, watercourses and others .

The complete analysis of the restrictions is carried out by our internal engineering service, however it is very useful to have the CDU ( Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ) that the landowner can request at the town hall ( usually the Town Planning / Environment / Territory office ). The CDU is a document issued by the public administration which contains the urban planning indications concerning a building or a land .

The cost of requesting the CDU can vary from 30 – 40 Euros up to about 60 – 70 Euros depending on the town councils : it can take from one week to more than one month . It is an official document and is drawn up taking into account national, regional, provincial, municipal and other restrictions .
It will be attached to the papers once you decide to sign the Preliminary Agreement to activate the authorization process, which starts with the connection request to the electricity network ( TICA ), the environmental impact assessment ( EIA ) and other subsequent steps .


The adjacency of the lands to an electricity substation or power line is essential . The lands ( farmlands, former pits, industrial lands or landfills ) must be near to an electricity substation, to a medium or high voltage power line, or to a transformer station . This is because creating a new power line involves enormous expenditure .
The adjacency to electricity substations and the connection to the electricity network is perhaps the most important requirement . It is the sword of Damocles because it determines whether to continue or not with a project .

This is a very important characteristic if you want to rent farmlands, industrial lands, former pits and landfills for the construction of photovoltaic systems . A photovoltaic system makes sense only if it is connected to the power line : if the connection costs exceed the maximum allowed, unfortunately the land will not be considered suitable, even if it is a level ground and has no restrictions .

It is not easy to understand the electrical aspect and evaluate whether the land is suitable or not . Various factors must be considered, such as :

- The size in hectares of the land
- The region where the land is located
- The average annual statistical radiation at that latitude
- The type of technology used : for example an uniaxial tracker or a panel with a fixed system, the one that best fits the photovoltaic system that needs to be built .
- The investor ‘s preferences concerning the type of technology that will be used .
- For installations that need to be connected to an Enel medium voltage substation, it is necessary to know the distance in meters between the land and the medium voltage cabin ( concrete substation and pole mounted substation with a transformer attached ) and the distance between the land and the Enel substation 132 KV or 150 KV .
- For the lands where photovoltaic systems will be connected to a Terna substation, meaning those projects in which a high tension is used, it is important to measure the distance between the land ( farmlands, industrial lands, former pits, landfills ) and the electrical substation of Terna at 150 KV or 220 KV or 380 KV . It depends on the power that needs to be installed which is linked to the size in hectares of the lands .
- In case of big lands where large powers are needed, it is possible to build a cabin can that would be quite expensive but it will be possible to bear all the expenses . For small – scale photovoltaic system projects, building a substation or passing the power line over the ground to create a new power line is very expensive and is not convenient for the investment .

Terna and Enel constantly check the structure of the network and, according to their priorities, if there are requests for connections in certain areas they are ready to invest . They can plan the construction of new substations, or the expansion or renovation of lines and increase the capacity of already existing substations ( however this takes a long time and often it is not possible to wait ).


Renting or selling lands to build photovoltaic power plants has an economic advantage, both in the case of a farmland, former pit or landfill . It is important that the photovoltaic power plants are installed in a professional way, according to the latest technologies and through trustworthy and bankable investors that have gained experience in this sector .

If the check on farmlands, former pits, industrial lands and landfills are successful, meaning that there is a level ground, the land is near to the connection to the electricity network and has no restrictions, it is possible to sign the preliminary agreement between landowner an investor . Then it will be possible to choose between different solutions :

THE RENT OF LANDS OR TO BE MORE PRECISE CESSION OF THE BUILDING LEASE ( DDS ). Usually after 30 years with the payment of a rent, an annual or a six – monthly one; the amount for the rent of farmlands goes from 1800 Euro to hectare per Year to 2500 Euro per hectare per year, up to 3000 Euro per hectare per Year ( for the rent of land, if the connection is on the ground or adjacent to the ground : the electrical substation is 150 KV, 220 KV, 380 KV ) .For industrial lands the amounts may be slightly higher even if for the DDS there are not big differences between farmlands and industrial lands .

THE SELL OF LANDS and purchase of the land by an investor at a price per hectare that needs to be negotiated between the parties ; the amounts are strongly linked to the connection costs of the photovoltaic plants that will be built . The expected average annual irradiation, as well as the average prices for the region considered, the slopes and the conformation of the land itself must also be taken into account . As for the sale of land, sometimes the landowner wants to sell in bulk . However, a part of the land can be unusable because it has restrictions . How to solve this problem without breaking up the estate ? In many cases, it is possible to overcome this problem by buying the land in bulk ( this is the “ body selling ” method ). However it is easier for the investor to purchase suitable parcels only, the ones without restrictions (“ measure selling “ method ). The investor attributes a lower price to unsuitable parcels and finds a selling price that is fair for both parties .

DISCOUNTED RENT OF LAND : It is a method that allows the landowner to rent his land for thirty years to build photovoltaic systems . The landowner remains the owner and receives the rents in a single solution that has a 50 % discount . These are favourable terms if the landowner wants to receive the amount immediately while retaining the title of ownership . Obviously, in this case, the investor renounces to the financial benefit of reducing the payments for the rent of land, and at the same time he does not have the ownership : in this case there is a disadvantage . For these reasons, the discounted amounts regarding the cession of the building lease cannot usually exceed the amounts that, in case of purchase, should be paid .
It is a question of fully understanding the needs of the landowner and suggesting a contractual solution that best fulfils the needs of the parties .
IBS has no advantage over one of the 3 possibilities to proceed, therefore it is neutral and can facilitate a negotiation that satisfactory is for everyone . The same goes for the amounts that need to be paid to the landowner, in case of sale, DDS ( building lease ), discounted DDS . In this case IBS will be able to find a crossover between the parties .


The rent / sell of a land can be applied to farmlands, industrial lands, former pits or other lands that are granted for photovoltaic systems . However,

MIDDLEMEN : It is better to be aware of those people who are not specialized in the photovoltaic field and middlemen who promise off – market amounts . The rules in the photovoltaic sector are precise and the Grid Parity amounts that can be paid without government incentives are known and within certain standard values . A reliable investor or a competent operator in the photovoltaic sector will not waste his money and he will need a profit of margin that is the result of the following equation :


For this reason, if the land is very expensive, outside the market values and the connection is not economic, the photovoltaic project will not be sustainable . Therefore you need to ask yourself whether the person who made the offer, is informed and / or competent .

DEPOSITS AND ADVANCES : The same applies when high amounts are promised to the owner, as a deposit or advance, directly at the sign of the preliminary agreement . This also suggest that it is important to know more about the person that makes the offer .This is because as long as Enel or Terna do not confirm the connection solution ( i.e. in which substation the photovoltaic system should be connected ), it is not possible to confirm the connection costs and the feasibility of the project . Therefore the first deposit is bearable after about 2 – 3 months or within the first 6 – 8 months maximum ( if there are delays or there is an Enel / Terna coordination when photovoltaic systems require it ), when Enel or Terna confirm and officially communicate where our photovoltaic power plant should be connected . At that point every information for the business plan will be available and it will be possible to proceed with the operating project, paying the connection and the deposits to the landowners . Before this moment, we could also make estimates, studies on the feasibility of the substations where a connection is possible, however, only the operators Enel or Terna can confirm the authorization and the photovoltaic project .

LAYOUT : For these reasons, we advise the landowners to ask to those people who send them an offer for the rent of land ( or sale or transfer of the building lease ), a layout of the plant that should be built, together with the power that is expected to be installed, the arrangement of the panels on the usable surface and any particles or areas that have restrictions ( or the configuration of the land that oblige us to reject those areas ) . This will oblige your interlocutors to take a position and the responsibility . If they cannot send you a layout, you need to ask yourself why . Most of the times it is because these people do not have a real buyer and they only want to have preliminary agreements and options on lands . Then they want to arrange a signalling fee with an investor ( at best ) or with other middlemen . However, usually the contracts for the options on the lands, that are submitted and signed by the landowners, who are unaware of this, are ineligible . For this reason, in order to be carried out, they need to be signed again with different clauses . Or we have been contacted several times by landowners who told us about those people ( middlemen but unfortunately in some cases investors too ) who once signed the preliminary agreement, ask to negotiate it downwards after receiving the TICA . Later the landowners noticed that it did not meet their expectations and it was not what was originally promised . This usually happens in the case of off-market prices .

For these reasons, asking for a layout of the photovoltaic power plant that will be built, clear the ground from shady individuals . Anyway the layout of the plant is obligatory in order to have a good offer, it is easier to understand the variables involved and the precise amounts for the rent ( cession of the building lease ) or sell of a land for the construction of a photovoltaic power plant .


The rent of farmlands, former pits or reclaimed lands for the installation of a photovoltaic power plant can be a great opportunity . Renting a farmland or allowing the use of an industrial land for the photovoltaic plant can be a great source of income and a thirty-year rent .
If the lands do not have restrictions ( farmlands, industrial lands, landfills, former pits ) it is possible to proceed with the signing of a preliminary agreement, the request of the connection to the electricity network and the planning of a photovoltaic power plant, according to the national rules provided for by law : a single authorization ( AU ) which is not provided for small lands of about 2 hectares installing less than 1 MW where it is possible to use a PAS ( it is a procedure that aims at the construction and exercise of photovoltaic power plants ) .
The licensing process on former pits or industrial lands is easier and quicker because the destination and the code of the lands themselves is similar to the use that concerns the installation of photovoltaic power plants . For the farmland more passages and longer times are needed because the code of destination of the lands, to use as a building land for the installation of a photovoltaic plant should be changed .

Therefore, after having verified the constraints, and having created the engineering layout of the preliminary design of the photovoltaic plants, in the past the connection through the ” General Minimum Technical Solution ( The STMG defines the connection criteria for photovoltaic systems above 1 kWp up to large plants .)” to Enel or Terna was required . Once confirmed by the network operators, it indicated the connection point, the new line that needed to be implemented and built, and an estimate of the costs for the construction . Once the connection solution proposed by Terna or Enel was evaluated and accepted, it was possible to move on to the next step and to send the design of the final project, through which Enel or Terna were authorized to issue the STMD .

Currently in conformity with the resolution no. 99, 2008 ( also see enclosure A to the enclosure ), Enel or Terna do not send the STMG and then the STMD anymore : they directly send a single estimate of connection that in the photovoltaic is known as TICA “ Testo Integrato delle Connessioni Attive ” ( amalgamated law of the technical and economic conditions for connection to electrical networks ).

TICA : Literally Amalgamated Law of the Active Connections. It is the first thing to do to ask for the connection to the electricity network, generally to Enel, or Terna in case of high tension plants . These are the societies that organize the power lines in the photovoltaic sector . TICA estimates the connection to the electricity network and its costs .
For the construction and exercise of the photovoltaic power plant, these activities depend on the release of the DIA ( Dichiarazione di Inizio Attività ) by the municipality at a territorial level or on the release of the single provincial authorization according to the article number 12 of the legislative decree no. 29, 2003 .

DIA : it is a necessary document for the rent of a farmland, industrial land or former pit for the construction of a photovoltaic power plant . DIA, it is the acronym of “ Dichiarazione di Inizio Attività ” and needs to be submitted to the municipality in which the lands are located . Thanks to the DIA the provincial council can release the single authorization and it is possible to start with the work . The DIA is discussed during the conference of regional authorities ( Conferenza dei Servizi ) and the several competent administrations that need to decide .

Generally speaking the single authorization ( AU ) is an obligatory choice for photovoltaic power plants that exceed a determined threshold of power . The licensing process through the single authorization ( AU ), is executed according to the principles that allow a easier procedure through the institution of regional authorities and the convocation by the provincial government, no later than 30 days . Every representatives of the competent territorial administration, who provides and issues the approval regarding the subject of the discussion, is invited to take part in the meeting of the regional authorities as well as the managers of public activities that want to report possible interferences created by photovoltaic plant that are still in progress .

Practically, in order to obtain building lands for the construction of photovoltaic power plants, in the case of the construction of big power plants, the licensing process requests and consists of authorizations : without them it is not possible to start with the work . Among these authorizations the one of the Ministry of Economic Development is essential in order to build the power line, there is the authorization for the archaeological bonds, the authorization from the Basin Authority, the authorization for the landscape bound, the authorization for the environment and the one for the municipal restriction : in short, the authorizations from all the institutions that need to decide for the construction of a photovoltaic power plant .


The kind of agreement or contract that is used to rent a farmland in order to build a photovoltaic power plant is defined as “ cession of the building lease ” or “ selling ” or “ cession of the discounted building lease ” .

Sometimes, for the draft of the preliminary option submitted to the landowners for the signing, the landowners make use of law firms that do not have a specific competence in the photovoltaic field . And sometimes, the lawyers that defend the landowners ( farmlands, former pit, industrial lands, it does not matter except for some specific events ) demand structural changes that most of the times cannot be done . This is because the agreements and the rules for drawing up a contract should be “ eligible ” meaning that they need to protect the investor against the risks connected to the licensing process . For example in a country like Italy, famous for its slowness at a bureaucratic level and the several authorities that need to approve the cession of a single authorization which gives the suitability for the building and construction of photovoltaic power plants through solar panels .
Due that these amounts are not small it is advisable to rely on experts in the photovoltaic field and ask for a second opinion : in this way it will be possible to proceed without problems or surprises and everything will be easier .


When an investor or an engineering or planning company pursue the authorization procedures ( farmland, industrial land or former pits ) and meet all the requirements in order to be considered suitable to install a photovoltaic power plant, the important thing to do is to draw up a contract or a draft of a preliminary rental option (or better “ cession of the building lease ”) or purchasing by the investor or engineering company with a proxy by the investor himself .

The main points of the building lease contract are :

- The annual rent : the amounts are normally paid to the landowner in a single sum for the cession of the building lease . If the lands are near an electric substation the price increases .
- The duration of the rent ( cession of the building lease ): 30 years
- The time of payment : usually the annual rent in advance is paid to the landowner .
- Restoring lands and places : after 30 years from the cession of the building lease, the investor who rents the land in order to build the photovoltaic power plant must dismantle the plant itself . In addition to those laws, which are valid on a national level and protect the landowners, some regions ( such as Lombardy ) require the investor to deposit a bank guaranty in security of the disposal of the plant with the amounts provided for the activities .


Are you the owner of a land or a roof and want to earn something from it ? Is there somebody who wants to invest in the photovoltaic field ? What is the building lease for the photovoltaic plant ?
The cession of the building lease is the perfect solution for the owners of lands or roofs who want to make them available for the installation of the photovoltaic plant and want to invest in them .
On one side there are those people who have suitable surfaces for the photovoltaic ( for example : the roof of a store or warehouse, a sunroof, a land ) who are not ready to take upon themselves the installation or the management of a photovoltaic plant that produces clean energy .
On the other side there are those people who invest, purchase the legal ownership of the area or the covering, install a photovoltaic power plant and produce clean energy in order to obtain a marginality after the selling of the energy .

The cession of the building lease for the photovoltaic is an interesting solution :

- The owner of the roof transfers the building leases of an unproductive area and rents it ( for farmlands it is a bit different because they can be used for agricultural purposes, for industrial lands it depends ).
- Those who buy the building leases and become the owner in order to build a photovoltaic power plant, can benefit from it without being the owner of the land or the roof in which it is realized .
- Basically the advantages of surface rights are : whoever becomes the owner of the area, has the availability of the surface on which the photovoltaic plant should be built, without being the owner, being the owner of the photovoltaic plant without being the owner of the roof or the ground on which it is installed . As a quid pro quo the owner of the plant pays to the transferor ( owner of the roof, land ), an annual rent in cash or in the case of roofs also part of the energy produced .


Through the building lease it is possible to distinguish and divide the document of title of the roof or of the land from the document of title of the building, in particular the photovoltaic power plant .
The building lease gives the right to build the photovoltaic power plant or, generally speaking, a construction on a surface ( roof or land ) without being the owner of the roof or of the land, that is the surface itself .
Paradoxically with the purchase of the building lease it is possible to realize elevations of small buildings, that is having the permission to build and then sell apartments that, for example are in a roof spaces .
Who is selling and buying the energy produced ? The energy produced by a photovoltaic power plant can be sold in situ or to a single person ( which is the most convenient solution in order to avoid energy dissipation ) or sold to the national electricity network .


The hunt for farmlands, industrial lands, former pits is open everywhere nationally . The lands that are already authorized, meaning those lands where it is possible to build the photovoltaic plants immediately, are building lands . The building lands are those lands that concluded the licensing process of the single authorization and that received all the necessary authorizations, the network connection and the diverse authorizations to start building photovoltaic power plants .
Other people, the so – called “ developer ” work in the Greenfield sector : they do the hard work of finding websites, doing checks and planning . They are assisted by companies that have a significant engineering track record .

However the photovoltaic business in Grid Parity ( that is government incentives ) is lucrative and the investors have greater conviction and capital . This is because the market trend of energy will bring to an adequate marginality in order to justify an investment in the Green Economy .


The photovoltaic business started in 2006, after the gualification according to the DECREE no. 37, the 22nd January 2008 Former law 46 / 1990 letters a) and b) that controlled the installation, transformation, development, maintenance of plants and electrical and electronic systems .

The production of energy through renewable sources is absolutely a development compared to carbon or the energy sources at high environmental impact . Sometimes on the other hand there is a blot on the landscape after a heavy installation of photovoltaic panels and installations in some agricultural areas .
Without doubt when we install on roofs, warehouses, shelters, sunroofs or domestic production of energy for private costumers and companies, we avoid spoiling the landscape, great production of electric energy that is concentrated on one single point : in this way the energy produced will be transformed and transported with considerable dissipation and losses and risks that derive from the transport of energy and the creation of electromagnetic fields .

However roofs, shelters, warehouses and self production are not enough to move the total national production toward renewable sources ; the big plants can produce big amounts of energy that are comparable to the small nuclear power plants, without the problem of producing radioactive waste .


Wind Power Plant Lands



EN Wind Power Plant Home Page


A SINGLE INTERLOCUTOR : IBS coordinates the scouting of suitable sites to install wind farms . Together with a partner engineering company, it is the owner of the authorization cycle, supervising the bureaucratic process, starting from the request for connection to the electricity grid to the Terna / Enel operators until the Single Authorization . IBS on request may also indicate an EPC ( Engineering, Procurement, Construction ) for construction activities and BOS ( Balance of System ).

INVESTORS : Buyers / Investors already have contracts in place with IBS and they are ready to purchase the Aeolian concessions / authorizations in Grid Parity as soon as they can be established, operating in Development mode in Greenfield or Brownfield .

EN how to cooperate wind power plant

GUIDELINES : in order to make processes efficient, it is important that the ( land ) sites for wind farms that will be presented, have certain requirements indicated below, therefore we recommend a careful reading of the directives that will follow . Thanks for collaboration !


- Land owners in Italy

- Facilitators, land detectors

- Estate agents

- Operators and Technicians operating in the Renewable Energy sector

- Professional associations : Engineers, Architects, Surveyors, Agronomists, Industrial Experts, Agricultural Experts, Professional Offices


WIND SPEED : sites exposed to wind blowing at a speed of 5 meters or more per second (& gt ; 5 mt / s), according to the average annual wind speed measured at 100 m s.l.t. / s.l.m. ( 100 meters above ground level / above sea level ). Read in the section “Operations” how to present the sites for details

MORPHOLOGY OF SITES / LANDS FOR WIND FARMS : sites with adequate wind, preferably ridges and crests

HECTARES OF GROUND NEEDED : it will depend on the installable power, according to the provisions of the law, and depending on the distance that will be maintained between the various wind turbines

SIZE OF WIND PLANTS : according to the legal indications, from 500 KW up to 5 – 6 MW for each wind turbine or higher power . The total power of the wind farm will depend on the number of wind turbines that will be installed

AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL LANDS : both agricultural and industrial land are allowed . Sardinia is an exception because according to the current legislation, it allows the installation of a wind farm exclusively on industrial D category land and not on agricultural land category E

REGIONS WHERE TO BUILD WIND FARMS : the land, if suitable and without restrictions, can be found throughout the national territory : Northern Italy, Central Italy, Southern Italy, and therefore land in all regions . It is important that there is adequate windiness, and that the rents or the sale of the land allow an economic return on the investment compatible with the economic model . The regions with greater windiness are : Sardinia, Sicily, Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia, Campania, Molise, followed by Abruzzo, Lazio, Umbria, then Tuscany, Emilia, Marche, Liguria, and some areas of Val D’ Aosta, Piedmont, Trentino Alto Adige without considering off – shore installations at the sea

PURCHASE OF LAND OR SALE OF SURFACE RIGHT : it is allowed that the owners can take advantage of both a purchase contract and a contract for the sale of the surface right for 30 years and in some cases a transfer of the discounted DDS surface right paid at the beginning in a single payment trance

AMOUNTS FOR SALE OR SALE OF SURFACE RIGHT TO LAND OWNERS : the amount that will be paid to the properties of the land in Euro to Hectare for the sale, or in Euro to Hectare per year for the right to surface, will be negotiated between the investor and the owner of the land, depending on the Region where the land are located ( Southern Italy, Central Italy and Northern Italy ), on the distance from the connection point and on the characteristics of the site ( slope, geomorphological features ). In some cases, the investor may also pay the land surface rights in a single, updated solution . Each investor recognizes variable rates per hectare depending on the financial model used .

CONSTRAINTS AND WIND LIMITATIONS : the lands will be subjected to a geomorphological and orographic analysis, and careful analysis will be carried out to ascertain that the sites are not affected by various types of constraints :

- Official list of protected areas

- Natura 2000 network, sites of Community Importance and Special Protection Areas, SIC ZPS

- Cultural heritage and landscape

- Landscape constraints, visual cones

- Archaeological, geomorphological, hydrogeological constraints, areas with hydrogeological and hydraulic risk

- Piano territoriale paesaggistico regionale ( regional landscape territorial plan )

- Proximity to habitable buildings and electromagnetism

- Urban planning constraints

- Restrictions of a national, regional, local nature for the construction of wind farms in Grid Parity .



Our Buyers / Investors are also interested in purchasing ready – to – build permits ” Ready to Build ” where it is possible to immediately proceed with the construction of the Wind Power Plant .

EN steps to point out land plot wind power plant



VISIT AT THE ATLAS AEOLIAN SITE : Click on the LINK Aeolian Interactive Atlas


- After clicking on the Link, the Home of the Atlas site will open

- On the left select : “ Average annual wind speed at 100 m s.l.t. / s.l.m. ”

- The map will be colored with different colors depending on the average wind speed per area concerned

- Click on + and go to enlarge the Region and the area of interest

- Discard the coloured areas in light green and dark green and consider the colored areas with the colours Yellow, Light Orange, Pink, Dark Orange, Purple, Blue and Blue, ie for wind speeds equal to or greater than 5 meters per second ( > 5 mt / s)

- If the land of interest falls in the colours indicated, you can proceed to send the site data


Land owners or signallers will be asked to send :

- Google coordinates of the land with the indicated placeholder

- If the area to be analysed is large, send the highlighted perimeter of the site in addition to the coordinates using the File with .KMZ extension from Google Earth

- Greenfield Website card that collects basic information about the land

This will make it possible to carry out checks regarding wind speed, and simulations of wind energy production .

After the preliminary analysis, and having obtained the go – ahead to proceed, the following documents will need to be sent :

- Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ( Certificate of urban destination )



SUBSTATION OR CABIN AND RELATED CONNECTION : the verification of the distance of the land from the nearest Enel / Terna substation will be carried out ; the presence of medium / high voltage, the capacity of the line, the technical feasibility of a connection in the substation, the costs for connection to a stall of an existing substation . The creation of a new user substation, will be considered for wind power plant of adequate power ; at the same time the nearby high voltage line will be directly intercepted .

To send documents, go to the section below “COLLABORATE”


PRELIMINARY AGREEMENT TO BE SIGNED BY THE OWNERS : after the checks on the land, on the connection to the Enel / Terna substation, and obtained a positive outcome, the signature of a preliminary land option agreement and the operational steps and the start of the authorization bureaucratic process can take place .

ACTIVITIES PERFORMED BY IBS AND PARTNER COMPANIES : IBS will engage through qualified technicians in the development of single authorizations through :
- Single Authorization development that includes geological, morphological, orographic surveys and examinations, and related surveys
- Design, presentation of TICA connection request and various requests, meetings with the Authorities in charge until obtaining the Unique Turnkey Authorizations, to proceed with the construction of the wind farms .

TIMING : times and methods differ depending on the type of site ( agricultural or industrial land ), region concerned, other technical aspects . The time runs after the preliminary analysis of the land documents and the signing of the preliminary option contract with the properties and then from the analysis documents sent to the Services conference in the Region in synergy with our designers .

AGREEMENTS WITH SIGNALS : if the site is not submitted to our attention by the owner directly, but through signalers or collaborators, we will sign agreements to protect employees for the recognition of a reporting fee and an NDA ( Non Disclosure Agreement ) for release of confidential information .

EN test and documents download wind power plant



GREENFIELD SITE CARD : make the download to send the basic information by the owner of the land or signaller (Region, Province, Municipality, if sale or DDS, economic expectations, any Mortgages, information on the Electrical Cabinet, etc.), with the Google Coordinates and if You can attach the photo in Google Earth with coordinates and perimeter of the land .


LINE SIMULATION COSTS LINK : ( for EXPERTS ) Excel file to simulate the connection costs to the low voltage / medium voltage line . Enter the values in the boxes highlighted in yellow and automatically calculate and first evaluate. For high voltage, CONTACT US .

EN download greenfield form wind power plant

EN Google Earth and KMZ

EN download electrical line costs wind power plant

Contact us Wind Power Plant


Contact us to collaborate by E-mail indicating your contacts or call +39 348 2920146 . One of our managers will communicate with you within 24 H :

Mail : info(a)
Skype : doingbusinessibs ( location Roma )

send to orange

Notes : in our E-mail the at is indicated with this symbol (a) insted of @ for informatic safety . Thank you for your collaboration !

EN Stakeholders wind power plant


EN Grid Parity Stakeholders

EN work with us wind power plant


We are looking for direct signalers, operators in contact with the properties of the land, and people who wish to become our Coordinators / Area Managers to coordinate and relate to the reporters, and point of reference for the information process .


send to orange



How the wind is formed

The wind is an atmospheric phenomenon . The earth transfers heat to the atmosphere unevenly, creating areas of low pressure and areas of high pressure . When several air masses come into contact, the area where the pressure is greater transfers the air where the pressure is lower, creating an air flow . The higher the pressure difference, the stronger the wind will be .

How to measure the wind

The wind is measured by force and direction . The direction is measured with a wind vane, which can freely orientate, based on the wind direction and the wind is classified using the place of origin or using the cardinal points . The force is indicated by measuring its speed in knots or through the Francis Beaufort scale . The speed is measured with the anemometer, the most used and the simplest is the cup type .

The circulation of the wind

The movements of air are due to the difference in temperature between the equator and the tropics . The equatorial hot air rises, needing cold air from the tropics in a continuous recirculation .

Factors that influence the circulation of winds

Other factors also affect air circulation:

- Earth axis inclination
- The revolution of the earth around the sun
- The rotation of the earth
- The frictional force of the earth ‘s surface
- Presence of mountain ranges

Description of the wind farm

A wind power plant is composed of one or more distant wind generators connected by underground cables . A typical wind machine is composed of turbines ( 1 to 3 ) fixed on a hub . The turbines and the hub form the rotor . The hub is connected to a tree . All the elements are placed in an instrument which is positioned on a support with an adjustable bearing . This instrument is placed on a tower anchored to the ground with a reinforced concrete foundation .
There are several machines but they can be grouped into 2 categories :
- Machines for electrical production to be placed on the network
- The machines for supplying isolated users

Onshore wind farms

More connected wind turbines form wind farms, real power plants . The energy is conveyed to a collection station where it is transformed into medium – voltage electricity . A wind farm can have up to more than one hundred turbines and covers an area of several kilometres . The distance between the turbines is calculated 5 – 10 times the turbine diameter . The USA owns the largest number of onshore wind farms, the largest being in Texas . In Europe the largest is in Glasgow ( Scotland ).

Offshore wind farm

The most recent wind farms are located offshore in the sea, where it is possible to exploit the winds that meet no obstacle . Construction and maintenance costs are higher, but the advantages are :
- The winds find no obstacles
- The problems of aesthetic and acoustic impact are solved
- They are not a danger to birds, birds of prey and migratory birds
Offshore installations are the real future of wind energy . The largest number of offshore wind farms are located in Denmark and the United Kingdom .

Wind energy

Wind energy is a technology that allows wind energy to be converted into electricity . Wind energy drives the wind turbine producing electricity to be transferred to the national electricity grid . The main problem is the landscape impact : the turbines are placed on top of mountains and hills . So they are visible from great distances .

Wind energy in history

The exploitation of wind energy goes back to ancient times, just think of the windmills that Holland used from 1350 to drain the marshes . The first true electric power generators date back to the early 1900s . In the period between the two world wars more powerful wind turbines were built .

Benefits and costs

The most significant cost is the initial investment for the construction of the wind farm . The supply of the machines is the most important expense . The cost of a turbine ( purchase, transport, assembly and start – up ) is directly linked to the rotor diameter . The cost of producing Kwh from wind is constantly decreasing over the last twenty years thanks to the optimization of processes, innovation and the improvement of machine performance . There are no fuel costs and the systems are remotely controlled .
Main benefits identified by the International Energy Agency :
- Very low emissions of harmful gases ( Co2 )
- Availability of energy from a different and safe source
- New industrial and employment prospects
The states that are currently interested in this type of energy are : Austria, Finland, Canada, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Holland, Spain, Norway, Sweden and the USA .

Solar Roofs


EN Solar Roofs


IBS search INDUSTRIAL ROOFS AND AGRICULTURAL COVERING for photovoltaic covering using solar panels .

The types of intervention are :


The methods are :

- EFFICIENT USE SYSTEMS SEU ( efficient use systems )


By opening the following LINK and clicking on the image, it is possible to download a document that you need to draw up . Once completed, send us the document via e-mail together with the information about the roof . As soon as we receive the form, we will process a preliminary to determine :

• The power of the plant
• The production of the plant
• The business plan

Then we will make you a financial offer to pay you for your Roof .

Please be sure to include all your contacts in the e-mail . Thank you for your collaboration .

EN ask an offer for solar roof


If your company has roofs, surfaces on which you would like to install photovoltaic panels, you can also contact the number +39 348 2920146 or for more information write us by e – mail .

send to orange


The industrial photovoltaic power plants on the roofs represent for a company the combination of cheap, clean energy and entrepreneurial awareness about environmental issues . They transform the environmental protection in a profitable investment with increases in profits . The covering and roofs of industrial and commercial buildings are particularly suitable for the installation of photovoltaic panels, as they have large surfaces and there are no patches of shade .

The number of companies that choose photovoltaic installations on roofs is increasing every day . They want to reduce the energy expenditure for production requirements , using photovoltaic modules installed on large surfaces and on the roofs of buildings . The photovoltaic roofs sector for companies recorded an increase of over 40 % compared to the previous year thanks to a sharp price cutting of the photovoltaic modules ; because of this, several companies, in particular the energy – intensive ones, decided to reorganize the energy expenditure, investing on the photovoltaic industry, increasing their competitiveness in the market .

IBS through its partners, and a team of engineers with an extensive experience in the green economy sector, will be responsible for the design of the plant, the installation and testing of solar photovoltaic systems on the roofs, for an after – sales service and a qualified maintenance of the assistance, as well as expert advice in the field of renewable energy .

The goal is to identify and then develop sustainable solutions that aim at a high energy efficiency, that led to the development of renewable sources in Italy and to an energy conservation .


Solar energy
Solar power plant
Photovoltaic power station
Photovoltaic module
Solar panel
Covering and PV Rooftop
Renewable energy


Crocus Sativus

Sativus Saffron Bulbs

Sativus Crocus Saffron bulbs

Sativus Saffron highest quality order now

Saffron Bulbs

Wholesale Organic Crocus Sativus

IBS has direct relationship with an Agricultural Holding that produces bulbs of Crocus Sativus Saffron ( organic product as well ) and it is able to support a buyer in the finalisation of the DAP purchase and delivery of bulbs ( free at destination ) at the Client Company stock in the whole European customs territory and in the countries outside EU .

Prices are competitive and the best quality of bulbs is ensured . They are delivered through specialised logistics service .


For getting a quote, please make contact with our Commercial Area, filling out the CONTACT FORM that follows or contact a manager at the following telephone number : +39 348 2920146 .

In order to make this commercial process more efficient, please write in the request :

- Number of bulbs
- Size of bulbs
- In which month would you like the planting of bulbs

Thank you for the cooperation.

contact IBS by mail

Saffron Crocus Sativus


In 1900 our Grandfather began to cultivate bulbs . At that time he started out small while he bred cows . He handled tulips, daffodils, crocuses, gladioli and irises . From one generation to another this business of bulbs became more important and therefore it was expanded . After spending some time growing flowers and plants, our father continued to cultivate bulbs .



He focused on growing different varieties of uncommon bulb species, such as Kaiser ‘s crown , Colchicum, Allium and Ixia . About thirty years ago, a flower bulb species known as Crocus Sativus was bought . Learning information about this variety made us understand that we just found our tresor . It lighted up our interest and vision to expand our growing capacity . Our biggest seller is now Crocus Sativus Saffron .



By the years, our company has considerably developed and today we are great suppliers of Crocus sativus bulbs in the Netherlands . We cooperate with numerous renowned flower bulb growers . We sell and export our non – organic and organic saffron bulbs to customers around the world . We are able to provide our customers with information and assist them in creating their saffron cultivation because we have more than 30 years of experience in the cultivation and production of these products .


Our Company sells various sorts of Bulbs, both certified organic and non – organic, of various sizes . Here are some photos :

non organic corms bulbs saffron

organic corms bulbs saffron

Wholesale of Crocus Sativus Bulbs


Crocus Sativus Saffron Flowers


Saffron (/ˈsæfrən/ or /ˈsæfrɒn /) is known as the spice that comes from Crocus sativus Linnaeus . This species of crocus are part of the family of Iridaceae and it is also called the saffron crocus, saffron bulbs or saffron corms as well .


Crocus sativus L. is a plant that is mainly herbaceous . This plant sprouts from a globular bulb that creates other bulbs that will become crocuses and they will produce more bulbs . Crocus sativus has thin green leaves, vivid red stigmas that extend in the petals, yellow stamens and three precious, they are very long ( 25 – 30 mm ) and perfumed lavender blooms with purple veins . These three types of stigmas are in the blossoms of this crocus and they are the actual saffron .

They are dried and used for drugs, pigmentation aims and food flavouring . As to the dye for food and flavouring, stigmas are well known in the world as saffron spice , i.e. the most costly spice in the world . The quality and quantity of labor in this spice ’s harvesting has a very high market value .



Saffron Flowers Crocus Sativus


Saffron spice offers a unique bittersweet flavour, for example like hay and honey . Everyone should taste it in order to realize exactly how does it taste . Saffron tastes as bittersweet as it smells . Some say, “ it does taste like the sea .” Some say, “ it ’s mush – roomy, and smoky ”. And some say, “ it ’s metallic, with whiff of seashells and honey tones .”


On our internet site we describe more about this singular and particular spice that has been cultivated for more than 4000 years and has different scopes . You can discover more details on the history of saffron and its various scopes in the present and past . We can inform you more about the saffron cultivation and how you can create your own nursery as well .




Parts of Saffron Flower Crocus Sativus

Thanks to its folkloric fame as a medicinal herb that heals a lot of illnesses, the modern medicine tries to explain the mystery of saffron, studying its properties and taking advantage from various potentials, that are given to the medical field . Therefore, more than a hundred chemical components are isolated and are accessible for medical commercial applications as well . The most important parts of saffron are : picrocrocin, which provides the bittersweet, rusty flavour ; crocin, which offers the yellow pigmentation from the stigmas and safranal, which gives the earthy aroma to the saffron .

Crocin Chemical Formula

Picrocrocin Chemical Formula

Safranal Chemical Formula

The chemicals elements in saffron can be ranked according to their volatility, or its absence . The main non – volatile elements include α – crocin, crocin, carotenoids that has zeaxanthin, lycopene and both alpha – and beta – carotenes, picrocrocin, and crocetin . The main volatile parts have terpene, terpene esters, and terpene alcohol . Furthermore, safranal is a volatile composite made by picrocrocin thanks to the contact with enzymes and heat in the drying process .

Picrocrocin and crocin are really sensitive to air and light . This explains why saffron should be kept in airtight containers and laid away in a dark and cool place when they are not used . The subjection to sunlight and atmospheric oxygen could create oxidation that will hardly decrease the properties of picrocin and crocin, damaging the saffron quality . Saffron ’s anti – oxidant properties are also studied for the use on drugs against depression, cancer and other neuron – degenerative disorders .

Saffron ‘s anti – inflammatory properties are also given by the elements of the crocus petals : anthocyanins flavonoids and tannins . In fact, flavonoids have, hesperidin, rutin, luteolin, bioflavonoids and quercetin . For people who love saffron, the basic chemical transformations happen when they use it ; this can sound weird to them, but it ’s fundamental that they know that saffron offers them giddy feeling, light that seems to make promises that everything will be fine .


Grow saffron crocus sativus

Saffron is collected from the blossoms of Crocus sativus ( Iridaceae ), called saffron bulbs or saffron crocus . It is spread by corms, a type of bulbs . Each corm creates new bulbs, and in this way plants increase . Saffron flowers appear in autumn and red stigmas are harvested with the name of saffron threads, from which the spice comes from . Every blossom provides three stigmas that are carefully picked by hand . Flowers have to be harvested before noon time since they wither simply . This process is meticulous and monotonous . For this reason saffron is so precious and in fact it is known as red gold .

Saffron crocus can be found in countries like, India, Iran, Morocco, New Zealand, Italy, Pennsylvania, Spain, Afghanistan, France, Portugal, some parts of China, Turkey and Greece . Since this plant has spread in disparate areas of the world, saffron planting and cultivation techniques might be different , depending on the type of soil, spacing of corms, depth of planting and climate .

Saffron Flowers in Field Crocus Sativus


The Crocus sativus matures in disparate soil types but it is better if it grows in humus – rich, well – drained and calcareous soil with a pH between 6 and 8 . Saffron corms can develop in dry or semi – dry soil types, by the way, you have to bear in mind, that during drought periods in autumn and spring, you need to irrigate the land . If you make saffron corms grow in semi – wet or wet soil types you have to be sure that your land is well – drained in order to block corms from infections or rotting during times of wet weather .


For the cultivation of saffron, we require a climatological summer and winter with temperatures between from –15 Celsius degrees or – 20 Celsius degrees in winter, to about no more than 35 Celsius degrees or 40 Celsius degrees in summer . This is the reason why saffron is also cultivated in continental, dry and moderate climate types but not in polar or tropical climate types . Due to the fact that Crocus sativus is a bulbous heat – tolerant plant, hot and dry summers won’t be an obstacle . By the way, during winter periods and temperatures, it’s possible that leaves could dry – freeze, i.e. corms will grow less and for this it will give less saffron .

When strong frost threatens your saffron field, we have to to cover the plants with straw or fibre cloth for protection and you can take off the covers when frost disappears . In dry climatological periods in spring time, irrigation is crucial . In this time, regular rainfall is optimal for the corms growing, and this means higher yields of flowers and daughter corms .


When you plant saffron corms for the first time, you should opt for a unused patch of land, where no other saffron corms or tubers grew up there, if it is feasible ( whether not, none in the last ten years at least ). Before planting, it is good to plow the soil 20 to 50 centimetres deep maintaining the planting beds well – aired and loose, including organic fertilizer in the process . Especially the type of soil in Spain requires this kind of preparation .

For the saffron cultivation, planting corms on raised beds is optimal to safeguard drainage and irrigation . Irrigation must be be very low when the corms begin to grow leaves . In July, planting starts, August and September by hand or by machine, and the harvesting comes at the end of October to mid – November, about eight weeks after the plantation . Saffron crocuses are sun – worshipping plants, therefore they must be planted in dry open fields and not in shade .

Usually, corms are seeded between 7 – 15 centimetres deep in the soil . The deeper they are planted, the less the corms can increase, but there will be a higher quality of the blossoms made .

Saffron bulbs before cleaning Crocus Sativus


Let’s discover the “row system” in planting corms. Every row is generally 15 to 20 centimetres away from the other. Dig holes in the first row and every row must be filled with a corm. When you dig in the second row, use the soil that you have dug up to cover the corms seeded in the first row, etc. Maintain the rows raised for ventilation and drainage. Produce a block of rows and make space enough to have a passage between each block. It will be easier to walk along the crocus field when you work on water, weed, and later, harvest.

Saffron Plant Crocus Sativus




The space between corms depends on their sizes . As regards to the saffron cultivation in Italy, farmers plant corms with a space of at 2 – 3 centimetres between them and 10 to 15 centimetres deep, a method that offers them a maximum harvest of blossoms and a lot of corm – lets . Farmers in Greece make a 25 centimetre of space between every row and a 12 centimetre distance between corms, each of which is 15 centimetres deep in the ground . In Spain, rows are spaced 3 centimetres and the corms, 6 centimetres. In India, there is a space of 15 to 20 centimetres between each row, and between every corm, 7.5 to 10 centimetres .

Spacing depends on how frequently grubbing is planned as well . Grubbing means the complete removal of saffron corms from the land to divide the formed mother corms and the corm – lets and to save them for the following planting season . Biennial grubbing needs a spacing around 5 – 10 centimetres between each corm ; for a longer time, it’s better between 10 to 20 centimetres .


Safeguarding techniques must be taken against rabbits, rodents and birds . Corm rot, nematodes, leaf rusts and other pathogens have to be prevented from damaging the saffron crocus plants too .


The saffron crocus ’ corms are fine for four years crop, and the fifth year, they require to be dug . In Italy and Spain, the grubbing is made between June and July, and in Greece, it is made inside May and June . When the saffron leaves turn wilted and brown, the corms are asleep and are set for the grubbing .

The fields are increased using a plough machine or a hoe and the corms are collected by hand . Afterwards corms are cleaned from undesired bulbs and weeds, and new planting materials are ranged according to proportions . The corms has not to remain out in the sun longer than 1 or 2 hours . Then these classified corms are stored in a dry , dark but well – ventilated place until the following planting period .


Taking away weed needs the boring, manual method, mainly if you deal with root weeds . Machine – weeding can be used in the saffron cultivation, but the risk of harming the bulbs occurs . Plus, most farmers want to do it in the classic way . The longer the weeds remain in the saffron beds, the more difficult they will be to take away, so it is better to work on them as soon as possible . Once the saffron leaves have withered but it is not the period for grubbing yet, take away the brown leaves to notice the weeds easily .


In the middle of October, saffron flowers start to blossom, and this blooming furthers for three weeks . There will be a period of increased blossoming known as “ blanket days ” that lasts from 2 to 6 days . Blooms that come out in the night have to be harvested at dawn the very following day before midday to avoid petals from wilting . It is better to harvest “ sleeping ” blooms , to protect high – quality saffron from threads .

Saffron Flower harvesting by hand Crocus Sativus

Saffron Flower harvesting by machine Crocus Sativus


Once the blooms are harvested, they will go to the “ stripping ” area where the stigmas or threads are very precisely removed by hand . The yellow and white parts of the stigma must not be involved in the cutting, only the red parts .

Separation of stigmas from a closed flower Crocus Sativus

Separation of stigmas from an open flower Crocus Sativus


After the stripping comes the drying, called toasting as well, and it is made daily when the last threads are dried . Due to their high humidity, the harvested stigmas are dehydrated when they are toasted at temperature not higher than 60 C° . We must lcheck that threads are not overdone . Hence, the “ toaster ” ( the person who has this task ) has a very precise role in the making of high quality saffron . After toasting, threads will extremely decrease their weight and size, down to 80 % of the original one . 5 kg of fresh stigmas provides a mere kilo of vivid, dried crimson threads .

Furthermore, stigmas may be dried in an oven or over hot coals as well . You have to spread the fresh threads on a wire mesh with baking paper and then place the in the centre of the oven . The heat has to be at 50 Celsius degrees, watching the threads attentively for about 10 to 20 minutes until they are ready to fall away from each other . As to bulk drying, saffron threads are put in a special place at 30 Celsius degrees to 35 Celsius degrees for 10 – 12 hours . A more modern procedure is the utilization of a dehydrator, with temperature at 48 Celsius degrees for 3 hours . The length of time, seems to depends on the amount of threads to dry . But most fundamental thing is that they don’t over – dry because it could decrease the price and quality of the saffron threads .

Drying of Stigmas Crocus Sativus


Once the threads are dried, they transform into dark vivid red, with the dark orange tips . They are made cool and swathed in foil or tissue and they are put in airtight jars, covered and maintained in a dark, cool corner for at least thirty days before they are ready to be used . They can remain in that nook for a long time and still be used for the flavouring of dishes .



Saffron corms have levels of transitory, dormancy and activity . The transitory period starts when the corms turn into mother corms and create new bulbs or corm lets . The activity period starts when they are planted and they grow roots, flowers, shoots and leaves . The dormancy period is when the corms reach the mature level and are no longer creating new bulbs . In the dormant period there are dried up roots and wilted leaves . The corms require to be dug up and they need to rest for some time before they could be replanted to be productive again .

As to the planting area, it is very recommended to let a saffron field “ rest ” for about 10 to 12 years after a maximized cropping cycle in order to be refreshed or recovered . It is better to move out to a field never used or a refreshed field to begin a new cycle . This will ensure you with a solid plantation that will offer great yields .

Annual cycle of Crocus Sativus Saffron




Corms are sorted and classified according to their dimensions . The size of a corm establishes its quantity . Years of experience have led to the fact that the larger the mother corms is, the more it produces, the higher the quantity of stigmas and flowers in the first year of planting .




Fresh Stigmas Saffron Crocus Sativus

With this concentrated work and small amount of products from this drudgery the saffron production can be subjected to fraud . In the past, saffron scams produced the creation of the Safranschou Code, which punishes the double – dealers with incarceration, execution and penalties . However, the trade turned lax and there have been ever more fraud . Coupé saffron stigmas can be combined with low quality threads, or with other plants ’ filaments . Moreover, Saffron powder can be combined with turmeric and other similar spices . These strategies are not legal and this compromises the saffron production and consumers .

Today security measures are provided by the ISO, known as International Standards Organization too, that offers a homogeneous grading system for the saffron powder and saffron filaments . The ISO / TS 3632 was released in 1980, and it was created for the industry of saffron . It modified on a regular basis, with the latest version in 2011 . These standards show the orginality and quality of the saffron products sorted by categories, checking their packaging and labelling too . The market cost of saffron derivates depends on the outcome of this inspection .

Saffron sample grading depends on laboratory standards such as aroma, colour and flavour . This implies tests for the major components picrocrocin , crocinand, safranal with a photo – spectroscopy . They have to surpass a certain level in order to be either at the lowest or poorest category as well . Especially for crocin, it is the primary thought because the other components are related to its presence . Authentic saffron powders and threads are ranged from I to IV, with I as the finest and IV the poorest . The following is the grading scale for crocin absorbance :

Grade I : > 190

Grade II : > 150

Grade III : > 110

Grade IV : < 110 Saffron Stigmas Crocus Sativus

In Spain, saffron is sorted in a different way, not with ISO 3632, but the type of scale is pretty much same . However, category labels are different :

Sierra : < 110 Standard : 110 –150 Rio: 150 - 180 Mancha : 180 – 190 and Coupe : > 190

Saffron from Iran is boasted to be the best quality due to the favourable climate in which the crocus plants grow in and the modern technology used in the drying process . For the Iranian traders, there is only one type of saffron : Sargol . Although it is different, the scales are pretty much the same : the higher the figure, the higher the light absorbency , the higher the crocin content and the more intense the colourant . Practically, the higher quality .


The history of saffron crocus sativus


It is not easy to find where exactly the cultivation of saffron started, and it has the name of the world ‘s most costly spice . But we can find it as far as the existence of the Persian word zarparān ( ‘ having golden stigmas ‘) from which the Arabic word za’farān was probably originated instead of the Arabic adjective asfar ( which means ‘yellow’); it is almost the same to the Persian word za’ferân which comes from the Old French word ‘ safran ‘, from where the Latin word ‘ safranum ‘ derived .

Saffron in Lineair B finally, the English word ‘ saffron ‘ derives from the Latin ‘ safranum ‘ from which the Spanish word ‘ azafrán ‘ and the Italian word ‘ zafferano ‘ came from (b oth meaning saffron ). The other words for saffron in other languages are : ‘ kesar ‘ or ‘ zafran ‘ ( India ) , ‘ sáfrány ‘ ( Hungarian ), ‘ azafrai ‘ ( Basque ), ‘ khekhrum ‘ ( Armenian ) , ‘ szafran ‘ ( Polish ), ‘ shafran ‘ ( Russian ),’ azupiranu ‘ ( Akkadian ) ,’ safranu ‘ ( Romanian ), ‘ zaferen ‘ ( Turkish ), ‘ saframi ‘ ( Finnish ), ‘ safrà ‘ ( Catalonian ), ‘ safrána ‘ ( Latvian ), ‘ hong hua ‘ ( China ) , ‘ safárum ‘ ( Malaysian ),’ saffran ‘ ( German ), ‘ kurkum ‘ ( Farsi ) and ‘ azafrán ‘ ( Galician ). The similarity of these terms shows the global fame that the famous spice has in the history .


A lot of time had passed and now we have only not clear ideas in where saffron was initially found, as well as how it took its name . It is interesting to discover how far back in time saffron had been loved and which countries had specific uses for it .

The earliest evidence of the East Mediterranean people were already deal with saffron crocus in 2300 B. C. are the words of a great king, Sargon of Akkad, a great governor of the Akkadian empire from the city of Azupiranu, in the in Ancient History texts as Saffron City . This charming city was known because it had to largely grow saffron crocus , or the cultivation of the spice plant must had to be located in that place during this period .

The well – known fresco, Saffron Gatherer Frescoes was discovered in Knossos and it is from 1600 BC , Greece and another one from 1500 BC in Santorini, Greece, both describing the whole process of saffron harvest and finally made an offering in a ritual worship, and monkeys and young girls plucked saffron filaments . In Thebes, Egypt, a medical papyrus of 1600 BC as well was found in a tomb and it showed the medicinal function of saffron . These documents and frescoes are real evidence of the saffron culture in the past too . In fact, today analyses of such frescoes showed the fact that they strongly emphasize the medicinal skill of crocus more than everything .

Saffron was a luxury, reserved for the nobility in the past . Queens, kings, monks and pharaohs bathed in saffron water for healing wounds and as prelude to romance, they brought saffron perfumes, donned saffron – dyed robes, had drinks laced with saffron spice and ate food with saffron, prayed to their gods with saffron offerings and slept comfortably in beds speckled with saffron threads . World literature tells how the old people used to treasure saffron . Saffron crocus is the krakom in the Bible in Solomon ‘s Song of Songs . There is krokus in the work of several Greek philosopher such as Sophocles, Homer and Hippocrates . Virgil, Ovid and other Roman artists also gave saffron a leading role in their work .

In his poems, Iran ‘s famous poet Ferdowi tells about the use of saffron in victorious honouring . Kashmiri poet and Mohammed Yusuf Teng highlighted that cultivation of saffron had mentioned for a long time in Kashmiri Tantric Hindu epics in the ancient times . The saffron was important and the trade of saffron became in fact profitable because it brought an high amount of gold . The old saffron traders were called saffron grocers . Arabs, Romans, Egyptians, Asians and Europeans were in this trade, and so we found out how saffron became widely famous in this period : thanks to the trade and the smuggling .

The painting known as “ The triumph of death ” by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The triumph of death in the pandemic Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) around the 1500 in Europe, saffron was very important in economy history . The need of the ingredient as a medicine led to its importation from abroad, and unfortunately to illegal shipments . This problem went down in history when a saffron shipment toward Basel was headed off by a baron, and a long battle, lasted 3 months, procedeed to recover the shipment . Today history tells the incident as the Saffron War which positively established Basel as a centre and take – off place for cultivation of crocus sativus in Europe .

History tells us that in the past, saffron was clearly the most sought spice for its incredible powers to cure a big range of ailments . A lot of nations have higlighted of the use of saffron in medicine, it has the skill to settle and cure common discomforts to serious disorders of teenagers, adult men, babies, toddlers and women as well as old people .

With an ever more active saffron trade, rules had to be created to protect equity in the market prices and freedom from adulteration in every batch of spice . The Safranschou code was instituted and fraud was punishable by imprisonment, death by fire, and fines .

In India, saffron is used mainly in ayurvedic medicine . In the Middle East, it was put in a botanical dictionary around 1300 found in the Assurbanipal Library as a medicinal entry . In London, Nicholas Culpeper ‘s Complete Herbal showed saffron ‘s medicinal properties in a quaint paragraph . In Germany, Crocologia, a book about saffron describes its medical skills and it was published in 1670 .


Saffron Crocus Sativus in the kitchen for Cooking

Due to its world – known exotic aroma and taste, saffron will always be a principal ingredient that can suit with every part of the pantry in different kitchens in the world . It is not in the place where you could forget it, but it is there to go on with its shelf life . Saffron has essential chemical components like picrocin ( which gives the spicy flavor ) crocin ( which gives the eggyolk – yellow color ), and safranal ( which gives the hay – like aroma ). These components make saffron an exotic spice that goes well with other food and spices and makes any dish very tasty .

Saffron comes from the crocus blossoms, and offers a pleasant sweet strong smell and aroma and just a little of it is enough to make a dish unique . In fact saffron has a great value, because it is one of the most costly spices all over the world . It takes around 600 stigmas ( threads ) or 200 saffron blossoms to make only a gram of spice and around 450.000 stigmas or 150.000 blossoms to make a kilogram . Harvesting saffron threads has to be a careful work, because they are safely picked by hand . Now you can imagine why Saffron costs so much . But finally, a little of coupé saffron powder or three saffron threads are enough, and with cautious use, it ’s worth to spend money for it .

You can put saffron in a glass of water to extract flavour and the natural yellow colourant from it, just putting a spoon of threads in a hot but not boiling liquid such as water,milk, oil, alcohol or broth ; then let it stand for a couple hours up for 24 hours, if you want to maximize its skills . This is the perfect process to obtain the best essence of saffron . But for a quick fix , you could soak one spoon of threads in five spoons of liquid for around 20 minutes . Afterwards you can mush the threads to create a paste, or you can produce your own powdered condiment, by only throwing threads in a heavy frying pan over low fire . Toast it slowly, be careful not to burn them and then blend the threads to powder . One spoon of threads ( about 8 threads ) should produce ½ spoon of powder .

In areas where crocuses are planted for commercial production or local consumption, saffron dishes have gained international fame and they are served on specific tables . Saffron suits with cinnamon, cardamom and vanilla, fish, pasta, pastry, cheeses, tomato soups, lamb, and chicken . Saffron rice is an usual dish used by a lot of countries . Saffron is used not only to harmonize the flavour of main course dishes but also to spice up desserts and beverages . It is a type of flexible ingredient .

In the centre of Asia, crocus plants were grown in small gardens for domestic use . But it is in Kashmir, India that the best saffron is grown on big quantities for commercial distribution . Indian cuisine features saffron : it blends like garam masala ; in rice – meat dishes like the biryani and its similar and pulao, a “ jeweled rice dish ” made for weddings and banquets ; in desserts like kesari bhath, which is made during festivals ; in sweets like kufil, gulab jamun and double ka meetha ; and in an Indian drink named saffron lassi, which is made for religious ceremonies . Saffron can also be mixed with pistachio and cardamom to give taste to ice cream . Furthermore, China tells about of early use of saffron in religious rituals, food and medicine . In China, saffron is called “ the red flower of Tibet ”, because the crocus flowers have been brought to Shanghai via Tibet .


In Morocco, saffron is used in different types of the tajine dishes . In the Middle East and in the Afghanistan cuisine, saffron has got many functions as well . It is a usual component in many rice dishes, like the qabali and sholleh zard and the adas polow, a type of rice pudding . Iraq offers own version of saffron rice known as timman z’affaran . Furthermore, saffron is used give aroma to chelow kabab, the Iran national dish . Arabians use cardamom and saffron but the others think that cinnamon is a special aroma for tea and coffee .

In Europe, saffron is put in vegetable soups and fish and also in desserts like cakes and ice cream . In Germany, saffron is a main ingredient in the Gugelhupf cake . In France, it is put in the new French Bouillabaisse . In Sweden, they use it for the well – known lussekatt ( also lussekatter ) or lussebulle, a saffron bun prepared most of all for St. Lucy ’s Day . In England and Cornwall, saffron buns are common in religious festivities too . In Italy, it is put in risotto alla milanese and in drinks like the strega, chartreuse and izarra . In Spain, the best quality of saffron may be found aside from Kashmir too and saffron are threads to give colour to a rice dish known as paella, or in a fish dish known as zarzuela de pescado and in another dish named fabada .

In the United States, the cultivation of saffron was spread to Pennsylvania thanks to the Dutch . There it was traded and used to give taste and colour fish dishes, noodles and sweets .

Research evidences that saffron has the electrolytes potassium and sodium, and is rich in other minerals like selenium, zinc, magnesium, copper, calcium, manganese and iron . It is also rich in vitamins A, B and C. Hence, saffron seems to work beyond the palate because it offers nutritive benefits to the health too .



Healing power Saffron Crocus Sativus 2

The skills of saffron as a natural healer throw us back in the ancient times, with evidences given by age – old frescoes and documents which show the old people ‘s use of ” saffron filaments ” to reduce illnesses. In fact at the beginning saffron became known in the area of traditional medicine before it became a household spice for dye and condiment .

Every region that knows how to produce crocuses has its own method to cure illnesses using saffron . Saffron is mentioned in very old Chinese herbal medicine documents . In Mesopotamia, there was a ritual where different kind of dancing and chanting were made to evoke saffron ‘s healing powers . Battle – weary Persian and Greek warriors soaked themselves in saffron baths for cure and comfort, a ritual that was made famous by Alexander the Great . Aulus Cornelius Celsus, a Roman medical encyclopedist, described saffron as a cure to poison in his works of De Medicina . The ancient Indian ayurvedic medicine needed saffron as a very important ingredient for many medicinal remedies as well .

By the years saffron has turned into a universally known medicinal herb that heals any discomfort or disorder, with its effectiveness proved by new clinical studies or sheer millennial experience . Let us see, how does saffron heal thee ? These are the following ways :


Saffron helps to create a better mood and therefore cures melancholia . It helps to make the body and the senses more active as well . Saffron with other oils and steeped for short time periods turns strong enough to react as sedative or as a relaxant . You can eat it in small quantities because it helps to enforce the respiratory system, cardio – vascular system,immune system, reproductive system and the nervous system .

Some research describe that a person must be really aware with the quantity of saffron used in medication, because if you overtake this spice it can be very dangerous . Usually, only 1 – 3 grams of saffron threads are in extracted essences and only 30 mg of powder for oral ingestion in a day . However, recent research on traditional medicine explain that saffron is non – toxic and that reaction to treatment could be created by other reasons . One reason could be that it is not the actual crocus sativus .


Saffron has anti – inflammatory properties, and it helps to calm asthmatic attacks by clearing swollen airways and restoring normal breathing . The same is for colds, flu, bronchitis and coughs ; a glass of warm milk with a bit of saffron makes you feel better and breathe when saffron helps loosen the bothersome phlegm .


Saffron contains cardio – tonic components that make heart medicines simply to go into the body and go to the heart . The antioxidants in saffron avoids circulatory problems by keeping cholesterol and triglyceride at low levels . Saffron ‘s crocetin unclogs the arteries as well, sending oxygen into the circulatory system, keeping the heart in tip – top condition and improving blood circulation .


The crocus sativus is rich in vitamins B ( especially B1, B2 and B6 ) and C . They are fundamental for the good functioning of the healthy immune system . It has essential oils and phytochemicals as well ; they enforce the immune system and give the body anti – carcinogenic components . Saffron crocetin is like an anti – cancer / anti – tumour agent that inhibits growth of cancer cells and powers up the anti – oxidative system .


Saffron is known for ages to regulate menstrual cycle of women . Drinking tea or milk with a bit of saffron helps to calm the pain and headache related to the monthly period . It can be used to prevent mood swings that usually are before the period . As to pregnant women, a small amount helps in rhythmic contraction of the uterus, in this way reduce pain and difficulty in the delivery of the baby ; but a large amount can be very dangerous because it could cause cramps and seizure in the uterus and bring unwanted abortion . Saffron with olive oil could heal uterus ulcers .


Carotenoids in saffron help delay macular degeneration as a consequence of ageing by enforcing cell membranes . Saffron defends the eyes from radiation, day blindness, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal stress,
conjuctivitis, keratitis and lacrimation .


Japan and Iran are strongly researching the skill of saffron to fight depression . Clinical research gave evidence that essences from crocus petals could be used as treatment against epilepsy and depression, like fluoxetine or Prozac given in 30 mg twice daily to who needs . Moreover, recent studies prove that 30 mg of saffron given twice daily is give benefits like donepezil or Aricept in fighting mild Alzheimer ‘s disease . Saffron has crocin that is actually a neuronal antioxidant strong enough against neurodegenerative ilnesses . As an anti – anxiety medication, research proved that crocin and safranal work as well due to their sleep – inducing and anxiolytic powers . Furthermore, there is shown that crocin gives positive effects with the serotonin – neurotransmitter system, and this seems to be an efficacious treatment for obsessive – compulsive disorder too . Saffron also helps to keep a person ‘s cerebral skills in terms of retention of information and absorption .


Crocus sativus offers many other medicinal uses . Derivatives are helpful in curing or preventing gastrointestinal problems like spleen, clogged liver and flatulence . Saffron works as topical application for headache, anal pain, mouth sores, toothache, insect bites, stomach pains, muscle cramps, and treats open wounds and bruises . Saffron paste work for the hair growth and treat baldness or alopecia .

Saffron may be used as appetite suppressant or stimulant as well . It helps to lose weight because saffron has perspiration – inducing and diuretic skills . A clinical research on the effect of saffron on weight loss says to be very effective . People had to take capsules containing saffron extract at pre – programmed schedules within two months and there were positive results .

By the way, saffron has a very interesting erotic past . Cleopatra soaked herself in saffron baths before romantic meetings . Saffron oil has an exotic flavour that seems to be seductive . Any drink mixed with an amount of saffron turns in an aphrodisiac . Male problems with virility can solved by medications infused with saffron too .

With these numerous uses of saffron, it ’s not a coincidence that production of this particular plant is very spread in Italy, Iran, India, Spain and Afghanistan indeed .



Saffron threads provide a yellow colour when is put in a liquid . Once there is the right colour and concentration, food or whatever is ready to be used . Saffron dye can give colour to fabrics in order to highlight social status and religious functions . The noble people had saffron – dyed articles of clothing . The Irish dyed their wool with saffron colourant . Carthaginian and Phoenician brides wore saffron – dyed veils . The Japanese painted their kimonos with saffron . Tibetan, Buddhist and Hindu monks had saffron – dyed robes .

Noble women and courtesans of the old periods used saffron as skin care and cosmetic . Facial masks with saffron could be applied by women to make their skin smooth, soft and free from pimples and acne . Sandalwood and saffron mixed with milk were used as mask and they made the face soft and very clean . Honey, sugar oil and coconut can be used to create facial masks too . Saffron powder also has exfoliant properties and makes the skin bright and clear . Saffron extract provides with anti – bacterial skills that seem to fight pimples, acne and other skin diseases such as leprosy and psoriasis .

Old stories tell that in specific periods, Egyptians wore wax clothing with flowers and saffron in it which, once mixed, perfumed their hair with the sweet and particular smell ; the Greek god Zeus slept in a bed made of saffron ; Romans perfumed their marital beds with saffron, apparently for erotic reasons and they bathed in tubs full of sprinkled water with saffron threads . In the Middle East, sandalwood and saffron were melted for the production of a relaxing smell that also cured headaches . Modern perfumers take advantage from saffron because it mixes well like middle notes with other substances and essences to become a floral perfumes . And in India, they have a hundred – year old tradition of putting saffron in a special tobacco called zaafrani zarda that perfumed the air with the smell .

However, saffron is good for an extraordinary gift on special occasions like weddings, Ramadan, Christmas and other religious events because it is costly and this means a high status present .


Things to know about Saffron Crocus Sativus


There could often be fraudolent traders who will play a bad trick on you . The best way not to be mocked is to purchase only from trustworthy dealers . Make a background control . Be inquisitive . Be informed . Be aware of the fundamental features of saffron :

Saffron is costly . Any cost too much lower than the international market price must warn you .

Look for famous brands . Even if they have saffron at low prices, you don’t have to be afraid .

Saffron threads have to be brittle and dry, not sticky and soft .

Saffron has a fresh, piquant scent ; if it’s musty, or smells like other chemical it means that components have been added to it, therefore stay away from purchasing it .

There must be no broken components at the bottom of container .

It is better buy threads rather than powder . It is not easy to spot fake saffron powder unless you are permitted to test the product before the purchase .

Saffron threads have very red color, with a slightly lighter coloured at the topè, more like red – orangey . If saffron is dull red means the batch is old .

Saffron threads have the same size, but not the same colour . Once all the threads have exactly the same redness, they could have been dyed to create the true colour in its inner .

You have to know the different cuts : The highest quality saffron thread, known as coupé saffron, sargol or premium red, has only the very red part of the stigmas, the yellow style is removed before being dried . A kind of cut that has the vivid red stigma and a little or more of the yellow style shows a lower – quality saffron . The style does not provide any aroma . It is considered like floral waste .

The packaging has to show the harvest date, and it has to be recent .


Crocus Sativus Saffron FAQ frequently asked questions

Question : What are the differences between the various bulb sizes ?

It is that the bigger bulbs will bloom better and will provide with more flowers in the first year after the plantation . Moreover larger bulbs develop better and increase faster than smaller bulbs .

In the first year bulbs of size 7 / 8 will bloom around 30 % ( 30 flowers per 100 bulbs ), bulbs of size 8 / 9 about 80 %, bulbs of size 9 / 10 will bloom 150 %, bulbs of size 10 / 11 will bloom 200 % and bulbs of size 11 / + will bloom 300 % .

The bloom percentage will increase in the following years because of their multiplication and growth .

Question : What is the difference between non – organic and organic bulbs ?

It is that organic corms are largely cultivated organically, without using any chemical plant protection products .

These corms will arrive with an European organic certificate .

The non – organic corms are cultivated in a sustainable way, with a minimum use of chemicals .

Question : Why are the saffron bulbs in your web shop cheaper than in many other shops ?

The crocus Sativus bulbs we sell are grown by ourselves, so you are buying bulbs directly from the grower without the intervention of wholesalers . Since we grow the crocus bulbs on a large scale we can offer them ( much ) cheaper than many other suppliers .

Question : Why can’t you deliver saffron bulbs before July 25 ?

Our saffron bulbs grow every year in late June / early July .

Once they are grew, we dry and wash them and they will have a proper temperature treatment . After this treatment, the bulbs will be sorted in different sizes and they will be ready for our sales .

This entire process requires to be done carefully to ensure our customers the best quality of crocus Sativus bulbs and saffron .

Question : What do ” sustainable ” grown bulbs stand for ?

It means that, during the cultivation of our saffron bulbs, we decrease the use of chemical crop protection to the minimum .

This proved that we stopped using chemical soil treatments, we don’t apply any pesticides containing the neonicotinoids and the herbicide ” Roundup ” is no longer used in our fields .

Furthermore we try to improve and keep the soil quality and soil organisms of our land by using high – quality compost and other soil improver .

Question : Why is it better not to use Round – up ?

Independent scientific studies prove that the herbicide Round – up, and the active ingredient of this product ” glyphosate “, can develop of cancer and probably hormone disrupting . Morevore this herbicide is extremely toxic for the soil in which the bulbs are grown because the soil biology is very disrupted by glyphosate .

Question : What are neonicotinoids ?

Neonicotinoids are types of substances connected to nicotine, which are used in an amount of systemic biocides and pesticides . The use of these elements is connected with several research in the world with increased bee mortality .

Question : When is the optimal time to plant your bulbs ?

The best time to plant our bulbs is around mid – August .

Saffron bulbs planted before the end of August will start to bloom in late October .

Question : What is the price of saffron per kg ?

It is not easy to offer you a price of saffron because it depends on the demand and supply, the place from which it comes from and its quality .

It is often proved that the price of 1 kg of saffron is around € 30,000 . Actually this price applies to the saffron which is provided in small quantities . For example, you can buy saffron in a bag of 50 mg at the supermarket for € 1.25. So 1 kg it makes a total of € 25,000 per kg .

It seems that the quality of the saffron that you can purchase at the supermarket is worse than the more expensive saffron found in drug stores .

Question : How many saffron bulbs can I plant per m 2 ?

The quantity of bulbs that you can plant per m 2 depends on the bulb size .

With bulbs of size 7 / 8 you can plant around 60 to 70 bulbs per m 2, bulbs of size 8 / 9, 50 to 60 bulbs per m 2 and with bulbs of size 9 / 10, 40 to 50 bulbs per m 2.

Question : What does the size of your bulbs mean ?

The size of our bulbs is measured in centimetre of the circumference of the bulbs . For example, bulbs of size 9 / 10 have a circumference between 9 and 10 centimetres .

The diameter of our bulbs can be simply calculated by dividing the circumference of the bulbs by Pi ( Pi ≈ 3,14 ).

So bulbs of size 9 / 10 have a diameter between 9 / 3,14 ≈ 2,86 and 10 / 3,14 ≈ 3,18 centimeters .

Question : Is it profitable to cultivate saffron ?

It is surely profitable to grow your own saffron because the saffron cultivation is a periennal crop . The bulbs you buy from us, increase themselves every year in the ground, and therefore you can harvest your own saffron up to 4 – 5 years in a row in which the harvest multiplies every year . After this period of time you can take the bulbs and replant them again on another piece of land .

In this way you only require to buy bulbs one time in order to harvest saffron for many years .



Crocus Sativus

Organic Saffron




Translated by Matteo Aristei