SUMMARY BUSINESS NEWS IBS

NEWS

breaking news IBS

BREAKING NEWS – CONTACT US – for further information

RENEWABLE :

- RENEWABLE GRID PARITY PV ITALY – WE ARE LOOKING FOR LAND PLOTS TO BUILD GRID PARITY PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATIONS : IBS, as sole spokesperson, will be the legal person that will organize all the bureaucratic procedure from the submission of the request to connect to the electrical line to the obtaining of the Autorizzazione Unica, in order to start building the installation . Agreements are being made with the investors, who want to buy the Authorizations, once they are granted . Investors are interested in installations ; whose size goes from 5 MW to 50 MW or more without limits . We encourage anyone who can point out not only plots, but also ready to build Authorization, to contact our managers .

OTHERS:

- ITALY : on behalf of many purchasers ready to buy we look for installations or photovoltaic parks linked to the grid, the earth, the pursuit, bus shelters, rooftops .
- ITALY : we are seeking concessions both for photovoltaic and eolic projects in order to build installations of nominal output 10 – 20 MW and more without limits .
- POLAND : we are seeking concessions and projects for parks to be set up from 1 MW without superior limit for specialized Fund within the Photovoltaic .
- PROJECTS AND ABROAD INSTALLATIONS : for investors we are seeking installations connected to the grid already that may benefit from incentives or buildable projects with all the ready authorisations and tariff with state body both in the Photovoltaic and in the Eolic field .

ABROAD CONSTRUCTION JOB ORDER :
- Availability of jobs within the construction sector and financed infrastructural construction job order to be performed in some non-EU countries . We will provide further information after request by interested Companies .

REAL ESTATE :
- Availability of trade structures at income in the market. In this moment mandate for sale of a commercial centre .
- On behalf of an investor we look for a heaven earth building in the city centre of Milan with active lease fee .
- We are looking for investors for important projects of housing development with a viability plan already performed and with operator available to detect the real estate already .

TRADING :
- Food & Beverage Products list and offer
- Fuel and products Oil & Gas : procedures and products list directly from the refineries .
- Chips and Pellet : we have producers in America and Canada, Russia, South America, South Africa who can supply products in whole ships at competitive prices.

SUMMARY BUSINESS NEWS IBS

ibs-news-sommario

NEWS SUMMARY

News Business Opportunities Abroad and Funds

AGRIBUSINESS and FOOD FARMING CHAINS : for tomato, dairy and meat, and poultry food farming chains, greenhouses / systems for protected crops or agribusiness projects CLICK HERE .

FOREIGN COMMISSIONS : we have proxy and contact, through our network, with the leaderships of primary importance firms on the national and international scenery. These are firms interested in commissions in foreign countries on industrial sectors, construction, and energy. Following a few examples:
ENERGY: power station, gas turbines, steam turbines (120 MW), intelligent energy solutions, generating sets, marine generating sets, pumps, lighting tower also with lithium batteries, electrical generators, energy transformation, and distribution. Pipelines gas, refineries, service etc.
CONSTRUCTIONS AND INFRASTRUCTURES: hospitals, airports, bridges, dams, schools, harbors, hotels, roads, nonpetroleum perforations, etc.… In the case of dwellings or private facilities, a local high standing promoter is necessary.
HOSPITAL SECTOR AND MEDICAL DEVICES: furniture of beds and recovery rooms, operating rooms, planning and supplying “turnkey”, furniture with stainless steel design for operating rooms and sterilization rooms.

HOTEL SECTOR, CONTRACT & RESIDENTIAL: furniture ” interior design” and “living”, furniture “stuffed and curtains”, with possible supplying “turnkey”, for four/five/five-star luxury hotels, for potential clients all over the world. Kitchen furnishings, both for Hotels and for residential construction.

ELECTRICAL SUBJECT: electrification, machinery, revamping, optical fiber, etc.
AGRICULTURE: milk industries, tomatoes industries, processing plants, agricultural projects with the sale of animals and industries, machinery included etc.
WATER SUBJECT: purification, desalination, perforations, etc.
PACKAGING SUBJECT: creation of industries in food and pharmaceutical packaging, etc.
In case of contacts with the general contractor, institutions, able to produce commissions in a juridical context as an announcement, direct award, creation of a local company, joint venture please take contact with IBS through the page Contacts on the Menu.
Funding: in the case a funding would be requested in countries with a limited financial capacity, specialised funds are connect to the network, which can value if intervene and finance the activities especially in the case of major works, after verifying the availability of the country Central Bank where the works are budgeted, to issue appropriate guarantees.

BRAZILIAN BUSINESS TOUR , BUSINESS MISSION ITALY – BRAZIL. The Brazilian Business Tour, an important event promoted by industrial institutions, Italian and Brazilian bilateral associations and institutions, will occur in different cities like Recife, Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Florianopolis, São Paulo. The tour has the status of a business mission intended to create new business opportunities between Italian and Brazilian firms, it provides an institutional introduction to which meetings B2B in business rounds format will follow.
Main sectors:
Agro-industry (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Ceará, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco)
Footwear (Ceará, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais)
Cosmetic, Pharmaceutical e Biomedical (Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Ceará)
Energy (Ceará, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco )
Infrastructure (Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro)
Steelworker (Santa Catarina, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro)
Mining (Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Ceará, Minas Gerais)
Nautical and Naval (Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul)
Oil & Gas (Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Pernambuco)
Textile (Santa Catarina, Caerá, Pernamubuco, Minas Gerais)
For detail information, to access to the reserved page to download the brochure it is necessary to send your references and business data through the page CONTACTS of the website.

BULGARIA BUSINESS MISSIONS : through the General Confederation of Bulgarian Industry, business missions, meetings B2B and partner research, tax benefits and productive hub. Furthermore, a wide range of services is provided by professional offices of excellence in the legal, tax and fiscal, administrative fields, employee management and payslip included, as well as regulations related to labor law and quality assurance.

FUNDING FOR START-UP CANARIES, TENERIFE : business opportunities, tax breaks, funding and funds for innovative Start-ups on the sectors IT, electronics, automation, scientific research, nanotechnology, biotechnology, other news. The Special Zone Canaria (ZEC), Free Zone Tenerife (ZFT), customs and fiscal facilities, and other news.

CHINESE INCOMING FIRMS IN ITALY : Chinese delegations in Italy, firms selected by CCPIT and Chinese institutions, which meet Italian firm with specific purposes in the context of focused B2B meetings, strategic and commercial partnerships. Sectors: textile, mechanics, automotive, energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, medical, technological and innovation patents, Information and Communications Technology ITC, and lastly food and beverage and food farming products and other news.

MADE IN ITALY EXPORT IN CHINA : through Italian companies based in China and property digital agencies, the Italian firms can export the Made in Italy in China. Through e-commerce platforms and social channels, the Italian products are offered to 600 millions of people (on average connected to the internet every day), through B2C and B2B channels, everything managed by an advanced system ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). At the expense of the Italian firm a commercial commission on the sold out that includes front end, back end, lead to cash, operation services and shipping to the final purchaser. It’s like the Italian firm has in outsourcing its own distribution branch in China. The Italian firm would take care of providing the product that wants to commercialize cleared through customs in China, plus potential promotions. For some products, they can transit FTZ (Free Trade Zone) paying customs duties (that are the import expenses or the customs clearance of the product), after the sale has been perfected, with the possibility of serving also bordering countries that have FTZ agreements with China (for example Malaysia). Also the production of certificates in order to insert the product in China in accordance with the law is by the firm and an assistance for that is provided. All the categories of product are allowed (food, clothing and fashion, furniture, luxury, etc.), however when we will receive an expression of interest we shall do a preliminary feasibility analysis. Please submit the request for further information through the page CONTACTS.

OPPORTUNITIES ON ECOWAS COUNTRIES : through non-governmental organizations NGO and a delegate of ECOWAS, supranational entity linked to 54 African states, it is possible to identify focused possibilities of investment, both in the social field and in the business and different fields, from buildings, to energy and infrastructures for different types of investors. Through ECOWAS it is possible to establish a direct dialogue with the leaders of the member states institutions, with people who cover the highest offices. It is possible to obtain news and first-hand information, together with submitting developing projects, on the basis of strategical development lines, planned with Development Banks and with International Donors.

RUSSIA: Possibility for Italian Firm to be represented in Russia in trade show contexts, in business meetings, or in events organized to promote bilateral business opportunities between Russia and Italy, by salespersons, agents, or commercial consultants Italian – Russian. In addition to a private channel, opportunities made available by the General Confederation of Russian Industry and by Russian consuls in the framework of cooperation with Italian industrial associations also exist. This cooperation makes accessible packages for SMEs with extremely contained prices, with an array of services that range from a support for an opportunity scouting, to an operative support also structured for firms interested in Russian territory, which want to install in Russia, or participate to commissions, in the areas of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, other more strategical regions, but also territories with high potential and less known, together with countries with Free Trade Agreement and free exchange with Russia, as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Serbia. Other sectors that we point out are: oil and gas, automotive, medical, agriculture, biotech and tender for commissions in different fields.

KAZAKHSTAN BUSINESS : Business opportunities in Kazakhstan, representative office in prestigious structure near government institutions, with possibility of rents at very low prices for offices and headquarters or for outsourcing services with local personnel. Opportunity on the renewable energy sector, at Expo 2017 in Aksana and other news.

JAPAN, KOREA, MADE IN ITALY : opportunity of Made in Italy export in Japan and Korea. “Tesori d’Italia” magazine and promotion of Italian brands of excellence. Meetings B2B with buyers, distributors. Expository spaces in Nagoya at Galleria Italia with over 25.000 visits of specialized operators.

UGANDA : business opportunity in Uganda, list of active services, opportunity on the renewable energy sector, photovoltaic parks and PPP with purchase of energy produced, together with different types of opportunities, for example on the construction sector, electrification, public works, on the mining field.

MAURITANIA FISHING SECTOR : opportunities on the fishing sector in Mauritania, an extremely fishy zone of West Africa, through the elaboration of fishing products and successive commercialisation on the region and adjacent countries.

PHOTOVOLTAIC PARK IN VENTURE CAPITAL : investors for the construction of photovoltaic plants with PPP and rates to arrange with government authorities, (depending on where the parks would place, on the average solar radiation, and if the target areas are devoid of electric covering, therefore on the country priorities). The whole thing in territories of high radiation and in the face of multi-annual purchase agreements of the produced energy, guaranteed by insurances recognized by the International Monetary Fund, however in areas not subjected to disorders or risks of political, economic or operative nature, considered above of the acceptable threshold.

HIGHLIGHTS : business opportunities on foreign countries both on the European Union and extra-EU countries in different commodity-related sectors and other news.

ICE BRUSSELS : tenders, contracts, third countries programs, extra-EU tenders, tax benefits, funding and opportunities through ICE Brussels and other news.

ITALIAN REGIONAL FUNDS: Allocated funds for the development of areas in the center and in the south of Italy. These are funds and funding that favor occupational projects or innovative patents and innovative start-ups that have repercussion on the territories in terms of employment and revival of the productive and socio-economic industries. For information and news contact us for an estimation of your entrepreneurial project. It is advisable to have a preliminary synthetic business plan.

News Food and Beverage and Commodities

AGRI-FOOD CATALOGUE AND OFFERS : agro-food catalogue with agricultural and food products of excellence as Parmesan Reggiano, different cheeses, Parma ham, hams and cold meats also PDO, durum wheat dried pasta in different formats and different protein content, Neapolitan fresh pasta, rice, tomato, fresh and frozen fish, sauces and preserves, vegetables, mushrooms, truffle, fruits, legumes, cereals, coffee, milk, ice cream, plain and sparkling water, white wines, red wines, sparkling wines, Muscats, olive oil and extra virgin olive oil, and other Made in Italy products + some imported products, some commodities as sugar, flours, wheat, vegetable oil both rough and refined (sunflower oil, corn oil, soy oil) etc. included. Continuing offers, spot offers, stock offers.

ALLERGENS-FREE PASTA : we are responsible for finding pasta buyers and distributors with innovative features, in the different variation of fresh pasta, dried pasta, filled pasta, completely allergens-free (no gluten, no eggs, no lactose, no mono e diglycerides), also with certified vegan and BIO versions. A perfect combination of tastiness and health. Global innovation, pasta is supplemented by fibers and vitamins with the addition of vegetables and legumes; in this way, it has also a glycemic index very low.

FOOD & BEVERAGE TOP OF THE LINE : BIO and top of the line food and beverage. Firms of made in Italy excellence, products at the top in terms of product quality, BIO certification, organoleptic properties and health. From rice to pasta, from wine of high-quality grapes to extra virgin oil of primary quality, products with unique nutritive properties.

MIXED BERRIES AND FROZEN MUSHROOMS: a Russian producer market leader of mixed berries and frozen mushrooms is looking for buyers and strategical partnership to develop the opening in Italy and Europe.

WINE, WINES, WINE CELLARS FROM OLTREPO’ PAVESE: IBS is pleased to promote high quality wines from best Wine Cellars, origin from Oltrepo’ Pavese in Italy. RED WINES : O.P. BARBERA, also Oak barrel (barriques) aged. ROSSO RUBINO, sweet red wine made from Croatina grapes (100%). O.P. BONARDA, from pure Croatina grapes. O.P. BUTTAFUOCO, made by blending Croatina, Barbera and Uva Rara grapes. VINACERO, made from Pinot Noir grapes vinified red. O.P. BARBERA this is the not sparkling version of Barbera. WHITE WINES : O.P. PINOT NERO, made from Pinot noir (85%) and Chardonnay (15%) grapes. O.P. RIESLING ITALICO, white wine made from 80% Italic Riesling grapes and 20% Rhine Riesling variety. CROSE’ , rosé wine made from Pinot Noir grapes vinified rosé. O.P. CHARDONNAY, white aromatic dry wine made from 100% Chardonnay grapes. PINOT GRIGIO, white wine, full, yellow pale, with delicate fragrance and pleasantly soft flavor. LACLIMA, chardonnay, oak barrel (barriques) aged. LACLIMA is made with the grapes from our “Prumù” vineyards. SPARKLING WINES : PINOT SPUMANTE CHARMAT (SPARKLING), made from Pinot Noir grapes, vinified white by Charmat method. ROSE’ SPUMANTE CHARMAT (SPARKLING), made from Pinot Noir grapes, vinified pink by Charmat method. PINOT SPUMANTE BRUT (SPARKLING), made from Pinot Noir grapes (85%) and Chardonnay grapes (15%). MOSCATO DI VOLPARA, traditional recipe, sparkling, and passito which is made from Moscato grapes left to dry on the wine stocks until late November. For further information please contact us.

WHISKY: a distillery in Slovenia can provide high-quality whiskey with industrial production in bulk or in bottle at prices of great interest for wholesalers and sellers.

MINING PRODUCTS: haematite, limestone, bentonite, barite crystals, white and ochre talc, calcium carbonate, limonite, directly from the producer through property mine, importing firms or buyers on the paint sector or users of the above-mentioned products.

PELLET PRODUCERS : dimension 6-8 mm, colour both and dark pellets, competitive costs per tonne, detailed information available (product fiche and description), supply both through packaging bulks as big bag 1000 kg, and bags from 15 kg. Ashes 0,23 – 0,27% very low, because the used raw material is first-rate wood used for the design and construction of wooden houses and the remains are used for the pellet production. Pellet both for civil use top of the line, and for industrial use. Logistics and delivery both by truck and by ship. Minimum order 1 container or 1 truck.

WOODEN TRUNKS AND FIREWOOD PRODUCER : firewood and wooden trunks producer. For an estimate contact us indicating quantity, diameter, type of wood and humidity. Logistics through ship, train and truck.

VEGETABLE OILS : We make available vegetable oils, refined, crude or degummed products at competitive prices through Refineries located in Ukraine, Russia, Malaysia, The Philippines, Bulgaria and Hungary. Available vegetable oils : sunflower oil, csfo, corn oil, soybean oil, palm oil, cpo, colza oil, palm methyl ester, palmrdb – cp 8 / cp 10, UCO ( used cooking oil ) . The packaging can be both in PET bottles with a capacity of 1, 2, 5, 10 liters, and in bulk or flexitank, depending on the type of product. CIF delivery basis, 2.00 % performance bond. For further information, please contact us.

SUNFLOWER OIL PRODUCER : sunflower oil producer with Black Sea origin, raw or refined product, it is possible to provide both bulks and bottles, competitive price, minimum 1 container/month by ship or road transport minimum order 1 truck.

COCOA : unrefined cocoa in seeds to grind, origin Ivory Coast, the world’s largest producer of cocoa beans for the following chocolate production.

COMMODITIES : different commodities, from the top quality made in Italy products listed at the Borsa di Parma (such as Parmigiano Reggiano, Prosciutto di Parma and other cold cuts, tomato-derived products, fodder, grain, meal etc.) , to vegetable seeds (sunflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, palm oil, rapeseed oil), to petroleum products, (fuel, oil and gas), metal and others. For INFORMATION, requests and other news send us a mail.

STOCKS : stock of merchandise, of various typology, from food, to wines and beverage, sauces and spices, clothing and accessories (shirts, bathrobes, etc.), furnishings and bed sheets (mattress covers, rags, etc.), household articles (lamps, etc.) and kitchen (pans, knives, etc.), design articles, clocks, jewels, article for the house-cleaning, etc.

FUELS AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: IBS has direct relationships with official agents of Refineries from Russia, Middle East, South America, Libya, Iraq and Iran. The FOB and CIF purchasing procedures and the main products provided are indicated in the specific page. Click on the link to visit the Fuels page. Complete list of Products :
JP54 AVIATION KEROSENE COLONIAL GRADE 54 JET FUEL
JET FUEL JPA1 ( AVIATION KEROSENE COLONIAL GRADE A1 )
RUSSIAN D2 GAS OIL GOST ( DIESEL ) LO 2 62 GOST 305 82 ORIGIN
MAZUT 100 GOST 10585 99
MAZUT M100 GOST 10585 75
DIESEL GAS OIL ULTRA LOW SULPHUR DIESEL 50 / 10 PPM / EN590
ULTRA-LOW SULPHUR DIESEL 50 PPM
RUSSIAN DIESEL OIL EN 590 10 PPM
VIRGIN LOW POUR DIESEL FUEL OIL ( D6 )
LIQUEFIELD PETROLEUM GAS ( PROPANE ( C3H8 ) 50 % + BUTANE ( C4H10 ) SEPARATED ( LPG )
LIQUEFIELD NATURAL GAS 5542 87 ( LNG )
RUSSIA EXPORT BLENDS CRUDE GOST 9965 76
RUSSIA EXPORT BLEND CRUDE GOST 51 858 2002 ( R.E.B.C.O )
AUTOMOTIVE GASOIL ( AGO )
GASOLINE 93 OCTANES RUSSIAN ORIGIN
GASOLINE 89 OCTANES RUSSIAN ORIGIN
GASOLINE 87 OCTANES RUSSIAN ORIGIN
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS ( CNG )
UREA GRANULAR AND PRILLED RUSSIAN ORIGINS
BITUMEN / PETROLEUM ASPHALT
FUEL OIL CST180
PETROLEUM COKE
BASE OIL SN 500
BASE OIL SN 150

Niche and foreign partnership business news, latest news

Thanks to our foreign network, we have direct contact with agents and ownerships, opportunity promoters that we recommend to follow. For requests or offers contact us.

REAL ESTATE MOROCCO : real estate project in Morocco in Casablanca, luxury apartment buildings with advanced domotics, ventilation systems, smart city project.

PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS: buyers, distributors and strategical partnerships for pharmaceutical products in surgery and regenerative medicine, tissues, equipment, and biotechnologies are required.

MERGING AND ACQUISITION OPERATIONS: merging and acquisitions in the sectors biomedical pharmaceutical and orthopedic devices, ICT augmented reality and internet of things, food, catering, plastics, electromechanical, components. Kind of deals: start-up, turnaround, acquisition, acquisition/capital increase. Available info: risk level, actual enterprise value, turnover, EBITDA (%), net funding position, growth potential / achievable turnover, requirement object of the round, share sold with the round, expected IRR, way-out period (nr. years), way-out cash multiple, exit strategy, potential partners of the operation. Write us an email indicating your business data and your contact personal references and detail information will be provided.

CONCESSIONS OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES sale of concessions on the renewable sector – PPA (power purchase agreement). Examples: aeolian project Brazil, aeolian project Greece, photovoltaic project Jordan, photovoltaic project Egypt and photovoltaic Morocco. Turnkey plants also available.

KNOW-HOW SALE : stone elements for interiors sector for extra-EU countries, assistance on the phase of productive and operative facility start-up, training of the staff included.

OIL PRODUCTS : through a distributive company product in Italy with 26 platforms of ownership dislocated on the national territory, we can facilitate the contract for the supply of the following products. METHANE through primary refineries and societies with the monopoly of the distribution in Europe of the product therefore with a discount compared to secondary distributors. LPG and PROPANE, DIESEL (EN 590 – 10 PPM, PETROL. For big buyers, end users or end buyers of big quantities this company can manage directly the relation with the refineries, therefore, can organize the transport of big volumes with competitive prices by ship. Also of JP54 and other products.

MINING INVESTMENTS in Morocco, Tanzania, Colombia and in addition investments in Cu, Ni, Graphite, Lithium trough companies located in Canada e Switzerland. Top-level lawyers and banks.

INNOVATIVE DROPSHIPPING START-UP : sometimes indicated as drop ship, innovative start-up which presents a better business model than the business model of the companies on the market. Dropshipping permits an increase of the sales volume, enabling the management of the logistics also on foreign commissions. The peculiarity is that the goods are in the warehouse of the supplier and the seller, who is a separated entity, can perfect the sale and the good will be directly sent from the warehouse to the end user, only after the payment is perfected. All the sale process and the integrated supply chain are managed by a website. Contact us for updates and latest project news.

HELICOPTER BUYERS SCOUTING : American-made helicopter 8 passenger seats for money transport, transport to platforms, borders patrol, law enforcement. Much lower costs than the average market costs. Buyers and distributors scouting.

PILLOW FOR BEDRIDDEN INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES : innovative start-up and patent made by specialists in physiotherapy, that have produced a new pillow for bedridden which solves or improves a lot of problems that worry the people forced to long hospital stays or bed rests due to serious diseases or clinical pathologies. Search for investors.

INVESTMENT IN ARTWORKS: artworks of primary importance and notoriety, direct contact with owners or owners’ direct agents. Procedures supervised by accredited experts with multi-year activities in the field and high standing. Utmost discretion and confidentiality.

REAL ESTATES FOR SALE : real estates for sale in Italy and in other countries, hotels of virtue in Milan, Rome, Venice, Florence and in primary European cities. Shopping centers, SNF (skilled nursing facilities) in Italy. Farms and vineyards of virtue for sale with or without annexed restaurant and accommodation in the territories of the Italian wine excellence.

Services news

FOREIGN DESK : active services in foreign desk and in the branches of IBS partners abroad.

TRADE AND EXPORT FINANCE : selection of commercial and financial partners, creation and management of export contracts, searching for and negotiation of banking tools for export and trade finance (documentary letter of credit LC, stand by letter of credit SBLC, bank guarantees, forfeiting, etc.), export credits management. Through our partners, we are able to establish relationships with the main financial centres of the world, such as London, New York, and Hong Kong, and with banks and institutional agencies for export support and development.

INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL STRATEGIES : the aim of this project is the obtaining of a financing, within sustainable projects, credible business plans, presentable companies, due diligence, and experts in the financial field.

QUOTE COMPANIES ON THE STOCK EXCHANGE : consultation to quote a company on the Stock Exchange, quotation on the Stock Exchange and high finance for companies operating in the mining field and in biotechnologies and pharmaceutical sectors.

INNOVATIVE PLATFORM E-MAIL AND TEXT MARKETING : a platform to set or support marketing and communication business strategies through a highly technological and innovative system. Advertising campaign custom-made able to show you concretely the power of your system to increase sales, e-commerce, or advertise initiative and events both for mobile marketing and PC. An integrated system of customer journey, micro-contents distributed over time by text and email, solutions landing page and story telling. On the basis of the way of approach, the behavior of the potential consumer is measured and analyzed by the mobile analytic and customer forms. The interactions between users are analyzed, measured with a temporal view. Personalisation of contents for the future communications. The platform no longer provides a simply custom target but a predictive target. Tens of millions of contacts just in Italy and extended international presence. Promotions, lead, coupons, dynamic surveys, booking, deal, mflyer, donations and story telling. Tracking, lead scoring, predictive marketing.

GEOPOLITICS & INTELLIGENCE, RISK ASSESSMENT : geopolitics and intelligence, risk assessment, country profile, geopolitical risk analysis, observatory conflicts, actor profile, country security assessment, travel security plan.

ARTICLES INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS : different articles of geopolitical, socio- economic, technical subjects, concerning different regions and areas divided in continents.

SACE INSURANCE OF THE CREDIT : SACE and insurance of the credit, Country Risk Map, risk non-payment counterpart sovereign, banking, corporate, contractual violations, capital transfer and other risk linked to internationalisation, detailed for each foreign country, with insurance solutions of the credit and insurability conditions.

SEND US IN FAIR IN YOUR PLACE : IBS sends a consultant to the fair of interest between those planned in the different foreign countries, it collects a certificate and agreed number of commercial contracts and business cards, without the Italian company having to commit the valuable time of their collaborators. Centralizing the service, through a person who is present and has proxy for more than a company, you get savings in costs and time.

BUSINESS MATCHING : business matching, meetings B2B, commercial and entrepreneurial missions. Business meetings upon request according to the needs of the companies.

SERVICES FOR PATENTS AND START-UPS : services for owners of patents and start-ups through professionals with a high expertise in the management of inventions, patents, product industrialization, star-up development.

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES : investment opportunities for investors, also innovative start-ups and financial investments.

TRADES PLATFORM platform B2B, business to business Pandora Trades International.

THE MEANING OF SOME VOCABULARY IN THE TEXT “Business News IBS”:

- Business to Business B2B (Wikipedia)
- Geopolitics (Wikipedia)
- Business Intelligence (Wikipedia)
- Letter of credit (Wikipedia)
- Authorized economic operator AEO (Wikipedia)
- ECOWAS – CEDEAO (Wikipedia)
- Joint Venture JV (Wikipedia)
- Venture Capital (Wikipedia)
- Allergen (Wikipedia)
- Biotechnology (Wikipedia)
- EN 590 (Wikipedia)
- Diesel fuel (Wikipedia)
- Gasoline (Wikipedia)

CONTACT US FOR DETAIL INFORMATIONS IN RELATION TO THE NEWS

contact IBS by mail

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS GRID PARITY

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS GRID PARITY

WE ARE LOOKING FOR LAND PLOTS OF 10 HECTARES MINIMUM

TO BUILD GRID PARITY SYSTEMS, KEYS IN HAND

EN Grid parity Italy Home page

EN Grid Parity closest electrical substation connection

WE ARE LOOKING FOR LAND PLOTS

10 HECTARES MINIMUM, TO BUILD PHOTOVOLTAIC INSTALLATIONS, GRID PARITY

Those who are interested, carefully read the following points and
Download the HANDBOOK and the following documents in the DOWNLOAD section

STRENGHTS :

SOLE SPOKESPERSON : IBS looks for the right areas where to place the installations and provides for all the bureaucratic procedures from the grant application from Enel / Terna to the grant issuance .

INVESTORS : the investors are already ready to buy the licenses / grants Grid Parity as soon as they will be issued .

GUIDELINES : it is important that the plots respect the following terms . For this reason, we recommend you to read them carefully . Thank you for your collaboration . We hope you will have a productive long-term collaboration with us .

THIS COMMUNICATIONS IS FOR :
- Landlords in Italy
- People in charge of plot announcements
- Rental agencies
- Technicians and operators in the renewable energy sector, especially in the PV sector
- Professional organizations : Agronomists, Surveyors, Engineers, Architects, Experts ( Land Surveyor, Engineer, etc)
Professional studies relevant to the sector

EN how to cooperate Grid Parity Italy

SIZE OF THE GRID PARITY INSTALLATIONS THAT WILL BE BUILT : from 5-10 MW to 40 MW-50 MW or more

HECTARES OF PLOTS NEEDED FOR 1 MW IN GRID PARITY : almost 2 Hectares every Megawatt depending on whether solar trackers are used or not . Plots have to be adjacent or at least 1 – 2 Km distant from each other, so that the connection in the substation can take place without any problems

LEASEHOLD ESTATE OR PURCHASE RIGHTS : it is possible that landowners sign a contract in which the investor pays a leasehold estate for 25 years + 3 years or + 5 years or the investor can buy the plot . Land plots fit the requirements all over Italy ( North Italy, Central Italy and South Italy )

REGIONS WHERE YOU CAN BUILD GRID PARITY INSTALLATIONS : Land plots are available in all ITALIAN regions .
Investors are interested in land plots all over Italy and its regions : it is important that lease charges or plot sales and soil radiation allow to obtain a return on investment consistent with the business model .
Some investors prefer the following regions : Abruzzo, Basilicata, Campania, Lazio, Molise, Puglia, Sardinia, Sicily, Umbria . Some investors consider the region Calabria .
IT IS IMPORTANT TO VERIFY that there are no urban restrictions and limitations on building GRID PARITY PV systems on plots in each region in Italy .
REGARDING SARDINIA : it is important that plots are industrial and not agricultural .

SUMS PAID TO LANDOWNERS FOR THE LEASEHOLD ESTATE : the sum paid to landowners in Euro per Hectare per Year for the leasehold estate will be decided with the investor and the owners, depending on the Region where the plots are and on the investor type . The investor can also pay the plots ’ leasehold estate in a single discount rate solution .

SUMS PAID TO PLOT OWNERS IN CASE OF SALES : the sums paid per Hectare in South, Central and North Italy will be discussed individually and negotiated with the investors and the owners . The investor knows the variable costs per hectare depending on his own financial model .

LICENSES PURCHASE

GRID PARITY “ READY TO BUILD ”

Ous investors also consider purchasing ready to use licenses where the installation can be built immediately .

EN steps to point out land plot grid parity

EFFECTIVENESS

THESE ARE THE STEPS TO POINT OUT THE LAND PLOT FOR THE GRID PARITY INSTALLATIONS :

SCREENING : landowners or people in charge of plot announcements who are in touch with the owners will be asked to send :

- PLOT TYPE : flat, sloping, soil pitch
- GOOGLE EARTH and IMAGES with the accurate coordinates and the highlighted plots perimeter.

This will allow us to : verify the plots, conduct simulations, determine the radiation in that area, verify if the plots are adjacent or if the distances between them are consistent with the requirements needed for the construction of GRID PARITY installations .

After a first and quick check is made in order to give the green light to the construction, we will need to sign the prior agreements of the following documents :

- BUILDING PERMIT
- CADASTRAL CERTIFICATES
- LOTS

INFORMATION ON THE CLOSEST ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION OR ELECTRICAL ROOM AND RELATED CONNECTION : it is just as important to know the plots distance from the closest Enel / Terna electrical substation, if there is average or high voltage ; to know the electric line capacity, the possibility to connect in substation and the costs of a connection in the electrical plant of an already existing substation . The creation of a new substation can be done for GRID PARITY PV installations starting from 30 MW – 40 MW . At the same time, the adjacent active high voltage line will be directly intercepted . In case of any doubts, you can send pictures of the aerial electric line both average and high voltage or pictures of the electrical substation or room, asking for advice .

PRIOR AGRREMENT THAT LANDOWNERS WILL HAVE TO SIGN : if the results on the tests made on plots and on the possibility of connection in the substation are positive, we will sign a prior agreement and start the working phases and bureaucratic procedures . IBS will provide the Autorizzazione Unica ( an Authorization which constitutes the necessary and obligatory title for the construction and commissioning of PVs ) with the help of experts :
- Autorizzazione Unica ( AU ) including, geological prospecting and exams and range reconnaissance
- Design and presentation of TICA ( Testo integrato delle connessioni attive, is document that states technical – economic terms and conditions for the connection to the grid of electric power production plants and it refers to a connection request made starting from January 1st 2009 ) and different proceedings, participation to any kind of meeting with the Authorities in charge until the AU is obtained and PV installations can be built .

TIMINGS : even if each region has its different timings and procedures, completing the whole bureaucratic procedure to receive the Autorizzazione Unica usually takes about 6-10 months . Timings start after the positive result of :
- the preliminary analysis of the plot documents and after having signed the preliminary contracts with the owners
- the analysis of the documents that will be sent to the conferenza dei Servizi present in the Region ( an institution of the Italian legislation that simplifies the activity of the Italian public administration ) which collaborates with our architects .

AGREEMENTS : with the people in charge of plot announcements or partners that will facilitate plot announcements or landowners ’ announcements, we will sign the agreements that protect them for the recognition fees . We will also sign a NDA ( Non – Disclosure Agreement ) on the exchange of confidential information both with the person in charge of plot announcements and with the landowners . IBS wants to have a productive long-term synergy with those who will want to cooperate .

EN work with us grid parity

JOIN US

COOPERATE WITH US

We are looking both for people directly in charge of plot announcements, different types of operators who are in touch with landowners and also people who aim to become our Area Managers . The Area managers’ job will be that of coordinating the people in charge of plot announcements, collect proceedings and being responsible for the information . They are also a reference point between landowners or plot announcers and IBS in case of any problems .

CONTACT US

APPLY FOR THE POSITION BY SENDING US YOUR PERSONAL DETAILS AND CV

EN stakeholders

PROJECT AND INFORMATION STAKEHOLDERS

EN Grid Parity Stakeholders

EN test and documents download grid parity

IF YOU ARE INTERESTED IN COOPERATING WITH US

WE SUGGEST THE FOLLOWING TESTS AND DOCUMENT DOWNLOADS TO OUR ANNOUNCERS / AREA MANAGERS :

GUIDELINES : it is an Information Handbook in PDF which aims is to research the right areas and to operate independently making the information exchange more efficient .

INFORMATION VIDEO : the video ’ s aim is to facilitate the process and to reveal in advance the information that will be needed in the different phases. In this way, it gives an immediate overview .

GREENFIELD PRELIMINARY FORM OF THE AREA : this initial document has to be downloaded in order to send the first information by plot owners or announcers with the google earth picture of the plot and its coordinates and perimeter attached ( Site characteristics agricultural land to be eligible )

SIMULATOR OF THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN THE ELECTRICAL LINE COSTS AND THE BUDGET : it is an excel file that simulates the low and average voltage connection costs . We suggest you to write the required values into the yellow cells ( where some values are written as an example ) and a calculation and first estimate will be made automatically . Regarding high voltage, CONTACT US .

PROGRESS REPORT OF THE AUTORIZZAZIONE UNICA : in this section our co – workers, partners, investors and announcers are able to monitor the progress report of the Autorizzazione Unica regarding the plots, where the procedure to obtain this authorization in Grid Parity together with the plots data is taking place

EN download guidelines grid parity

EN Download information video grid parity

EN download greenfield form green parity

EN download electrical line costs grid parity

EN progress report of the AU grid parity

CONTACT US

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION OR CLARIFICATIONS

Contact us via E-mail with your personal information in order to reach us or to begin working with us . One of our managers will contact you within 24 hours and will give you the necessary information :

Mail : ibs(a)doingbusinessibs.it
Skype : doingbusinessibs ( location Roma )

Notes : In the E-mail given to contact us the at sign is written with this symbol (a), instead of this one @ in order to respect our company policy regarding cybersecurity On the Internet there are some browsers and automatic programs that could use the active email in the websites and create harmful SPAM communications . However, by replacing the symbol @ with (a) this problem is avoided . Thus, for everyone’s safety, we ask you to take note of the email and to write us from your email account or server . Or, you could click on the following image . This will direct you to the page where you can CONTACT US through the website special area . Thank you for your cooperation .

contact IBS by mail

DISPENSATION AND MATERIALS

ON SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC

Fotovoltaico Tecnologia e dispense

THE SOLAR RADIATION

The solar radiation is the electromagnetic energy that is emitted by the process of the fusion of hydrogen in the sun and it turns into helium atoms ( He ) .
Solar energy, that in a solar year crosses the atmosphere and arrives on earth, it is only 1/3 of the total energy that is intercepted by planet earth out of the atmosphere and the 70% of the energy ends in the sees .
The remaining energy ( 1,5 x 1017 kWh ) , that in one year intercepts dry land, is the same as thousand times of the present total world energy consumption .
Irradiation intended as solar irradiance or as power density of solar irradiation, is intercepted out of the atmosphere thanks to a surface that is perpendicular to sunlight ( it is also known as solar constant ). Irradiation is equivalent to 1353 W / m2, and during the year it is variable to ± 3 % due the elliptical earth orbit .
The following figure illustrates the irradiation development , through readings out of the atmosphere in a year :

Fotovoltaico densità di potenza radiazione solare PV

The peak value that is detected on the earth’s surface is about 1000 W / m2 , at noon, on a summer day, clear sky, optimal sun condition.
The solar radiation that comes to the earth’s surface, a distinction can be made between direct radiation and spread radiation . Direct radiation affects the surface through a very specific and unique angle of incidence, while spread radiation affects the surface with various angles.

When the direct radiation can’t affect a surface because there is an obstacle in the middle, thanks to the spread radiation the shaded area won’t be completely obscured.
This aspect has got technical density, especially for photovoltaic installations that can also operate only through the spread radiation.

fotovoltaico principi fisici solare PV

Furthermore, inclined surface can receive reflected solar radiation ( reflection ) from the land or from overwater in its front or horizontal surfaces ; such phenomenon is defined as “ albedo “ and it contributes to increase the process.

Direct radiation, spread radiation and albedo are received by a surface and the related proportion depend on certain elements :

- First of all on the weather conditions: in a cloudy day spread radiation prevails ; in a clear day , especially with dry weather , direct radiation prevails , and it can reach 90 % of the total irradiation ;
- The slope in relation to the horizontal plane of the surface : any horizontal surface will receive the higher spread radiation and the minimum reflected radiation, if there are no objects around in an upper altitude in relation to the surface’s one ;
- Presence of reflective surface : particularly the higher contributes is due to the reflection that is gave by clear surfaces . Moreover reflected radiation is higher in winter because of the reflective effect of snow and it decreases in summer months due to the effect related to the absorption by land and grass .

fotovoltaico BIPV PV

The slope or grade that will allow to make the stored energy utmost, could vary from location to another : changing location, the relationship between spread radiation and total radiation will vary, because increasing the grade of the surface that picks up, the component of spread radiation will be reduced and reflected component will be increased.

Practically, the optimal situation is recorded when the surface has southern exposure , and there is a rake angle that is equivalent to the site’s latitude : directing to south there will be a maximization of the filtered solar radiation that is received throughout the day and the slope is equal to the latitude that during the months of the year minimises the variation of solar energy that is filtered as a consequence of the sunlight oscillation of ± 23.5 °, compared to the perpendicular one of the harvest surface. If we name with ID the direct radiation, and with IS the spread radiation and with R albedo , then we can determine the total solar radiation that will affect on a surface :
IT = ID + IS + R

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT AND THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY INTO ELECTRICITY

Photovoltaic effect turns the direct photovoltaic conversion of solar energy into electricity through physical phenomenon in which light radiation interacts with electron of semiconductor materials.
The solar cell represents the physical object by which such phenomenon manifests itself and it is in substance a diode, that is characterized by a vast surface of several dozen cm2 .
To understand the photovoltaic effect is relevant to describe conceptually how a diode works ( p-n junction ) , and since today the crystalline silicon ( Si ) is the more used material for the creation of solar cells, silicon diode will be analysed .

fotovoltaico materiali semiconduttori PV

The silicon atom has got 14 electron, 4 of these are valence electron, therefore they can chemically bond in pairs with other valence electron of different atoms . In a chemically pure silicon crystal, every single atom is bonded through covalent bond with other 4 silicon atoms, so ,because of chemical bonds, in the crystal there aren’t electron which are free .

In the event that several silicon atoms in the crystal would be replaced by other phosphorus atoms ( P ) that is characterized by 5 valence electron, 4 of these will be used in chemical bond with adjacent silicon atoms, while the fifth electron could be separated from the phosphorus atom through thermal energy and it will be free to move in the crystal lattice .

Similarly, silicon atoms can be replaced by boron atoms ( B ) that has got only 3 valence electron and , in this case there will be a missing electron to saturate chemical bond with adjacent silicon atoms . This missing electron will be a positive electron and it will be called “ electron hole “ .

The following picture illustrates with a graphic what has been described : in the first the structure of the crystal lattice of silicon ( Si ) is shown, in the second there is how the structure of the crystal lattice varies when is carried out a doping through phosphorus atoms ( P ) and in the last case, modification of the crystal lattice are shown after the doping with boron atoms .

fotovoltaico tipo p tipo n potenziale elettrico PV

In the doping through phosphorus ( P ), atoms carry free negative electric charge and material is called “ n “ type, while in the doping and therefore in the replacing of silicon atoms by boron atoms ( B ) they carry positive electric charge and material is called “ p “ type . The p-n junction ( diode ) is determined by aggregating a “ n “ type bar with a “ p “ type bar .
Material “ n “ free electron will have in their left a region in which there aren’t free electron and this will lead to a flux of such carriers to the left in order to re-stablish balance between positive and negative electric charge . Similarly, the electron hole will find in their left a region in which there aren’t electron hole and so there will be a flux of positive electric charge to the right . As a result of the activation of such spread process , on the left side there will be an excess of negative electric charge, while on the right side there will be an excess of positive electric charge .

It follows that, in the region of interface between the two materials an electric field will be determined and it will tend to increase ever more, proportionally to the fact that the electric hole and electron keep spread to the opposite sides . This process keeps going until the creating electric potential will assume a size that will stop a further spread of electron and electron hole .
When such balance will be reached, a permanent electric field in a material will be created without using external electric fields . Through these concepts, it is easier to explain the photovoltaic effect . Assume that a particle that is a sunlight ( photon ) come in the “ p “ type region of the material . If the photon have at his disposal an higher energy of the gap band , in other words the minimum energy that is needed to determine the bond cleavage in the silicon lattice, it will be absorbed and will lead to the manifestation of a pair of electron – electron hole . The released electron during this phenomenon can move to the right because of the electric potential .

Contrary, if the photon came in the “ n “ zone , the creating electron hole will move to the left .
The flux that will be activate, will lead to an accumulation of positive electric charge to the left and negative electric charge to the right . This will create an electric field that is opposite of the one that is bonded to the spread mechanism . The more will be the number of photon that will reach the junction, the more fields will tend to erase each other , until there won’t be an internal field that separate every further pair of electron – electron hole .

This is the requirement that determines the open circuit voltage of a photovoltaic cell ( see open circuit voltage of a photovoltaic modules ) . Putting electrode ( metal contacts ) on the surface of a photovoltaic cell, it is possible to use the created potential. Such flux will create an accumulation of positive electric charge + to the left and negative electric charge – to the right , creating an opposite electric field as a sign of what it is created through the spread mechanism .

PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY

SOLAR CELL

In the solar cell solar radiation turns into electricity .

The solar cell is a device that is composed by a subtle slice of semiconductor material, that is often silicon ; it has a thickness that could vary from 0,25 mm to 0,35 mm, often in a square shape or with a surface of 100 cm 2 . For the production of cells , silicon is a most frequently used material and it is used in the electronic industry, where the process cycle leads to very high costs, costs that couldn’t be justified if we consider that the required degree of purity in the photovoltaic field is lower than the one which is essential for electronic .

There are also other materials that can be used to create solar cells :

- Monocrystalline silicon: energy performance 15 – 17 %
- Polycrystalline silicon : energy performance 12 – 14%
- Amorphous silicon : energy performance lower than 10 %
- Other materials : cadmium telluride, gallium arsenide, gallium and indium thallium arsenic and copper .
However, now the most used material is monocrystalline silicon, which makes record higher performance and greater prolonged duration compared to other materials that are usable for the same purpose .

fotovoltaico sezione di una cella fotovoltaica PV

PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES

The solar cell is an intermediate product in the photovoltaic industry field : it provides limited current and voltage values, if they are compared to those that are usually required in users devices, moreover cells are extremely fragile, not electrically isolated, and they haven’t a mechanical support .

Cells are therefore aggregated and assembled with the aim of building a unique structure that is called photovoltaic modules ( see also Solar Panel ).
Photovoltaic modules have a more robust structure and it is easier to handle and on them solar cells are properly placed ( see hybrid solar cell ) .
Photovoltaic modules ’ size can vary, but those that are more common have surfaces which can vary from 0,5 m2 to 1,3 m2 , usually with 36 cells that are electrically linked in series .

fotovoltaico tipi di celle FV moduli fotovoltaici PV

Photovoltaic modules have a power that can vary from 50 Wp to 150 Wp related to the type and the efficiency that characterizes the solar cells which make up modules .

The most important electric features of photovoltaic modules are :

- Peak power ( Wp) : it is the power that comes from photovoltaic modules in standard conditions of utilisation STC : Irradiation = 1000 W / m2: Temperature = 25°C ; A.M. = 1,5
- Rated current ( A ): it is the current that comes from photovoltaic modules in the work-point
- Rated voltage ( V ): it is the work-voltage of photovoltaic modules

fotovoltaico curva I-V caratteristica PV

Wp ( Watt peak ) is the size that is taken as reference of photovoltaic modules and it has the aim of expressing the electric power that comes from photovoltaic modules in standard conditions of reference ( considering standard conditions with Irradiation = 1000 W / m2 ).

WHAT IS THE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

The photovoltaic system ( if you want see current source ) is composed by photovoltaic modules that are aggregated and linked in series and in parallel ( series and parallel circuits ) in order to reach optimal and desired operating conditions .

The base elements of the photovoltaic field are photovoltaic modules . More photovoltaic modules are mechanically assembled to each other determine the “ photovoltaic panel “ , while photovoltaic modules or panels are electrically linked in series and they allow to obtain the rated voltage of distribution, and they form the “ string “. Finally, more strings must be linked in parallel and this determinates the “ field”. United photovoltaic modules constitute the generator and they are built on a mechanical structure that is able to support the modules and it is oriented in order to maximise the solar irradiation .

generatore fotovoltaico PV

The quantity of electric power that is produced by a photovoltaic system can vary in a year, in proportion to sunshine in location where the system is built and depends on latitude .
Depending on the application for which the system was designed, it must be sized observing the following criteria :

- electric load
- peak power
- possibility to connect to the power grid or not
- latitude of the site and annual average irradiation of the site where there is the photovoltaic system.
- specification of the building’s architectural type
- specification of users load’s electric type

For example it is assumed that to the latitudes of central Italy, 1 m2 of photovoltaic modules of good manufacturing on average could produce :

0,35 kWh per day during the winter period
0,65 kWh per day during the summer period
>> 180 kWh per year

PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

A photovoltaic plant or a photovoltaic system is an aggregate of mechanic, electric and electronic components which detect / intercept and subsequently transform the available solar radiation energy, making possible to use solar energy in the form of electric energy .

Systems in this typology can be divided in two categories, regardless of the usage and size of power of themselves :

- those isolated , “ stand alone “ as well or
- those connected to the electric grid or grid connected

Isolated “ stand alone “ systems, by virtue of the fact that they are not connected to the electric grid, must generally and necessarily have a storage system or storage of the energy that is produced . The energy storage is needed because the photovoltaic field is in position to supply electric energy only during the day, while often the higher request of users focuses on the afternoon or in the night . During the insolation is therefore necessary to have a produced energy storage and not to use it immediately, energy that is provided to the load when there is a reduction or absence of the available one.

sistemi grid connected PV

Configuring the plant through this method , means that the photovoltaic field is sized in order to allow the supply of the load and the charging of storage batteries ( rechargeable battery ) in the insolation hours .
In the systems connected to the grid, usually there are not storage systems because energy that is produced during the insolation hours is immediately placed in the electric grid ; on the contrary, during hours of lower insolation or without insolation, the load is powered by the grid .
If the continuity of service is considered, a system of this typology will be more reliable compared to a stand alone photovoltaic system, that after a failure, it can’t have the possibility to be powered in an alternative way . “ High reliability “ systems can be designed though an isolated system ( stand alone ) with diesel ( for example hybrid diesel – electric ) .

impieghi stand alone PV

The aim of a grid connected system is therefore to allow the feed-in in the highest quantity of energy .
In the physic point of view the structure of a photovoltaic system, either isolated or connected to the grid, can be different ; usually 3 important blocks can be highlighted :
- photovoltaic power station
- power conditioning system
- system for data acquisition
Attention is being paid to the fact that connected to the grid systems without storage, in these cases the grid serves as power reservoir with unlimited capacity . The load is represented by connected to the grid user instead, like for a grid connected system .

WHAT ARE GRID CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

The main components of a grid connected photovoltaic plant are :

- Inverter for connecting to net
- Device for interfacing with electric grid
- Bi – directional meter for energy

The inverter is a fundamental component in the grid connected photovoltaic systems because it is able to maximise the production of electric current of the photovoltaic device, by optimising the transfer of electric energy between photovoltaic modules and load .

Inverter as a device can turn direct current which is produced by modules 12 V, 24 V, 48 V, and so on ) into alternating current ( usually 220 V ) in order to supply the load – user and / or feed the energy in the grid, with which it can work with an interchange system .

Grid connected inverters have usually got an electric type device which allow to extract full power from the photovoltaic system in every moment . The device tries to reach the maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) and it adapts features about the production of the photovoltaic power station to the need of the load .

sistemi grid connected schema PV

The inverter is also important because usually a photovoltaic system is able to give current and voltage values which vary on the basis of irradiation + temperature variables, on the contrary of the load, that usually needs constant values of voltage of supply .

Indeed, electric grid interface devices have the aim of ensuring that the form of the electric energy wave , which is fed into the grid, have got all the features that the local supplier of energy requires .

Finally, the energy meter will measure the energy that the photovoltaic system can produce during its operating period .

“ STAND ALONE “ PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

The main components of a stand alone or isolated photovoltaic plant are :

- photovoltaic modules
- load regulator
- inverters
- storage system or storage batteries

In this photovoltaic plant’s typology, electric energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules , is also stored in storage batteries . Through a load regulator, load is supplied by the stored energy in the batteries .

impianti fotovoltaici stand alone PV

The load regulator must preserve accumulators from the load in excess due to the photovoltaic system and it must protect accumulators from an excess of load due to the use . Both situations have harmful consequences for the correct functioning and for the durability of accumulators . Since usually the power that is required by the user, it is not always equal to the intensity of solar radiation ( and consequently this affects photovoltaic plant ’s electricity production ), a portion of electric energy that is produced by the photovoltaic field must be stored in order to be used when the user will need it . This is the aim of the storage system in these plants .

Therefore, a storage system is composed by a set of rechargeable accumulators, and it is sized so as to ensure a relevant autonomy of the electric load supply . Batteries with this aim are practically accumulators of stationary typology and only in particular cases using batteries as motor fuel is permitted . It is important that batteries for photovoltaic use must have the following features :

- Self discharge low value
- Long estimated duration
- that do not require maintenance
- that can work with a high number of charging and discharging cycle

In the case of stand alone or isolated system, the aim of the inverter is to transform direct current into alternating current . The direct current is produced by the photovoltaic field and alternating current is essential for the direct supply of users .
In this case, inverters must be sized in order to supply directly the load which will be connected to it .
Obviously, the inverter with this type of plant building ( i.e. isolated or stand alone plants ) doesn’t represent a component with a compulsory presence ; it is possible to supply directly the load in direct current and with low voltage .

efficienza e costo generazioni FV PV

WHICH ARE THE CRITERIA FOR SIZING A PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

There are description of the phases for sizing a photovoltaic plant and indication for designing a complete plant .

VERIFY THE SITE ’S COMPETENCE

- Quantify presence of shadows ( vegetation, heights , buildings )
- Morning mists
- Fog
- Wind
- Snow

This information allow to determine the photovoltaic system ’s placement, optimising their exposure to the South, higher inclination on the horizontal plane, support structures and their features .

HOW TO QUANTIFY THE DAILY NEED OF ENERGY

Energy = Power for the time of use

Isolated or grid connected utilisation consumption will be supplied through the photovoltaic plant and will be catalogued in terms of daily required energy .

Example :

- 2 15 W lamps must be supplied 5 hours per day
- 1 60 W CRT must be supplied 3 hours per day
Total energy that is daily needed = 2 x 15 W x 5 hours per day + 1 x 60 W x 3 hours per day = 330 Wh per day

SELECTION OF THE BEST MODULES’ INCLINATION

To choose correctly the modules’ inclination, usually it must be equal to the latitude where modules are located, except for architectural needs .

HOW TO CALCULATE A PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM’S POWER PEAK

Electric energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules is linearly proportional to the solar radiation which affects on the solar modules ’ surface ; the calculation can be made referring to the information about the site ’s solar irradiation .

A calculation method that is frequently used , is to detect EQUIVALENT HOURS of the site through appropriate tables and the hours are considered with the optimal photovoltaic modules’ inclination . “ EQUIVALENT HOUR “ is the period of time in which solar irradiation reaches an equivalent value of 1000 W / m2 . In a location of centre Italy, the average value related to 12 months of such indicator, the value can be 3, assuming a modules’ inclination of 45° .

For the calculation of the dimensioning of a photovoltaic plant, this method is used to identify the quantity of daily energy that is produced by photovoltaic modules . According to this method and knowing the “ monthly equivalent hour of the site “, it is possible to determine the peak power of our photovoltaic system with the following method :

Photovoltaic system’s peak power Kwp = daily need of Equivalent Hours energy

IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENTS OF PLANT’S LOSSES

It is important to consider losses or voltage drops which are introduced by components that constitute the photovoltaic plant ( inverter, voltage regulator , batteries , cable connections and so on ).
Knowing that total losses of the photovoltaic plant are 30 %, it will be necessary to increase the Kwp ( peak power ) of the same percentage in the photovoltaic system .

CALCULATION OF AN INVERTER POWER

The power of an inverter is calculated in a different way according to grid connected or isolated ( stand alone ) plants . In the case of a grid connected plant , the choice of inverter is based on the feature of the photovoltaic field : when the power of the photovoltaic system is fixed and therefore the number of photovoltaic modules as well, the typology of usable inverter is identifiable .
For an isolated plant, the maximum total power connected to the inverter will be calculated . For example , the case that was used before to calculate daily energy need :

Total power = 2 x 15 W + 1 x 60 W = 90 W

Substantially, an inverter of rated power higher than 90 W must be used .

Depending on the waveform that is produced, to choose the inverter for the isolated stand alone plants , different types of inverters can be used :

- pure sine wave inverters : they can reproduce a waveform that is practically the same as the grid one and they allow to supply any load typology

- trapezoidal wave and square wave inverters : they could not supply correctly, for example electronic type loads .

SIZE STORAGE SYSTEM FOR STAND ALONE ISOLATED PLANTS

If low levels of sun occur, photovoltaic plant would have lower productions than those that are achievable in optimal days of sun, therefore when this occurs the storage can be sized in order to ensure a certain load supply, for a certain period of time ( maximum number of consecutive days), in which there is absence of sun .

COST OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

The investment in photovoltaic plants implies a significant use of capital in the first phase and low expenses for parks maintenance .
Analysing all the economical and financial aspects related to a photovoltaic plant is quite complex, however there are some elements which must be considered :

- Every photovoltaic plant and installation needs to be analysed in its reference framework ( legislation, local condition . Solar irradiation level, available areas and so on ).
- It is fundamental to refer to the energy value that is produced and not to focus on the energy cost in order to operate correctly ; this because from a qualitative point of view, the energy that is produced through photovoltaic solar source is not the same compared to energy traditional sources, both for environmental impact and intermittent of produced energy and so on .
- Photovoltaic system’s life time is about 25 years now, even though some manufacturers give assurance for longer periods .
- Difficult links to the grid, for situation like mountain hut or isolated houses in low urbanized areas and so on .

There are cases where the initial investment is amortised ( see amortisation ) for the cost of user electrification that is higher than the cost for the installation the photovoltaic solar plant .
Usually for a photovoltaic plant there is a cost per kWh that is a higher product than the cost per kWh if is bought from the network ; as a result it is better to install a photovoltaic plant in line with present incentive forms ( Feed-in tariff ). A cost per kWh that is produced by a photovoltaic plant it can be compared to the kWh that is bought in network, if through financial types of contribution in high percentage .

fotovoltaico vari strati cella fotovoltaica PV

HISTORICAL EXAMPLE TO UNDERSTAND THE APPROACH BETWEEN ITALY AND FOREIGN COUNTRY :

In 2001 it was created a national project called “ Tetti Fotovoltaici “ in Italy; it was characterized by various critical points that are inherent in the photovoltaic solar field development and they are :

- Advertising campaigns and information were not clear and sometimes they were wrong by responsible bodies
- Number of limited funding ( about 30 / 40 fundable projects ) if they are compared to the total demand that were received in each region
- Need to advance money by customers to buy the photovoltaic plant
- Presence of a maximum limit for the cost for the plant ; this has favoured the spread of low quality plants
- Absence of indications for the quality of modules that are used in terms of performance, efficiency and so on
- Absence of refunds of kWh that were produced by photovoltaic plant, only an adjustment between electric energy production and consumption
- Uncertainty for the effective final typal approval of photovoltaic plant .

On the contrary an elementary but effective project for the promotion of the photovoltaic solar field in Germany is given, and it was created in 2000 in which :

- there were not non – refundable contribution
- there were subsidised rate funding lasting 10 years
- there were facilities connected with the electric energy that was produced by the photovoltaic plant .
Such programme allowed to create photovoltaic plants as investment, to realise high efficiency and quality plants, to obtain the highest production possible and users were stimulated to do effective maintenance actions on time .

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Environmental impact in the solar renewable is low or it doesn’t exist, because of the absence of the release of polluting substances in the environment ( air, water, see pollution ). There is a reduction in gas that are responsible of the feared greenhouse and of the phenomenon of acid rain .
The photovoltaic conversion from solar energy into electric energy represents the renewable type source which is more environmentally friendly .

Photovoltaic solar plants don’t emit polluting materials, vibration and since they are modular, they go along with the site’s geomorphology where they are installed ; finally they can produce energy near electric loads, so succeeding to prevent transmission losses .
By the way, the environmental impact is not zero : some problems remain and there are limited typology of environmental impact that affect the approval or acceptance of plants and they are the following :

- productive process of components and the pollution that comes from it
- usage and saturation of areas in territories which don’t allow other uses
- sometimes a significant visual impact ( visual pollution )
- impact on fauna and flora, i.e. on the local climate .

As regard to the pollution in the components production phase . The choice of raw materials can reduce the phenomenon, for the rest emission that come from productive process are the function of more or less advanced technology that is used during the production phase . The most used photovoltaic plants and photovoltaic systems are based on silicon ( a chemical element that is widespread on the earth’s crust ) both in the crystal form, poly – crystal and amorphous form .
The production process doesn’t provoke an excessive use of harmful or polluting substances and in is important to say that in the photovoltaic market, a part of the silicon comes from the reuse of waste in the electronic industry .

fotovoltaico solare PV

It must be highlighted that some typology of solar cell may involve potential risks in case of fire, because toxic gasses can form after a combustion ; obviously when photovoltaic panels can be no more used , they are properly disposed ( photovoltaic waste ) through adequate system of photovoltaic panels recycling . Photovoltaic parks installation and therefore the need of space and territory depends on how the photovoltaic is used : decentralised or centralised mode in big plants .

In the first case and in the decentralised mode, the used part of territory is reduced because the photovoltaic plant is installed in surfaces that were already removed from the natural environment, for example roofs, building ’s facades or balconies of existing buildings, car parks and their structure, service areas near cliffs, dangerous places and sides of the road etc. The expansion potential for the decentralised photovoltaic and photovoltaic systems is large, and the degree of penetration and development is connected with a substantial costs reduction .

Analysing the second case, i.e. centralised photovoltaic production plants ( mega watt ) , where the energy need is, the efficiency of modules conversion and site’s insolation are optimised and they need significant territory extensions in order to provide overall an appreciable contribute .
Reasons of aesthetic type led to a failure of some projects and photovoltaic systems, where a strong visual impact depends on the size of the park that affected heavily the territory ; this impact is very reduced in the decentralised use, for example roofs and facades .

Big or medium sized photovoltaic plants will have a larger visual impact that amplifies in the case of beautiful countryside .
Another problem that is possible to find concerns the reflecting surfaces and the disturbance that is connected with enormous surfaces near residential areas, roads etc., and with the actions that are necessary in order to mitigate the effects modifying the slope or building appropriate protective shields through arboreal elements or shrubs, without incurring to create shadow zones in the photovoltaic field ( see ENEA research ) .

FV a concentrazione 1500 X PV

In the decentralised use of photovoltaic solar systems the impact on flora and fauna related to the limited subtracted ground is negligible since the absence of noise and vibration .
When photovoltaic panels subtract solar radiation to the environment, aspect that could involve light modification on the local microclimate, is appropriate to bear in mind that only about 10 % of energy of the sun that affects for time unit on the surfaces of the photovoltaic field, will be converted and transported to another place as electric energy while the remaining part will be reflected or will go through modules .

In the multitude of territorial institutional and social contexts, and in the past experiences turns out that a soft technology for the environment to, as well as solar photovoltaic energy, is not exempt from environmental impact that can create difficulties in the population’s acceptance of green projects and they are useful from the energetic point of view .

The size of a solar plant and the impact that is determined in the solar photovoltaic are infinitely lower than the older energy technologies ( energy from coal, nuclear energy etc. ), however they are enough to create position and opposition that are difficult to pass, therefore, the identification of the right site, the design of the plant and the realisation of the authorisation procedure will give better results if appropriate evaluation and consideration on the environmental impact will be made, in advance with accuracy and involving social parts .

WORKSHOP :

PROJECT AND SIZING OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS : it is based on some elements such as economic benefit, possible urban restrictions, presence or absence of incentives, costs for the request for a point of connection to the institution which deals with the grid .

FINAL PLANNING : it includes authorisation, final planning as built, technical documentation must be finished and sent for the request to put the photovoltaic plant in the grid .

REQUESTED DATA FOR THE PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

A correct data collection is needed in order to start a feasibility study : there must be drawings and photos in which there is the orientation of the site where the park will be built, data related to electric energy consumption and supply ( if there it is ), information about the structure where the photovoltaic plant will be installed ( permissible load for the coverage ).

HOW TO DO THE CALCULATION OF THE PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT’S SIZE IN A PRELIMINARY PHASE

The space necessary for realise a photovoltaic plant depend on the site where the photovoltaic must be installed, on the technology and therefore the efficiency of the chosen photovoltaic modules .
Sometime high efficiency and value photovoltaic modules must be used because of the high consumption and the small available space ( see CIGS modules )

PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANT

GRID PARITY

Speaking of energy, the grid parity represents the point when the electric energy that is produced through the plant ( that are supplied by renewable energy sources ), is characterized by having the same price as the energy that is produced through other sources of traditional or conventional energy, such as methods that use fossil sources or different sources, for example the nuclear energy .

In the Italian energy market, especially in the last years and in the photovoltaic area, it was recorded a phenomenon of the spread of investment in this area thanks to these incentives . When the incentive system through energy accounts ( on the base of the incentives for the electric production through the solar source in July 2013 ), the Grid Parity has became more popular, in terms of “ parity “ between cost of electric energy that is produced by a photovoltaic plant and cost for buying the energy from the grid .
Following the enactment of the Strategia Energetica Nazionale SEN 2017 by MISE ( Ministry of Economic Development in Italy ), there are important aims as regards to the photovoltaic production in the area of electric energy production mix : 72 Twh until 2030, compared to 24,8 Twh that were produced in 2017 . The concept of market parity as grid parity’s evolution is taking off .

GRID PARITY AND MARKET PARITY

A study made by Department of electrical engineering in the University of Padova, highlights how in Italy the grid parity was achieved in 2013 : therefore the price per kilowatt – hour for cars ( the consumption obtained by photovoltaic panels is the same as the price of the energy that is possible to buy from the electric grid ).
According to an other study made by a Spin off in the University of Roma Tor Vergata, some definition related to the photovoltaic grid parity have increase and this concept is developing :
- Observability : intended as competitiveness as cost of generation of renewable Kwh
- Reachability : intended as competitiveness related to the profitability of the investment .

schema elettrico impianto fotovoltaico connesso in rete PV

According to the terminology in use, a photovoltaic plant in the grid parity means production of electric energy through solar sources and such production is obtained without incentives, i.e. through an economic return that is equivalent to the sum of :

- a proportion of the electric energy that is switched with the grid and whose has got an economic value of Dedicated Withdrawal or Net metering
- no cost of acquisition for the electric energy as regard to the self – consumed quota ( statistical ratio Solar Photovoltaic GSE )

Trade arrangements managed by GSE, can include a modes of operation of the total or partial self-consumption plant, on the basis of the plant’s power class in Kwp and of the producer costumer ’s energy -intensive profile ( new definition of energy – intensive companies of Anima ) that has got responsibility for the photovoltaic plant .
A cost of generation of photovoltaic kWh ( Levelised Energy Cost ) is mapped to the photovoltaic plant in the grid parity, as well as a IRR ( Internal Rate of Return ) of the investment that is involved in the plant’s installation ; It must be compared to the benchmark values of IRR, with the aim to understand if it is appropriate the investment ’s risk and the obtaining of the accessibility condition and therefore the obtaining of the Grid Parity .

Producing electric energy through solar photovoltaic sources without incentives and without self-consumption leads to the concept of market parity or parity generation . Chile is an example, but there are other examples in the world where the photovoltaic wins without incentives on the conventional plants of coal energy or energy from other sources according to the data related to the electric market . The discriminatory is the high cost of electric energy together with the strong solar irradiation . The market parity is made when electric energy is produced through solar photovoltaic sources but without any incentive .

The market parity is obtained thanks to multi megawatt photovoltaic plants that are connected to the distribution grid in medium – voltage, or utility scale photovoltaic plants that are connected to the transmission grid in high – voltage .

To obtain the economic value in the market parity, the value of the official electric energy must be sought in the power exchange GME . Market parity represents the Trade Off between :
- generation cost per photovoltaic kWh LCOE and
- price in the electric market of electric energy

processo fabbricazione impianti FV in poli Si PV

The electric energy is produced and then is fed into the grid and is commercially levied through the “ indirect withdrawal “ from the GSE, and it has got a value for the zonal time price .
In an alternative way, this electric energy can be sold directly in the market of electric energy of the power exchange GME or it can be bought through a trader through two – year contracts for a fixed price ( 48 € / Mwh in 2017 ).
A group of researchers in the Polytechnic of Milan, thanks to a study about this concept, they highlight how the expression grid parity is usually intended as parity between electric energy production cost made by a photovoltaic plant and the cost for the buying of the energy from the grid .

However, usually “ grid parity “ is when it is convenient to invest in a photovoltaic plant, both from a economic point of view and good profitability of the investment, where there aren’t incentives . Speaking of photovoltaic in Italy, the grid parity represents a reachable purpose, with substantial difference and therefore a higher or lower convenience of the investment, depending on the typology of plant, locality and usage of the energy that is produced. There are studies that summarises the differences between the grid parity model and market parity .

AUTHORISATION :

Authorisation for photovoltaic plants

Depending on cases, the authorisation to build photovoltaic plants in Italy starts with a simply communication of a prior installation to the municipality, however sometimes the process can become more elaborate and bureaucratic : it depends on single regional rules that have to regulate permission according to certain criteria, which must necessarily adhere to the national guidance .
Furthermore, the area in which the plant will be installed and the size of the photovoltaic plant affect this process as well .

For each photovoltaic plant type there is a specific authorisation, both for a photovoltaic plant that is installed on a roof a building and for the one that is installed on the ground and so on .
First of all it is necessary to contact the technical office of the municipality of the territory in which the plant will be installed, however the Province ( Provinces list ) has got competence and responsibility for the big plants or for photovoltaic plant that are next to protected areas, in some case the responsibilities belong to the Region ( Regions list ) or to the Superintendence ( superintendence list and Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities ).

AUTHORISATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC PLANTS

Except for the big photovoltaic plant on the ground or next to protected areas ( official list of protected natural areas ), where the process can become complex, usually the prior communication to the Municipality is enough in order to start working on plants such as domestic plants or small industrial plants . Since November 2015 an additional simplification of the bureaucracy has been in force : it is a simplified procedure to build a connection and start working on small photovoltaic plants on the buildings’ roof . This procedure allows to use a Modulo Unico ( a type of model ) in order to comply with obligations under the relevant laws : municipal authorisation , request application to Enel / Terna in order to connect with the grid, dispatch of practice for Net Metering to GSE . Link to the decree of simplification of authorisation for residential photovoltaic plants

COMMUNICATION TO THE MUNICIPALITY FOR THE AUTHORISATION

Simple authorisation title, it is the legislation for plants assimilated to activities of free building ( denuncia di inizio attività in edilizia ) . It is sent with telematics in some municipality and it is a prior communication to the municipality of a determinate territory, there is a tacit consent , and it is actually a communication of start of work . Contact point to refer to : Technical Office of the related Municipality .

When it is applied :

It is a request that is applied to plants which cannot benefit from the unique procedura autorizzativa semplificata ( a procedure ) under the power of 20 KW ; the communication to the municipality is suitable for small plants on the roof where the simplified procedure is not applied . The prior communication is enough for photovoltaic plants that are on the roof or are integrated in the roof with same inclination and equal to the to brim’s orientation where they will be installed ; a modification of the building ’s template that houses photovoltaic panels mustn’t be verified . Criteria are considered valid only if plants are not installed in areas subjected to protection or constraints of the legal code of cultural heritage and landscape . Otherwise other procedures are compulsory and the competence could move from municipality, province, region to the superintendence in order to grant authorisation .
The prior communication to the municipality is also a suitable authorisation for photovoltaic plants and from renewable sources that are compatible with the “ Net Metering” . Following there are some guideline :

Plants must not :

- provoke an alteration of the size of a building
- provoke an alteration of the surface of a buildings
- alter the intended use of a building
- modify the number of building units inside the building
- involve an increase of the number of urban parameters ( building codes )
- affect the structural parts of a building
- be on buildings that are in historic centres ( A area General Urban Development )
The prior communication to a determinate municipality as single authorisation typology, requires that the holder of the plant that will be built, has got the full legal participation ( Property ) on areas or on goods subjected to works that will be carried out in order to build the plant .

Building Integrated Photovoltaics

AUTORIZZAZIONE UNICA

When photovoltaic plants that will be installed are between 20 kW and 50 MW or in the case in which the proposer has not the full ownership on the areas or on the buildings, it will be necessary the Autorizzazione Unica AU ( A type of an authorisation ) and the competence will move from municipality, province or region .

PROCEDURA AUTORIZZATIVA SEMPLIFICATA AND MODELLO UNICO

The contact point for the granting of the authorisation is only the system operator ( Enel / Terna ) . Enel Distribution becomes the single mediator for the applicant for the handling of the case .
The Procedura Autorizzativa Semplificata was created in november 2015 in order to speed up the authorisation process for the installation of small photovoltaic plant on the roof . The authorisation process as bureaucracy involves exclusively the compilation and the next dispatch ( in 2 phases ) of a Modello Unico .
This “ Modello Unico” is accessible through telematics from the producer of the system operator on internet, in this case Enel Distribution . Through the gateway a first part of the model can be made out before the start of works and then a second section when works are finished .
Through this procedure, in 2 phases, the municipality is warned of the “ start of work “ and the request of installation of photovoltaic plant is sent to Enel, and a copy of the instance of request in order to access the net metering will be sent to GSE . The Modello Unico works as authorisation function for some photovoltaic plants . The Modello Unico has the big lead : the applicant can interface only with Enel in order to handle administrative and bureaucratic aspects and it permits the applicant to proceed to the presentation with different timing, 2 modules complying the authorisation request in order to create and install the photovoltaic plant .
The first phase of the model, before the start of works, includes the communication of “ start of works “ to the municipality, cadastral data of the plant ( visura cadastral ) and biographical data of the applicant . The second phase of the model, when works are finished, includes the communication of “end of works”, technical data of the plant, declaration of conformity and instance of start Net Metering .

It is possible to adhere to the simplified procedure and it concerns about new small domestic plants and small industrial plants . These are the requirements for the accession to the simplified process for those who want to install a photovoltaic plant :

- connection to a point of withdrawal in existing low voltage, where other plants of electric production are not connected
- lower or equal power to the power in the withdrawal point
- plant until 20 KW of power
- plant made on the roof
- connection to the grid through “ Net Metering “ method with GSE

Substantially the typology of plants which can be installed : new plants on the roof of houses, small companies, laboratories, sheds and condos .

LINKS

LINKS ON PHOTOVOLTAIC FIELD :

Renewable energy
PV, Solar Photovoltaic
Photovoltaic Geographical Information System ( PVGIS )
Grid parity
TICA ( testo integrato connessioni attive )
Valutazione Impatto Ambientale V.I.A.
Autorizzazioni Fotovoltaico ( AU autorizzazione unica, PAS procedura abilitativa semplificata )
Developer of photovoltaic parks
Green Field Investment
Attualizzazione ( Discount )
Buyer, Investor
Unit of measurement : Power ( Watt, Megawatt MW, Watt peak, Megawatt Peak MWp ), Surface ( Hectare )
Technical terms related to land : CDU ( Certificato di Destinazione Urbanistica ), Visura Cadastral for lands , Particelle Lotti, Agricultural soil Land typology
Google Earth ( Localizzazione terreni )
Electric Substation
Enel , Terna ( Handler of electricity grid )
GSE ( Handler of energetic services )
Professional association : Agronomists, Surveyors, Engineers, Architects, Experts , Professional office
Stakeholder
NDA Accordo di Non Divulgazione ( Non Disclosure Agreement )

contact IBS by mail

Translated by : Matteo Aristei

AGRIBUSINESS, FOOD FARMING CHAINS AND AGRI-FOOD

AGRIBUSINESS : FOOD FARMING CHAINS AND AGRI-FOOD

agribusiness filiere e agrifood

AGRIBUSINESS : FOOD FARMING CHAINS AND AGRI-FOOD

ABOUT US: IBS in partnership with Rubival International Srl, specialized in the agribusiness sector, in launching, implementation and coordination of food chains projects, intends to present some examples of food chain: dairy chain, tomato chain, poultry sector, processing plants, machinery, agricultural projects, selling of livestock, greenhouses, and systems for protected crops.

TARGETS: In the context of Agribusiness projects and chain, IBS and Rubival collaborate with the main companies specialized in the Agribusiness, and they have the suitable technical specialized competencies for the complete coordination of projects in the agri-food sector. IBS and Rubival can count on an internal operational unit and a qualified work team that includes agronomists, marketing experts, business planning, project management and also competencies for a 360-degrees management of projects including commercial and contractual contexts.

FOREIGN PROJECTS AND INTERNATIONALIZATION: In the context of foreign projects of internationalization or for foreign commissions where is requested to create from scratch an agri-food chain, or to respond with specific solutions to specific problems in the agribusiness sector, the work team is able to ensure the proper management of processes also abroad, through analysis and accurate strategies.

STAKEHOLDERS: The following information summarizes the competencies within IBS and Rubival through a list of some companies that have participated in practice in foreign projects. The projects have seen the intervention of authorities and subjects that have guaranteed the function of the export-credit insurance. Between the stakeholders also national and supranational authorities that have participated in the planning stage, arranging through suitable competent offices some geo-climatic and geological information of the interested lands and regions to the interventions.

PROJECT REFERENCES: This document, describes an example of chain and assortment of companies selected for the project dimensions and for the intervention typology. In other projects, the companies that will be involved could be the same or other companies, according to the project to realize. Specialized companies and with ten-year experience internationally have numerous references every time willing to accompany of a planning proposal.

EXAMPLES OF FOOD FARMING CHAINS AND COMPETENCE IN THE AGRIBUSINESS SECTOR:

DAIRY AND MEAT CHAIN
TOMATO CHAIN
POULTRY SECTOR
GREENHOUSES AND SYSTEMS FOR PROTECTED CROPS for plants and vegetables

DAIRY AND MEAT CHAIN

agribusiness filiera del latte

CROPS

SPECIAL FERTILIZERS: Society leader in the Agribusiness sector that produces special fertilizers starting with raw materials of a very high quality able to optimize and obtain greater performances and organic efficiency of nutrient components. It is able to develop a complex and detailed nutritional strategy for each cultivation, linked to the soil type, to the growth environment and to expected results, the whole thing thanks to vertical competencies and to know-how purchases directly in the field globally on the most important agricultural areas of the world, from the Mediterranean basin to the Centre and South America, to the principal Arabic countries.

HIGH TECHNOLOGY FOR THE AGRICULTURE: Society founded and working in the agribusiness field since 1950, a leader in the production of machinery and systems for water and sewage distribution through the use of VRT satellite technologies. The company has gained a prime position in the production and selling of high technology plants and agricultural machinery for the agriculture and for breeding.

FEEDING-STUFFS

RUMIN-ART, SOLE, TERRA, ACQUA: Company equipped with specialization in feeding-stuffs, for all the requirements, from the cultivation to agricultural businesses (from sowing to cultivation, to conservation and harvest, rumen construction, supply, monitoring). The company develops studied products for any animal species: both milk powder, and food, supplements, and products specifically optimized for animals health as well as the environmental protection.

STRUCTURES AND COWSHEDS

BARN EQUIPMENT: Company at the forefront in the zootechnics and agribusiness world for almost 50 years, with high innovative technologies in creating modern and functional breeding farms, focusing in particular on the general well-being of the animal.
It designs barns, plants and zootechnical centers both for cows and female buffalos and more. It has a wide range of equipment focused on the breeding of productive livestock: porks, sheep, goats, poultry and rabbits. It produces prefabricated steel structures, which apply in the zootechnics sector, but also in the agricultural and industrial sector in general.

MIXER-WAGONS, TELESCOPIC HANDLERS: Company who can plan, produce and sell worldwide mixer-wagons designed for the cattle industry, for the zootechnics sector and also produces telescopic handlers widely used in the agricultural sector, in the industrial and construction sectors. The company, founded in 1973, manages to preserve the tradition of a solid family guide, combined with dynamism and with an efficient organization as well as modernity of a big international group, today present in each continent with its own branch and distributors network and dedicated retailers. Well-know brand in the context of agribusiness and a name which is synonymous with reliability. It is also well-known for its continuous technological development and for a qualified assistance, as well as for an efficient service of after-sales support offered to their customers (Service and Spares).

MILKING SYSTEMS

COMPLETE MANAGING OF THE MILKING: Agribusiness company leader in the Italian market designs equipment and milking plants as well as innovative solutions for a global approach to breeding, using the most advanced technology currently available, in order to optimize the management of the modern agricultural dairy business. Modern and sophisticated technologies are successfully applied to dairy cows, female buffalos, goats, and sheep. A wide range of products for every breeding requirement: from milk extraction to milk refrigeration, robots to automate processes, pasteurization, and calfs automatic feeding, so a for a global 360 degrees management of processes, in conditions of hygiene and healthiness.

MILKING, PRODUCTION AND FOLLOWING PACKAGING CHAIN

QUALITY AND SAFE HANDLING OF FOOD: World leader company in the agribusiness sector specialized in the provision of establishments and process machinery for the agri-food sector, equipment for the treatment of dairy products, a wide range of milk pasteurization units, UHT lines ( Ultra High Temperature), self-cleaning centrifuges and in line milk and cream standardized, completed with a new generation of membrane filtration systems. The level of engineering is very high, there is a constant research of solutions and quality performances, innovative process technologies to get a wide range of liquid food, such as products with solid content or high-viscosity products. Modern control and industrial automation systems to ensure the highest reliability and efficiency, from the littlest and simplest in their architecture plants to the most complex production lines for the management of complex processes and productive systems. Rationalize of energy, water, and natural resources consumptions, leading at the same time to a maximization of the production efficiency.


ASEPTIC PACKAGING OF LIQUID PRODUCTS: for over 30 years the company has worked in the Agribusiness sector and now offers high innovative global solutions to packaging in a completely aseptic way liquid products in a wide range of poly-laminate cardboard containers (applicator, secondary packaging, Ultra-High-Temperature UHT sterilization system/pasteurization, packaging). The company equipped with ISO 9001 certification by the DNV, present in the list of milk packaging material suppliers which have been approved by FDA. The managing system of food safety certified through the scheme FSSC 22000, such that enables it to produce packaging material certified FSC™ and PEFC™.

BIOENERGY

NITROGEN REDUCTION AND BIOGAS PRODUCTION: Company leader in the context of the biogas sector and systems created and optimized for manure and organic compound processing with nitrogen reduction. Great references due to the fact that it can boast more than 250 bio-energetic project worldwide.

SLAUGHTERHOUSES

SLAUGHTERHOUSES, WITH DEBONING AND MANIPULATION OF THE MEATS, PLANTS FOR CATTLE, PIGS AND SHEEP: Company with significant expertise in the planning and realization of complete lines for the slaughtering, working and deboning of cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. In the context of the Agribusiness, the company offers advanced technological and user-friendly solutions completely in accordance with European and USDA health regulations into force. Complete lines and equipment concerning stables, halls for cattle, pigs, sheep and goats slaughter, halls for the working and deboning of pigs, machines for processing by-products.

FOOD CONSERVATION

FOOD INDUSTRY REFRIGERATION: Experience, undisputed quality, reliability and complete safety in the design and in the realization of refrigeration facilities for agri-food industry that the company exports worldwide. Use of “cold” for refrigeration and food conservation, cheese and cold cuts drying and ripening, cooling of cereals contained in silos and refrigerated transport, production of big systems for industrial refrigeration in the Agribusiness.

TOMATO CHAIN

agribusiness filiera pomodoro

GLOBAL GROUP

Global group turned to Agribusiness, which is able to integrate competencies, scientific resources, technical and commercial support, in order to guarantee to people who work in agriculture a complete and unique offer of seeds, crop protection, a coherent whole of integrated solutions which are able to maximize the profitability of the entire farm and to satisfy the most demanding requests of the agri-food chain, focusing their attention on innovation, high quality and sustainability, to produce more and better.

SEEDS: obtaining excellent results from crops in term of quality and productivity, relating to the environment, climate and soil condition and to technical nature means used in the context of cultivation, also thanks to advanced and excellent quality seeds, turned to sectors of small-grain cereals, corn, industrial and horticultural crops.

CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS: to protect crops through a wide and organized range of crop protection products for the majority of plant health problems: from weed management to harmful insect control, to fungal diseases, for a broad-spectrum protection of crops in line with a modern sustainable agriculture.

CROPS, HORTICULTURE, AND VALUE: high contents in terms of innovation and high-value, products valid for crop protection both chemical and biological, a wide range of integrated productive solutions, which comply with the diversified needs of the entire chain.

SOME DETAILS ON THE QUALITY OF INDUSTRIAL TOMATO

The project of chain for the industrial tomato production has as purpose incrementing qualitative and quantitative yield in view of a lower and more efficient use of resources as soil, water, crop protection products and nutrients. Agreements relating to genetics, innovative crop protection products combined with a crop protection and crop enhancement protocol, to get a “quality chain” of industrial tomato. The protocol offers to farmers:

•INNOVATIVE GENETICS: for a high productive and transformation yield for tomato puree, finely chopped tomatoes, peeled tomatoes and diced tomatoes and to increase the resistance of different types of cereals to stress and pathogens, in different growing conditions.

•CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS: that are able to protect plants and to improve their physiological efficiency, carrying out a positive on productive and qualitative yield, optimizing the water efficiency or the sugar content or other functional components, with a significant reduction of the apical rot (physiological imbalance that can reduce substantially yields and quality of processed products).

A high-quality level of the product at the beginning of the transformation process is essential to get high-quality products: the quality is created in the field and is kept throughout the chain, through to the end-user.

A NETWORK OF 17 SPECIALIZED COMPANIES IN THE TOMATO CHAIN

The first tomato chain in Italy composed of companies that cover the entire chain: the study of soils, fertigation, transformation, plant nursery activities, commercialization, production of industrial and harvesting machines.

MEDIATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION: A company operating in the mediation of agri-food products in the formats both for industry, catering, and retail, distributed worldwide, with a network of foreign collaborators, transformation industries, distribution chains and importers.

PRODUCTS FOR THE AGRICULTURE: A company in the agribusiness that has provided products for the agriculture and zootechnics sectors for 25 years. Seeds: targeted selection (cereals, fodder plants, and vegetables) for the needs of the cultivation geographical area.
Fertilizers: specific products for the indicated crop, “sophisticated” solutions to “controlled transfer” to guarantee balanced growth and high-quality productions.

Crop protection products: low environmental impact crop protecting products to safeguard health.
Solutions for zootechnics: genetics, food and nutrition, environment and animal sanitization.
Specialized technical support: technical/commercial staff for the best solution according to productive targets, after-sale assistance for the best investment yield.

RAW MATERIALS AND SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS FOR FOOD: A company which has been operating for 35 years in the agribusiness sector, in particular in raw materials, semi-finished, canned fruit and vegetables, finished goods. Industrial food packaging, second-hand machinery for the food industry.

PACKAGING MACHINERY: A leader company in the construction of labeling and cartooning machines and special lines for cylindrical and metal cans for over 70 years.

MACHINES FOR FILTRATION, IRRIGATION, AND MONITORING: A company that designs and supplies filtration and micro-irrigation plants, weather stations, Tele control systems of plants and soil moisture, IT solutions and databases, flexible tanks for the storage of liquids, in every sector of agriculture.

PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINES: Consultation for industrial layouts in the agribusiness industry sector, and in particular in the canning industry, provision of machines and lines in existing establishments, development and planning of new production lines, solving problems concerning quality and/or production yield, analysis and validation of stabilization thermal processes, 360 degrees consultation on the finely chopped tomatoes production.

FOOD INDUSTRY PLANTS: A leader company in design, construction, and sale of plants intended for the food industry. The company implements lines for tomato and fruit manufacturing to obtain tomato paste, tomato puree, fruit juice, jams and other by-products and it is able to realize complete turnkey projects. Construction of enzymatic inactivation plants, extraction of juice or pulp, concentration, clarification, filtration, pasteurization and sterilization with subsequent aseptic filling, in cans and jars.

MOVEMENT OF GOODS: A specialized company in innovative systems of palletisation and movement, to guarantee the supply of high-quality products with the greatest energy saving and the lowest maintenance costs for the client.

ECOSYSTEMS: This company works in the agri-environmental sector: in agronomic rehabilitations and improvement of agricultural soils.
It has a laboratory for physicochemical and microbiological analyses in the agronomic, environmental and industrial fields.
It has a research laboratory where innovative projects in the agricultural, ecologic, industrial and agribusiness sectors are developed.

SELF-PROPELLED MACHINES: World leader company in the construction and commercialization of self-propelled machines for the tomato harvest. These machines are innovative, technologic and more functional. The tomato harvesters are the feather in the cap of the company, but also the machines for strawberries, onions, cucumbers and peppers (the only company who can make a machine for the pepper) are very good. The company has designed optical selectors, for their machines, which can recognize flaws and colors of fruits independently of natural lighting conditions. This guarantees the quality of the products, rejecting unripe or dirty tomatoes, soil and stones during the harvesting, assuring the quality of the raw material. The launch of even more eco-friendly machines is foreseen, to minimize both consumption and environmental impact. At the same time, the machines will be easier to handle, user-friendly and with a high productivity.

LOGISTIC OPERATOR: Operator in Italy leader in the sector of logistics and FMGC transport, can boast more than ten years of deliveries, and partnerships with the most important companies of the large-scale distribution.

PACKAGING: A company that has been for 20 years in the context of tomato by-product and fruit packaging on national and international markets with its production of cylindrical and truncated cone-shaped barrels to ensure very good services in the field of movement and transport of foodstuffs, and high savings in the field of storage, security and logistics.

POULTRY SECTOR

agribusiness filiera polli progetti avicoli

TURNKEY PROJECTS AND POULTRY PLANTS

The company has a wide experience in the agribusiness, realizes turnkey projects for the production of eggs and broilers, poultry plants, laying hens systems, alternative systems / cage-free, free-range systems, chicken manure treatment. It designs prefabricated barns of all sizes, brooders for chickens, laying hens, broilers, breeders, feed and egg collection systems, silos, chicken manure removal, watering, heating and ventilation systems, air intake systems, electrical installations and alarm systems, lighting systems, computer control systems.

PLANTS FOR POULTRY FARMING

The company propose solutions at the forefront of building plants for laying hens, from the first day of life until the end of the production process, fully integrated systems for the broiler farming, automated and computer systems on watering, feeding, egg collecting, Universal Plus enrichment, cage doors, air conditioning and heating, removal, drying and storage of chicken manure, computerized management, barns, accessibility, cleanness.

EQUIPMENT FOR SLAUGHTERING PLANTS

The company is a leader in the design, construction, and installation of equipment used in slaughtering plants for chickens, turkeys, rabbits and porks. Thanks to experience gained since 1956, the company can offer to their clients a complete range of machinery that cover all stages of the process: collecting and transport of live chickens, their slaughtering, evisceration, cooling, sectioning and then debone. The company uses an innovative method called LAPS, to stun and slaughter the poultry, so it can guarantee the observance of all requirements indicated by the existing legislation for animal welfare.

EQUIPMENT AND SLAUGHTERING LINES

This company is a world leader in the manufacturing of lines for the slaughtering of chickens, rabbits, and quails, as well as cockerel, plants, and equipment for turkeys, gooses, ducks, guinea fowls, and partridges and pigeons. It designs, realizes and installs machines, plants and supervision software for slaughtering lines and for training services, technical assistance, after-sale assistance and all the spare parts.

SLAUGHTERING AND MEAT PROCESSING

A well-established company, a leader in Italy and Europe in the slaughtering sector and in the processing of red meat as cattle, horses, porks, sheep, goats and white meats as chickens, turkeys, and ducks. The company designs, builds and installs turnkey slaughtering plants, it is specialized in poultry plants, it has an EU sanitary certification and produces plants in full compliance with CEE and USDA sanitary regulations. It produces with renown, formalized, codified and controlled cycles which allow, first of all, the availability of the products as well as the management of potential non-conforming products. Slaughtering plants for cattle with a production of up to 80 units/hour, porks up 500 units/hour, sheep up to 600 units/hour, white meats up to 10.000 units/hour.

GREENHOUSES AND SYSTEMS FOR THE PROTECTED CROPS FOR PLANTS AND VEGETABLES

agribusiness serre e sistemi colture protette

A company operating in the agribusiness entitled to design and installation of greenhouses and systems for the protected crops operating with the ISO 9001 quality system. It has been working for more than 20 years in the high-tech plant design and installation sector, in the continuous improvement of the products, technologies, processes, services and flows in global terms. It can realize turnkey projects, from the foundations to the roof, integrated systems for the protected crops, greenhouses, aluminum pallets, computer fertigation systems, high-tech plants, controlling all the activities: both the plant design and installation part and the complementary part as civil works of substructure, greenhouses, greenhouses for experimentation and educational activities, working areas, internal transport systems, vision optical system of wiring, pallets, heating systems, fertigation, ebb and flow, water systems, thermal protection, fog, special plants, monitoring systems and computers for greenhouses, electrical system.

The company studies and realizes personalized projects according to the specific needs of every client, and carries out all the necessary civil works: soil bearing capacity, greenhouse capacity, excavation works, earthquake zones, collection or disposal, drainage, drains and conveyance of rainwater, shafts for ducts, cement corridors, foundation plinths and pallets, ebb and flow on the concrete. The company is also specialized in facilities:

• Glasshouses designed and realized to contain the most advanced technological installations.
• Installation of steel, aluminum and glass greenhouses from the smallest dimensions to the biggest sizes.
• Creation of experimental greenhouses.
• Glasshouses or arch greenhouses with a plastic cover, with the installation of specific plants able to create the ideal microclimate for every kind of horticultural and flower experimentations.

The control and computerized monitoring of every system allow to store and compare in time the process values that can influence the crop growth.

CONTACT US

contact IBS by mail

Crocus Sativus

Sativus Saffron Bulbs

Sativus Crocus Saffron bulbs

Sativus Saffron highest quality order now

Saffron Bulbs

Wholesale Organic Crocus Sativus

IBS has direct relationship with an Agricultural Holding that produces bulbs of Crocus Sativus Saffron ( organic product as well ) and it is able to support a buyer in the finalisation of the DAP purchase and delivery of bulbs ( free at destination ) at the Client Company stock in the whole European customs territory and in the countries outside EU .

Prices are competitive and the best quality of bulbs is ensured . They are delivered through specialised logistics service .

CONTACT US FOR A COMMERCIAL OFFER :

For getting a quote, please make contact with our Commercial Area, filling out the CONTACT FORM that follows or contact a manager at the following telephone number : +39 348 2920146 .

In order to make this commercial process more efficient, please write in the request :

- Number of bulbs
- Size of bulbs
- In which month would you like the planting of bulbs

Thank you for the cooperation.

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Saffron Crocus Sativus

OUR COMPANY

In 1900 our Grandfather began to cultivate bulbs . At that time he started out small while he bred cows . He handled tulips, daffodils, crocuses, gladioli and irises . From one generation to another this business of bulbs became more important and therefore it was expanded . After spending some time growing flowers and plants, our father continued to cultivate bulbs .

SPECIALIZATION

IN CROCUS SATIVUS AND IN UNCOMMON FLOWER BULB SPECIES

He focused on growing different varieties of uncommon bulb species, such as Kaiser ‘s crown , Colchicum, Allium and Ixia . About thirty years ago, a flower bulb species known as Crocus Sativus was bought . Learning information about this variety made us understand that we just found our tresor . It lighted up our interest and vision to expand our growing capacity . Our biggest seller is now Crocus Sativus Saffron .

THE GREAT SUPPLIER

OF CROCUS SATIVUS BULBS

By the years, our company has considerably developed and today we are great suppliers of Crocus sativus bulbs in the Netherlands . We cooperate with numerous renowned flower bulb growers . We sell and export our non – organic and organic saffron bulbs to customers around the world . We are able to provide our customers with information and assist them in creating their saffron cultivation because we have more than 30 years of experience in the cultivation and production of these products .

BULBS SIZE OF CROCUS SATIVUS

Our Company sells various sorts of Bulbs, both certified organic and non – organic, of various sizes . Here are some photos :

non organic corms bulbs saffron

organic corms bulbs saffron

Wholesale of Crocus Sativus Bulbs

DETAILED INFORMATION ON CROCUS SATIVUS SAFFRON

Crocus Sativus Saffron Flowers

WHAT IS SAFFRON

Saffron (/ˈsæfrən/ or /ˈsæfrɒn /) is known as the spice that comes from Crocus sativus Linnaeus . This species of crocus are part of the family of Iridaceae and it is also called the saffron crocus, saffron bulbs or saffron corms as well .

CROCUS SATIVUS LINNAEUS

Crocus sativus L. is a plant that is mainly herbaceous . This plant sprouts from a globular bulb that creates other bulbs that will become crocuses and they will produce more bulbs . Crocus sativus has thin green leaves, vivid red stigmas that extend in the petals, yellow stamens and three precious, they are very long ( 25 – 30 mm ) and perfumed lavender blooms with purple veins . These three types of stigmas are in the blossoms of this crocus and they are the actual saffron .

They are dried and used for drugs, pigmentation aims and food flavouring . As to the dye for food and flavouring, stigmas are well known in the world as saffron spice , i.e. the most costly spice in the world . The quality and quantity of labor in this spice ’s harvesting has a very high market value .

CROCUS SATIVUS

THE ROYAL SAFFRON

Saffron Flowers Crocus Sativus

THE CROCUS SATIVUS

Saffron spice offers a unique bittersweet flavour, for example like hay and honey . Everyone should taste it in order to realize exactly how does it taste . Saffron tastes as bittersweet as it smells . Some say, “ it does taste like the sea .” Some say, “ it ’s mush – roomy, and smoky ”. And some say, “ it ’s metallic, with whiff of seashells and honey tones .”

MORE ABOUT SAFFRON

On our internet site we describe more about this singular and particular spice that has been cultivated for more than 4000 years and has different scopes . You can discover more details on the history of saffron and its various scopes in the present and past . We can inform you more about the saffron cultivation and how you can create your own nursery as well .

CROCUS SATIVUS

SAFFRON ’S COMPONENTS

WHICH ELEMENTS MAKE SAFFRON SO SINGULAR

Parts of Saffron Flower Crocus Sativus

Thanks to its folkloric fame as a medicinal herb that heals a lot of illnesses, the modern medicine tries to explain the mystery of saffron, studying its properties and taking advantage from various potentials, that are given to the medical field . Therefore, more than a hundred chemical components are isolated and are accessible for medical commercial applications as well . The most important parts of saffron are : picrocrocin, which provides the bittersweet, rusty flavour ; crocin, which offers the yellow pigmentation from the stigmas and safranal, which gives the earthy aroma to the saffron .

Crocin Chemical Formula

Picrocrocin Chemical Formula

Safranal Chemical Formula

The chemicals elements in saffron can be ranked according to their volatility, or its absence . The main non – volatile elements include α – crocin, crocin, carotenoids that has zeaxanthin, lycopene and both alpha – and beta – carotenes, picrocrocin, and crocetin . The main volatile parts have terpene, terpene esters, and terpene alcohol . Furthermore, safranal is a volatile composite made by picrocrocin thanks to the contact with enzymes and heat in the drying process .

Picrocrocin and crocin are really sensitive to air and light . This explains why saffron should be kept in airtight containers and laid away in a dark and cool place when they are not used . The subjection to sunlight and atmospheric oxygen could create oxidation that will hardly decrease the properties of picrocin and crocin, damaging the saffron quality . Saffron ’s anti – oxidant properties are also studied for the use on drugs against depression, cancer and other neuron – degenerative disorders .

Saffron ‘s anti – inflammatory properties are also given by the elements of the crocus petals : anthocyanins flavonoids and tannins . In fact, flavonoids have, hesperidin, rutin, luteolin, bioflavonoids and quercetin . For people who love saffron, the basic chemical transformations happen when they use it ; this can sound weird to them, but it ’s fundamental that they know that saffron offers them giddy feeling, light that seems to make promises that everything will be fine .

THE SAFFRON CULTIVATION

Grow saffron crocus sativus

Saffron is collected from the blossoms of Crocus sativus ( Iridaceae ), called saffron bulbs or saffron crocus . It is spread by corms, a type of bulbs . Each corm creates new bulbs, and in this way plants increase . Saffron flowers appear in autumn and red stigmas are harvested with the name of saffron threads, from which the spice comes from . Every blossom provides three stigmas that are carefully picked by hand . Flowers have to be harvested before noon time since they wither simply . This process is meticulous and monotonous . For this reason saffron is so precious and in fact it is known as red gold .

Saffron crocus can be found in countries like, India, Iran, Morocco, New Zealand, Italy, Pennsylvania, Spain, Afghanistan, France, Portugal, some parts of China, Turkey and Greece . Since this plant has spread in disparate areas of the world, saffron planting and cultivation techniques might be different , depending on the type of soil, spacing of corms, depth of planting and climate .

Saffron Flowers in Field Crocus Sativus

SOIL

The Crocus sativus matures in disparate soil types but it is better if it grows in humus – rich, well – drained and calcareous soil with a pH between 6 and 8 . Saffron corms can develop in dry or semi – dry soil types, by the way, you have to bear in mind, that during drought periods in autumn and spring, you need to irrigate the land . If you make saffron corms grow in semi – wet or wet soil types you have to be sure that your land is well – drained in order to block corms from infections or rotting during times of wet weather .

CLIMATE

For the cultivation of saffron, we require a climatological summer and winter with temperatures between from –15 Celsius degrees or – 20 Celsius degrees in winter, to about no more than 35 Celsius degrees or 40 Celsius degrees in summer . This is the reason why saffron is also cultivated in continental, dry and moderate climate types but not in polar or tropical climate types . Due to the fact that Crocus sativus is a bulbous heat – tolerant plant, hot and dry summers won’t be an obstacle . By the way, during winter periods and temperatures, it’s possible that leaves could dry – freeze, i.e. corms will grow less and for this it will give less saffron .

When strong frost threatens your saffron field, we have to to cover the plants with straw or fibre cloth for protection and you can take off the covers when frost disappears . In dry climatological periods in spring time, irrigation is crucial . In this time, regular rainfall is optimal for the corms growing, and this means higher yields of flowers and daughter corms .

PLANTING

When you plant saffron corms for the first time, you should opt for a unused patch of land, where no other saffron corms or tubers grew up there, if it is feasible ( whether not, none in the last ten years at least ). Before planting, it is good to plow the soil 20 to 50 centimetres deep maintaining the planting beds well – aired and loose, including organic fertilizer in the process . Especially the type of soil in Spain requires this kind of preparation .

For the saffron cultivation, planting corms on raised beds is optimal to safeguard drainage and irrigation . Irrigation must be be very low when the corms begin to grow leaves . In July, planting starts, August and September by hand or by machine, and the harvesting comes at the end of October to mid – November, about eight weeks after the plantation . Saffron crocuses are sun – worshipping plants, therefore they must be planted in dry open fields and not in shade .

Usually, corms are seeded between 7 – 15 centimetres deep in the soil . The deeper they are planted, the less the corms can increase, but there will be a higher quality of the blossoms made .

Saffron bulbs before cleaning Crocus Sativus

SEEDBED SYSTEM

Let’s discover the “row system” in planting corms. Every row is generally 15 to 20 centimetres away from the other. Dig holes in the first row and every row must be filled with a corm. When you dig in the second row, use the soil that you have dug up to cover the corms seeded in the first row, etc. Maintain the rows raised for ventilation and drainage. Produce a block of rows and make space enough to have a passage between each block. It will be easier to walk along the crocus field when you work on water, weed, and later, harvest.

Saffron Plant Crocus Sativus

PLANT INSTRUCTION

SPACING

The space between corms depends on their sizes . As regards to the saffron cultivation in Italy, farmers plant corms with a space of at 2 – 3 centimetres between them and 10 to 15 centimetres deep, a method that offers them a maximum harvest of blossoms and a lot of corm – lets . Farmers in Greece make a 25 centimetre of space between every row and a 12 centimetre distance between corms, each of which is 15 centimetres deep in the ground . In Spain, rows are spaced 3 centimetres and the corms, 6 centimetres. In India, there is a space of 15 to 20 centimetres between each row, and between every corm, 7.5 to 10 centimetres .

Spacing depends on how frequently grubbing is planned as well . Grubbing means the complete removal of saffron corms from the land to divide the formed mother corms and the corm – lets and to save them for the following planting season . Biennial grubbing needs a spacing around 5 – 10 centimetres between each corm ; for a longer time, it’s better between 10 to 20 centimetres .

PESTS

Safeguarding techniques must be taken against rabbits, rodents and birds . Corm rot, nematodes, leaf rusts and other pathogens have to be prevented from damaging the saffron crocus plants too .

Credit Risk, Trade Export Finance

credito trade export finance

CONSULTANCY & SPECIALIST TRAINING “ADVANCED TECHNIQUES OF FOREIGN TRADE”, TRADE & EXPORT FINANCE, CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT

FOR THE CONSULTANCY:

For financial partners research, research and negotiation banking instruments for export / trade finance (documentary credits, stand by, international bank guarantees, forfeiting, etc.), export credit management CLICK HERE

FOR THE COURSES: PRE-ENROLMENT / EXPRESSION OF INTEREST:

Through the following contact format indicate:
- The course/s of interest through the identification number from 1 to 14.
- The city/ies closest to your residence or where you are willing to go to participate in the course of interest to you.
- Specify if are also willing to the provision of the course through distance education (digital platform).
- Your complete references to allow us to contact You.
- Further requests.

COURSES ORGANIZATION:

Through the expressions of interest to courses, according to the number of accessions room will be organized, both at distance and in locations closest to the residence of participants, using also dates of courses already planned in collaboration with other training organizations on which the teacher works. The cost of participation depends on the above-mentioned parameters and will be communicated following the pre-enrolment. The didactic administrative office of IBS thanks for your collaboration.

CONTACT US FOR THE COURSES, OR FOR A CONSULTANCY:

contact IBS by mail

CONTENTS OF THE PAGE:

- SECTION A: list training courses Foreign Trade, Credit Risk Management
- SECTION B: detail information on each and every course
- SECTION C: consultancy paths and advanced consultancy
- SECTION D: extra information on methodology, competencies, and certifications
- SECTION E: information on spokesman and consultant
- SECTION F: publications and tools on trade, export finance, credit management (available on request)

credito corsi trade export finance

SECTION A: Specialized training offer “Techniques of Foreign Trade”, Trade & Export Finance and Credit Risk Management

LIST OF EDUCATIONAL COURSES ON OFFER AND PROPOSED FORMS: (details for each course below)

• Form n. 1 – Incoterms® 2010 the application profiles of the commercial terms in international sales, problems, operational implications, to optimise the use and reduce risks.

• Form n. 2 – International payments : payments that can be activated in foreign commercial transactions and related peculiarities, criticality.

• Form n. 3 – The documentary collections and instructions for use : transfer of operational competences on the Documentary Collections, characteristics, problems, regulations, functioning.

• Form n. 4 – International payments & credit risk management : weighted management of the insolvency risk in the context of the international sale, in the short, medium and long term, instruments among which financial instruments.

• Form n. 5 – Documentary credits : characteristics and peculiar aspects, legislation UCP 600 ICC and 745 ICC uniform international banking practice.

• Form n. 6 – New codification of the uniform international banking practice & operational management of the letter of credit : news after the Pub.n no. 745 ICC. Hyper-specialized learning process on documentary credits, operational management, news on the uniform international banking practice, impact on document production to accompany a credit.

• Form n. 7 – Workshop – Operational management of credit letter depending of the new codification of the uniform international banking practice : hyper-specialized learning process, management of two letters of credit, from the contractual agreement to proceeds, analysis of the credit and production of documents starting from the invoice and packing list.

• Form n. 8 – Documentary credits and transport documents : in the preparation of transport documents, analysis of the discordance while examining the documents accompanying a letter of credit. Specialistic learning process to understand problems and to produce conforming documents.

• Form n. 9 – Notice of refusal in the documentary credits and in the context of international bank guarantees : understand how to structure properly a notice of refusal during a non-complying presentation, in the case of documentary credits and international bank guarantees. How to behave with banks and beneficiaries after the document examination. Exercises and practical cases of real commercial transactions.

• Form n. 10 – The LC Import and the responsibility given to the bank for the letter of credit issue : in the issue of a documentary credit, how to give the bank the responsibility in the issue of the LCs, optimize the process, allowing the national importer to reduce risks in the purchase from abroad. Dynamics and problems in the designation and application for documents and transport insurance.

• Form n. 11 – International bank guarantees characteristics of the “guarantees” in use in the context of international trade, detail, criticality. Analysis of bank guarantees issued on behalf of the seller and buyer. Real cases, exercise on examination of payment guarantee.

• Form n. 12 – BPO – Bank Payment Obligation : new instrument of regulation for the firms that work abroad. Functioning and operational positioning of the BPO, examination of the principal articles of the URBPO ICC.

• Form n. 13 – Export Finance: Financial instruments for the global market : weigh up the financial and insurance instruments in service of the operators to finance and monetize your export credit. Processes and functioning of the forfeiting, insurance instruments Sace Spa and intervention of Simest Spa.

• Form n. 14 – Insurance of the export credit : weighted analysis of the insurance solutions to rule the credit risk in the sphere of international commercial transactions, in the short, medium and long-term, checking the referential normative framework, and the operational processes of the products Sace Spa, Sace Bt highlighting the functioning of the pertinent policies.

SECTION B: DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TRAINING COURSES ON TRADE & EXPORT FINANCE, FOREIGN TRADE TECHNIQUES, CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT

We consider appropriate to indicate that the form can be modified, integrated and made adequate to the needs of the customer with regard to the length, content, levels of deepening.

Form n. 1: INCOTERMS® 2010 AND CONSEQUENT USER PROFILES

Addressee professions : Foreign Office agent, export managers, transport and banking operator, international trade operator.
Level of the course: intermediate
Length of the course: 4 hours
Objectives of the course: Despite the wide use of the Incoterms® 2010, there is still the need, from the international trade agents and operators, to understand better the problems and the dimension of operational consequences. Therefore, the objective of the form is to transfer adapted knowledge and technical skills to assimilate them and to optimize their use, in order to minimize the risks in the context of an international sale.
Contents:
• Definition of Incoterms® or commercial terms and operational setting of application
• Chronicle and evolution of the Incoterms® from 1936 to 2010
• The Incoterms® and the process of containerization of the goods
• General principles of the Incoterms®
• Incoterms® and Documentary credits (Letters of credit – LC)
• The maritime terms and the multimodal commercial terms
• Sections and subdivisions of the official regulations
• From the EXW (Ex-works) to DDP (Delivered Duty Paid): punctual analysis of each commercial term;
• Deepening and Comments Wall Chart Incoterms® 2010
• Exam of practical cases
• Q&A – Questions and Answers Session.

Form n. 2: International payments

Formative objectives: This form sets the objective of explaining and clarifying the forms of payment that can be operationalised in a commercial transaction with a foreign country characterizing the concerning peculiarities (settlement, risk mitigation or financing).
Contents of the form:
• The Payment Conditions in the context of an International Sale Contract
• The payment in the Open Account mode
• The context of Open Account assisted by a demand guarantee or a standby letter of credit
o Differentiation between demand guarantee and SBLC (standby letter of credit)
o Study of practical cases
• Condition of advance payment assisted by an advance payment guarantee
o Exam of an advance payment guarantee
• Illustration of the Documentary Collection concept
o Documents against Payment: D/P
o Documents against Acceptance: D/A
o Documentary Collection: and the Financing Facilities
o Analysis and discussion of real cases.
• What is “the documentary credit”
o The documentary credit: definitions, characteristics and peculiarities, structure, details on the functioning, subjects, operational profile, reference standards
o The different types of documentary credits: “by payment”, “by deferred payment”, “by acceptance”, “by negotiation” and the related services of the banks
o Procedure of “Confirmation of a documentary credit”
• The Bank Payment Obligation: BPO (Bank Payment Obligation), correct definition, stakeholders, structure of the BPO and functioning
• Cheque, Bill of Exchange, Promissory Note
• Automated collections: electronic transfer of funds to the seller account
• Clarify the concepts and the tools of Settlement, Risk Mitigation or Financing
• Exercises
• Q&A Session (questions and answers).

Form n. 3: Documentary collection and instructions for use

Addressees and professional profiles to which the course is addressed: Foreign office agents, export managers, banking operators, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level: for the discussed themes, the level is advanced
Length of the course: 1 day;
Didactic objectives: This form wants to place itself near the ambitious objective of managing to transfer specialized operational expertise on “Documentary Collections”, showing their characteristics and representing the most peculiar aspects.
In a distinguishing way, the problems and complexities linked to the loss collection of documents, as well as dynamics characterizing the disinvestment of the underlying credit claims, in the D/A sale (Documents against Acceptance) will be sounded out. Moreover, ample space will be dedicated to the study of regulations URC 522 ICC (Uniform Rules For Collection). To conclude, some practical cases will be examined to better gain familiarity with the operation of the instrument.
Contents of the course :
• The transport documents used in the international trade: CIM (Convenzione Internazionale per le Merci in ferrovia), AWB (Air Waybill), CMR (Convention des Marchandises par Route), MTD, Bill of Lading
• The main forms of settlement in the international trade
• The documentary collection: definitions, stakeholders, regulations, and operation working methods
• “Collection Cycle”: the stages of the documentary collection
• D/P (Documents against Payment) versus D/A (Documents against Acceptance)
• What are the differences between “Clean”, “Documentary” and “Direct” Collections?
• When it is appropriate to apply the documentary collection: the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument;
• What are the roles and the responsibilities of the banks participating in the process
• When collection is dishonored: actions, close examination of notices and procedures
• D/A (Documents against Acceptance): how to mobilize, therefore to convert in money the underlying credit claims
• How to prepare and organize the Bill of Exchange
• Rule the management of interests, banking charges, costs
• Analysis of the Documentary Collections: “Creation of Documents”, “payment in local and in foreign currency”, “protest” , “partial payments” and “case-of-need”
• How to clarify carefully and appropriately the “collection instructions” to the bank
• Analysis of practical cases
• Focus: URC 522 ICC (Uniform Rules For Collection): analysis of the main articles
• Assessment Test
• Decision-making case-study
• Q&A Session.

Form n. 4 : International payments and the efficient credit risk management

Addressees to which the course is addressed: Foreign Office agents of enterprises, export managers, and enterprise consultants.
Level: intermediate level
Length of the course: from 1 to 2 days
Didactic objectives: The objective of this form is to identify, explaining the characteristics, the instruments for a profitable and aware management of the credit risk in the context of the trade and international sales, in the short, medium and long term. Specifically, the instruments with a focus on the short term will be discussed, explaining, in particular, the financial instruments.
DIDACTIC CONTENTS:
The Export Credit Risk Management
• Defer through a deferred payment, as instrument and means to create value for the client;
• How to rule the credit risk management: by what means?
• The distinction between financial instruments and assurance instruments
• Appropriate instruments in the short term and instrument in the middle and long term.
• Monitor the critical variables: country, amount, type of goods, client, bargaining power.
The financial instruments active in the short term and those in the medium / long term
• The documentary credit: definition of documentary credit, characteristics, and peculiarities, structure of an LC, functioning, stakeholders, operation, reference standards
• The different types of documentary credits: by payment, by acceptance, by deferred payment, by negotiation and the linked performances of banks
• The confirmation stage of a documentary credit
• How to mark the role, obligations, and duties of banks
• How to take correctly advantages of a documentary credit: how to produce appropriate documents, uniform and in line with the UCP 600 ICC (Uniform Customs and Practice, Rules and Use of documentary credits, contained in the Publication number 600 of the International Chamber of Commerce of Paris) and the new uniform international banking practice
• The international bank guarantees: payment guarantee and SBLC (stand-by letter of credit)
• Short accounts on the forfeiting and on the open lines.
The insurance instruments
• Details on the normative context: both international and community and national
• The consensus: definition
• EU directive 98/29 ( of the Council, 7th may 1998, concerning the harmonization of the provisions in the field of export credit insurance, for operations guaranteed both in the medium and long term) and EU communication on the short term
• The legislative decree 143/1998 containing provisions in the field of foreign trade and the decision CIPE n. 62/2007 operations and insurable risks by SACE S.p.a.
• The supplier credit: structure, functioning, operation. What are the insurance risks
• The policies Basic Online and Plus One
• Characteristics, operative functioning of the registration (change of ownership of a property) of Policy Sace Spa
• Insurance of export credit: key principles, fields of operation, prize, entirety, compensation expected by the policy, LMA, latitude, clauses of the first risk, recovery of the claim, and expected exemptions;
• Policies BT 360° and BT Sviluppo Export
• The policy Excess of Loss
• Observations and conclusions.

Form 5: Documentary credits

Addressees : Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level: level advanced course
Length of the course : from 1 to 3 days according to formative objectives.
Objectives: This form aims at the ambitious and challenging objective of conferring specialized operational expertise on the documentary credits (also indicated informally as letters of credit), defining accurately characteristics and remarking the most peculiar aspects and complexities. An ample space will be assigned to the analysis of the rule UCP 600 ICC and to the accurate and careful assessment of the new publication 745 ICC relating to the uniform international banking practice. Finally, various practical cases will be analyzed to understand in depth the operation and the application profiles of the instrument.
Contents of the course :
• Export Credit Risk Management: how to rule and manage the risk linked to the credit in foreign commercial transactions
• Differences in the form and substance between financial instruments and insurance instruments
• The documentary credit (also indicated as LC letter of credit): definition, characteristics and peculiarities, structure of a documentary credit, functioning, stakeholders and operation, relevant legislation
• Types of documentary credit: by payment, by deferred payment, by negotiation, by acceptance and linked bank performances
• How to delete the bank risk and country risk: the operation of “documentary credit confirmation”, “silent confirmation” and “del credere”
• How to determine the role of banks?
• What does “negotiation” mean?
• What is the meaning of “designated bank” and which performance?
• What is a Draft?
• What is the meaning of “certified”, “visaed” and “legalized”?
• In the case of “Transhipment prohibited”: can it be assumed that it is sure?
• What does “blank endorsed” mean?
• What are the consequences if you lost the documents?
• Explanation and deepening in relation to the operational management of a documentary credit / letter of credit: how to generate and present compliant documents in accordance with the legislation UCP 600 ICC and the new publication 745 ICC regarding the uniform international banking practice.
• Analysis and discussion of various real concrete cases.
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 6: The new codification concerning the uniform international banking practice and implications in the operational management of the letter of credit: news contained in the Publication n. 745 ICC

Addressees and professional profile: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants
Level of the course: advanced
Length of the course: from 1 to 3 days
Didactic objectives: This form wants to place itself as a learning process of a hyper-specialized nature on the theme of documentary credits and on their proper operational management. Specifically, the basic news introduced by the uniform international banking practice will be examined, estimating their influence and repercussions on the production of documents accompanying a documentary credit.
CONTENTS OF THE FORM:
• The documentary credit: definition and explanation of the instrument, through the distinctive characteristics, structure and its functioning, stakeholders, types of documentary credit, operation and relevant regulation.
• Describe and define the “uniform international banking practice”: what are you talking about in a precise manner?
• The news in the publication ISBP 745 ICC :
Considerations and preliminary remarks, general principles of the publication:
• Purpose of the publication ISBP 745 ICC
• Explanation of “Certifications” and “Declarations”
• Illustration of “Copies of transport documents”
• Clarification on documents to which the art. 19-25 UCP 600 ICC should not apply
• Clarification on definitions of: “shipping documents”, “third party documents acceptable” , “stale documents acceptable”, “exporting country”, “third party documents not acceptable”, “shipping company” and “documents acceptable as presented”
• Why the production language of documents is important
• The procedure to “sign a document”
• How to distinguish “Originals and Copies”
• What are the “Shipping Marks”
• Examine “Non-documentary conditions”
How to prepare documents in full accordance with the new ISBP 745 ICC indications:
• How to organize the “draft”
• How to prepare the invoice
• Multimodal Transport Document versus Bill of Lading
• What “On board notations” means
• Bill of Lading versus Non-negotiable Bill of Lading
• How to arrange the AWB and CMR
• How to prepare the insurance certificate
• How to proceed to the preparation of the origin certificate
• How to organize the Packing List and Weight List
• How to prepare certificates of the beneficiary
• How to complete and prepare analysis, quality and quantity certificates, certificates of inspection, sanitary and phytosanitary certificates, etc.
Analysis and study of real practical studies with accompanying documents
Q & A Session.

Form n. 7: Workshop / Laboratory: How to operationally manage the letter of credit after the new codification of the uniform international banking practice

Addressees and professional profile of participants: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level: advanced, hyper-specialized learning process
Length of the course: 2 days
Objectives of the workshop: The workshop is intended to be a learning process and hyper-specialized training on the operational management of a documentary credit (sometimes indicated also as “Letter of Credit”), in the light of the normative implications after the new publication concerning the international banking practice by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) of Paris. In this form is included the operational management of two (2) letters of credit, through a learning process that starts from the contractual agreement to the collection. Participants will be involved, firsthand, in the analysis of the documentary credit and in the production of documents, setting up the analysis starting with the collection and the packing list. To optimize the operation the availability of a work station is necessary, at a rate of 1 for each 3-4 participants.
Contents of the Workshop:
1st part- theory:
• Export Credit Risk Management: how to manage with efficiency the risk of credit in the context of foreign commercial transactions
• Differences between the insurance and financial instruments
• The documentary credit/letter of credit: definition, characteristics and peculiar aspects, structure and architecture of a documentary credit, functioning, stakeholders, operational profiles and relevant legislation
• The different families of documentary credits: “by payment”, “by deferred payment”, and also “by negotiation”, and then “by acceptance”, and the consequent bank performances
• How to delete the bank risk and country risk: what do the terms “confirmation of a documentary credit” “silent confirmation” and “del credere” mean?
• Checking of the bank role: how to determinate it?
• What does “negotiation” mean in the context of a documentary credit?
• What does designed bank means and to which performance is referred to it?
• Analysis and discussion on practical cases.

2nd part –Exercises and Workshop
Participants, divided into groups in advance, will be involved in the preparation of documents accompanying two (2) documentary credits, characterised by an increasing level of difficulty. At the end of the Workshop a session of debate and close examination with analysis and comparison of results will follow.

Form n. 8 : Documentary credits and how to prepare transport documents

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agent and operator, banking profiles, carriers and shipping agents, enterprise consultants.
Level of the course: advanced, highly specialized learning process
Length of the course: 1 day
Objectives of the course: When examining and preparing documents accompanying a documentary credit (sometimes indicated as “letter of credit”), the largest number of discrepancies and inconsistencies concerns transport documents. Consequently, this form wants to be a specialized learning process of high expertise, based on the correct preparation of transport documents accompanying a documentary credit, with the aim to point out and assimilate the relevant problems, discordances in order to produce conforming documents without elements that can prejudice the success of the operation.
Contents:
• The documentary credit: a digression among founding elements of a documentary credit, or sometimes indicated as letter of credit, from the definition to characteristics and structure, functioning, stakeholders, different types of credit, the operation and relevant regulations;
• The exemplary preparation of transport documents in full compliance with UCP 600 ICC and additional indications of the ISBP 745 ICC:
oThe “Multimodal Transport Document” document
o Peculiarities of the “Bill of Lading”
o “Sea-Way Bill” Document
o The “Charter Party Bill of Lading”
o Air Transport Document
o “Road, Rail” or “Inland Waterway Transport Documents” Documents
o Then “Courier Receipt”, “Post Receipt” or “Certificate of Posting”
• For each single transport document, these aspects will be analyzed: document issue, carrier identification, signature, shipping date, goods description, corrections, shipper and endorsement, notify party, consignee, possible transshipment, correct processing of all transport document copies.
• Analysis of artt. 26 and 27 of the UCP 600 ICC: in particular “On Deck”, “Shipper’s Load and Count”, “Clean Transport Document”,“Said by Shipper to Contain” and “Charges Additional to Freight”.
• Focus on: On board notations and concerning specific exceptions: complete analysis of possible options.
• Exercises and analysis of real cases
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 9: Notice of refusal in the context of documentary credits and international banking guarantees

Addressees: Foreign office operators, banking agents and enterprise consultants.
Level of the course : advanced, high expertise learning process
Length of the course: 1 day;
Didactic objectives: This form aims to understand the procedures to structure properly a notice of refusal in the context of a “non-complying presentation”, both in the context of documentary credits and in international banking guarantees. Specifically, more appropriate behaviors to use with banks and also beneficiaries after the examination of documents will be analyzed. During the learning process different real cases referred to concrete and really happened commercial transactions will be examined. To distinguish better and understand problems and complexities of a refusal notice, in the context of documentary credits and international banking guarantees, an exercise is also considered.
Contents of this form:
• The documentary credit (or letter of credit): starting from detailed definition, will examine characteristics, structure, functioning and operational profiles, stakeholders, types of documentary credits, operation and then the legislative framework.
• The role of the bank(s) in the context of a documentary credit
• “Complying presentation” versus “non-complying presentation”: effects and behaviors
• “Complying presentation” and subsequent acts or behaviors of the bank
• “Non-complying presentation” and consequent behaviors of banks: a detailed and complete analysis of the art. 16 UCP 600 ICC
• How to plan and organize correctly a notice of refusal
• In the case of an issue or putting in the circulation of an incorrect refusal notice: clarifications on the scope of the art. 16 UCP 600 ICC towards banks and also beneficiaries
• Notice of refusal: MT799, MT734 or manual?
• MT734 codes: analysis of “HOLD”, “NOTIFY”, “RETURN”, “PREVINST” codes
• Notice of refusal on the URDG 758 ICC regulations: focus and analysis of the art. 24
• SPECIALIZED FOCUS: a complete study of following real cases:
o LC (letter of credit) Iraq through Italian confirming bank
o LC (letter of credit) Jordan through Italian confirming bank
o Fortis Bank and Stemcor UK Limited versus Indian Overseas Bank
o LG Serbia through Serbian guarantor bank.
• Analysis and study of various concrete cases and exercises
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 10: The letter of credit LC Import: how to give to the bank the responsibility of the documentary credit emission

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators and enterprise consultants.
Level: advanced, high expertise
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: The objective of this form is to optimize the process by which you give to the bank the responsibility of emitting LC (letters of credit), allowing the national importer to define and ideally contain until neutralizing risks linked to purchase process from foreign countries. To sum up, dynamics relating to problems linked to the designation and request of transport and insurance documents will be subjected to accurate assessment.
Contents of the form:
• The documentary credit: definitions, peculiar characteristics, structure of the credit, functioning, stakeholders and responsibilities, concrete operation, relevant regulations
• Classification of different types of documentary credit: “by payment”, “by deferred payment”, “by negotiation”, “by acceptance” and corresponding bank performances
• How to protect yourself and safeguard your position from the potential risk of receiving non-compliant goods
• Consider “autonomy limits of a documentary credit”
• Use the credit in a foreign bank: which effects cause on the applicant?
• What if we exclude the application of the Art. 12 b UCP 600 ICC ?
• How to efficaciously manage the risk for the travel of documents
• Pay attention to the “language of documents”: we will examine the reason why
• The transport document: first of all, who should issue it? And secondly, who should sign it and how?
• The following outcome: “Transport document issued by a freight forwarder is not acceptable”: which are the effects and relative consequences on the credit?
• With regard to Incoterms®, why avoid the use of the term CIF (Cost, Insurance & Freight)
• How to divide and prepare the insurance certificate request
• Case histories: analysis of practical cases
• Exercises: during the exercise, the participant will take charge of giving to the bank the responsibility so that it takes charge of the documentary credit emission
• Q & A Session.

Form n. 11: International bank guarantees

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level of the course: advanced
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: This form aims to identify and transfer the founding characteristics of “guarantees” in use in the context of international trade, in order to examine and assimilate fully the peculiarities as well as the problems which characterize international bank guarantees. During the speech, the spokesman will analyze both bank guarantees issued on behalf of the seller and on behalf of the purchaser. This form, in addition, contemplates the study of various concrete cases of bank guarantees and a dedicated section to an exercise on the theme of the payment guarantee examination.
Contents of the course:
• International bank guarantees: description of characteristics and peculiarities, functioning, and operation, stakeholders, relevant regulations and functions.
• From the surety to the autonomous bank guarantee
• The distinction between “Direct bank guarantee” and “Counter-guarantee”: what are the differences?
• Description of different types of “guarantees”:
Payment Guarantee e SBLC (Stand By Letter of Credit)
Advance Payment Guarantee
Tender Guarantee (Bid Bond)
Retention Money Guarantee (type of banking surety)
Performance Guarantee
At last the Warranty Guarantee
• Regulations URDG 758 ICC: critical analysis of principal articles, inequalities compared to ISP 98 ICC
• Regulations URDG 758 ICC / ISP98 / UCP 600: analysis of differences
• How to divide correctly the text of a “guarantee”
• Case history: analysis of various concrete cases of Stand by Letter of Credit (SBLC) and international bank guarantees.
• Exercises: during the exercise, the participant may challenge himself on the theme of how to examine a payment guarantee – “The Cyprus issue”.

Form n. 12 : BPO – Bank Payment Obligation: the new instrument of regulation for all firms that work abroad

Addressees of the course: Foreign Office agents, export managers, banking profiles and international trade operators.
Level of the course: advanced, specialized learning process
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: Describe and clarify the operational functioning and positioning of a BPO (Bank Payment Obligation), through the exam of basic articles of the regulation URBPO ICC.
Contents of the course:
• Current scenarios and future prospects of international trade
• Positioning of the BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• Benefits/advantages for bank, purchaser, and seller
• Bank Payment Obligation (BPO): definition and overview, stakeholders, functioning, structure, operation, and peculiarities
• Definitions: what do “Baseline”, “Established Baseline”, “Obligor Bank”, “Recipient Bank”, “Submitting Bank”, “Payment Obligation Segment”, “Zero Mismatches” and “Transaction Matching Application” mean?
• BPO versus LC / LG : what are the differences?
• BPO (Bank Payment Obligation) and different possible methods of financing
• The Silent BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• What are messages “ISO 20022 TSMT” and messages “Transaction Matching Application”?
• What does “BPO Flow” mean?
• BPO (Bank Payment Obligation): Establishing a Baseline
• The BPO process of amending
• Fulfilling a BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• What do “Single Shipments” and “Partial Shipments” mean?
• In the case of a “Data Match / Data Mismatch on Data Set Submission”: what effects can be expected?
•“TMA pre-match facility”, “TMA data & message matching rules”, “TMA transaction states” and “TMA special requests”
• What does “Corporate to bank messaging” mean
• Actual operation and diffusion of the BPO (Bank Payment Obligation).
Focus : Deepening of principal articles of Uniform Rules for Bank Payment Obligation (URBPO), and of publication no. 750 ICC in force since 1st July 2013:
o Art. 3 : Bank undertaking is irrevocable and independent
o Art. 6 : Bank Payment Obligations versus Contracts
o Art. 7 : Data versus Documents, Goods, Services or Performance
o Art. 10 : Undertaking of an Obligor Bank
o Art. 12 : Disclaimer on Effectiveness of Data
o Art. 13 : Force Majeure
o Art. 14 : Unavailability of a Transaction Matching Application
o Art. 15 : Applicable Law
o Art. 16 : Assignment of Proceeds
• Assessment test and valuation
• Q & A Session
• Conclusions and observations

Form n. 13: Export Finance: financial-insurance instruments for the global markets

Addressees of the course: Foreign office agents, export managers, international trade operators, enterprise and management consultants.
Level of the course: intermediate
Length of the course: 1/2 days
Didactic objectives: This seminar sets the objective of considering and analysing in detail both financial and insurance instruments available for operators to finance and convert in cash their export credit. Both operations of forfeiting and insurance instruments proposed and available through Sace Spa using the relevant intervention and assistance of the Simest Spa will be examined carefully.
Contents of the course:
• How it is possible to finance international sales: with which instruments and how?
• The Forfeiting: what is it, the operation of the instrument, which cost and advantages
• The regulatory framework: both international and community and national
• What is “The consensus”
• Analysis of the “EU directive 98/29 of the Council on 7th May 1998” and EU communication on the Short Term
• Legislative decree 143 of 31st March 1998 and CIPE decision n. 62 of 20th July 2007
• What is the “buyer’s credit”: structure and functioning
• Open lines: description and operation
• What do “confirmation policy of documentary credit” and “ CreDoc online” mean
• The supplier credit: description, architecture and operational functioning. The insured risks.l
• What do “policies Plus One” and “Basic Online” mean
• What is the “transfer of Sace Spa policy”: characteristics, peculiarities and operational functioning
• Financial guarantees of Sace Spa: description and operational profiles
• Exercises and practical case: analysis of a plant sale in Ethiopia
• Conclusions and discussion.

Form n. 14: Insurance of the export credit

Addresses of the course: Foreign office operators, export managers, international trade operators, enterprise consultants.
Level of the course: intermediate
Length of the course: 1 day
Didactic objectives: The objective of this seminar is to consider and probe insurance solutions for operators to manage with efficacy the credit risk in the context of international commercial transactions, in the short and medium-long term. Specifically, the legislative framework and operation in the concrete of Sace Spa and Sace Bt products will be explored for an overview, highlighting the functioning of relevant policies.
Contents of the course:
• How to manage properly the credit risk: founding differences between financial instruments and insurance instruments
• The most significant advantages of the insurance solution
• Exam of the regulatory framework: in international, community and national contexts
• What does “consensus” mean
• EU directive 98/29 of the Council on 7th May 1998 and Eu communication on the Short Term
• Legislative decree 143/1998 of 31st March 1998 and the CIPE decision n. 62/2007 of 20th July ;
• The supplier credit: operational structure, functioning and insured risks
• Description and functioning of Plus One and Basic Online policies
• What does the transfer of Sace Spa Policy consist in: peculiarity, characteristics, architecture and operational functioning
• Insurance of export credits: foundation principles, contexts of application and operation of instruments, entirety, premiums, previewed compensation, LMA, what is intended for “the latitude”, recovery of the credit, exam of first risk clauses, checking of excess franchises.
• The BT Sviluppo Export policy and BT 360° policy
• The Excess of Loss policy.

credito consulenza trade export finance

SECTION C: DETAILS ON CONSULTANCY PATHS AND ADVANCED CONSULTANCY ON TRADE EXPORT FINANCE AND CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE

The consultancy concerns operational contexts:

INCOTERMS® 2010: choose the most aligned commercial term to needs, how much it impacts on payments methods, on documentary credits, which obligations and which responsibilities of parties, etc.

DOCUMENTARY COLLECTIONS: instrument definition for contractual matters: (D/P) Documents against Payment versus (D/A) Documents against Acceptance; exam of obligations and bank role in full respect of URC Publ. 522 ICC regulations; which actions, exam of notices and procedures to use in case the payment wouldn’t be made; (D/A) Documents against Acceptance: how to monetize the underlying credit claim; how to plan the Bill of Exchange. How to manage interests, expenses as well as bank charges; how to the following peculiar aspects: “Creation of Documents”, “partial payments”, “payment in local and in foreign currency”, “case-of-need” and “protest” and how to correctly specify “collection instructions” to the bank.

DOCUMENTARY CREDITS: LC (letter of credit) definition in contractual terms, LC text analysis, possible proposal to amend, research of confirming bank, valuation of bank obligations and responsibilities, determine the compliance of documents as regards to regulations UCP 600 ICC and to the Uniform International Banking Practice relevant regulation, notice of bank refusal exam, manage possible controversy with the bank in the area of discordances, various communications, etc.

INTERNATIONAL BANK GUARANTEES AND SBLC (STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT): LG / Standby Letter of Credit definition in the context of the contract, checking of the LG / Standby Letter of Credit text, propose possible changes / integrations / or clauses, confirming bank scouting (or guarantor bank), which obligations and responsibilities of the bank, check of document compliance in full respect of regulations UCP 600 / ISP98 / URDG 758 ICC, right management of examination, administration of a possible controversy with the bank as regards to discordances, various communications, etc.

BPO – BANK PAYMENT OBLIGATION : complete assistance in managing of the instrument: definition of the contract with the client, research of the Obligor Bank / Recipient Bank, scouting bank for the issue of the “silent confirmation” (also called “silent obligation”), checking of contracts, identification of a Baseline, possible changes of the BPO, assistance in the case of Data Mismatch, support according to regulations URBPO ICC Publication n. 750.

INSURANCE OF THE CREDIT: isolate the most appropriate and convenient insurance solution for the need of parts involved, analysis of relevant contracts, etc.

EXPORT FINANCING: identify and manage the most appropriate instrument to finance exports of investment goods: forfeiting, open lines, Sace Spa policies and consequent transfer.

FORFEITING: scouting forfeiter to take advantage of a pro-sale discount of LC / promissory notes, to most convenient market conditions, the study of contracts, administration of the complete operation.

SACE SPA INSURANCE PRODUCTS: identify the most appropriate insurance product with regard to needs of parts.
ACHIEVING THE “ZERO DISCREPANCY” OBJECTIVE:
Assist the client in the operational management of LCs (letters of credit), through an innovative service of assistance and technical consultancy. The service includes:
• possible involvement in the trade agreement between parts to characterize, upstream, connotations and attributes of the LC
• LC analysis and possible changes
• possible research of confirming bank
• production of documents relevant to the beneficiary on presentation of invoice, moreover packing list and other useful information for the production of documents
• manage relations with third party institutions (carrier, inspection company, etc.) to produce relevance documents
• prepare a draft of documents to generate by third party institutions such as CCIAA (Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Crafts, and Agriculture)
• exam of documents that have been produced by third party institutions (for ex. Eur1, ATR, Certificates of Inspection, Certificates of Insurance, etc.) where it isn’t possible to produce above-mentioned drafts
• possible presentations of documents at the bank in the name of the beneficiary
• possibly managing the controversy with the Bank as regards to discrepancies, regulations, etc.
WHICH ADVANTAGES:
- get to reset c.d. discrepancy fees
- minimize bank charges
- guarantee sure payments and “on time”
- reduce the DSO (Days Sales Outstanding)
- optimize the business treasury
- optimize the business relationship with the client
- optimally manage human resources in the company, assign them to other functions.
FUNCTIONING AND OPERATION:
- after defining the credit, it is validated by a consultant
- the beneficiary takes charge of sending goods
- the beneficiary can send to the consultant the invoice, packing list and further possible information for the production of documents
- the consultant in this way can prepare:
• pdf files (which includes a possible “draft”, extra copy of documents, fax communications to send to third parties, etc.) with all documents relevant the beneficiary included, previewed copies by the credit
• a possible model of the Certificate of Origin (print on CCIAA form)
• draft of documents by third parties (transport documents, various declarations, etc.)
• mandate by which taking documents to the bank.
- The beneficiary will receive a communication with attached instructions to use correctly the credit via email / Pec with mandate – the whole to report on your own letterhead– pdf files of relevant documents, the whole to print and sign subsequently. The beneficiary will receive documents in the original format by third party institutions and he will deliver documents in the bank.

SECTION D: COMPETENCES AND EXTRA INFORMATION

MISSION

Creating value for importers, exporters through high value-added supply of specialised services in the context of international trade, in order to improve performances on international markets.

DISTINGUISHING COMPETENCES OF SPOKESMAN

- Over 15 years of relations with institutions, banks, and industrial associations, national chamber-based systems, companies.
- ICC Certificates of Achievement on: Incoterms® 2010, Mentor 600, URC 522 ICC and Collections, URDG Master, ISBP Online, URBPO ICC, Introduction to Trade Finance, Going Global, DC Master, ISP Master.
- Formative and consultancy planning with Chambers of Commerce and ICE-Agenzia.
- Formative services of consultancy and assistance with high specialization in Trade and Export Finance.
- Administration of dynamics concerning the right management of credit risk in the context of international commercial transactions.
- Credit risk management, valuation, check, credit risk resolution through insurance as well as financial operations, in the short term through the Trade Finance and in the medium-long term through the activity of Export Finance.

- Specialistic expertise on different financial instruments in the short term: documentary credits, SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit), international bank guarantees and also bank payment obligation.

- Specialistic expertise in various thematic segments linked to Consultancy and Foreign Trade Training and:
• Internationalisation of Businesses
• Incoterms® 2010
• Export Management
• Documentary Credits, SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit)
• Documentary Collections
• International Bank Guarantees
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation
• Insurance of the credit
• Export Financing
• Sacebt and Sace Spa Insurance Products
• Forfeiting

CERTIFICATES
ICC Certificates of Achievement:
• Incoterms ® 2010
• Introduction to Trade Finance (EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Certificate)
• URC 522 and Collections (ICC Uniform Rules for Collections)
• URDG Master (URDG 758 ICC)
• URBPO (Uniform Rules for Bank Payment Obligations)
• ISBP Online (ISBP 745 ICC), The new Uniform International Banking Practice
• Mentor 600 (UCP 600 & Documentary Credits)
• DC Master (Advanced Online Training & Instruction in Documentary Credits)
• Going Global – ICC training on trading internationally (EN)
• ISP Master (Advanced Online Training & Instruction on ISP98 ICC)
• “TFP Professional Award for top class winning answer under EBRD TFP Trade Clinic” magazine Trade Exchange – The Ebrd’s Trade Facilitation Programme, Technical Trade Finance Forum, by ICC Georgia 2015.

THE SPECIALISTIC TRAINING
Formative partner and training activities, on themes linked to the internationalisation of businesses, planning to coordinate structured and customized training courses according to the customer. Addressees: commercial operators and export office agents, banking profiles, export managers, enterprise consultants or young students.

DIDACTIC METHODOLOGY
Taught lessons, slide projection, use of the flip chart, constant interaction with participants. Didactic activities attended by methodologies intended to allow the participant to feel protagonist of didactic learning process. Business concrete real cases, role playing, use of the business game, didactic methods and analysis of concrete cases, reconstruction of business problems, elaborating reference schemes that push to action and specific situations offered by didactics to test out acquired competences.

DIDACTIC MATERIALS
Exercises and practical cases, descriptive material, slides, and articles, in electronic format.

credito trade export finance specialist

SECTION E: Consultant profile, spokesman Dr. Domenico Del Sorbo

Dr. Domenico Del Sorbo, graduates in Economy of the International Trade and Currency Markets, MBA degree in International Business – MIB – School of Management – Trieste MBA Accredited AMBA and ASFOR. Deep connoisseur of business internationalization processes and of credit risk management in the context of international commercial transactions. Particularly expert of Trade ed Export Finance instruments. He obtained the following certificates: ICC Certificates of Achievement on Mentor 600 (UCP 600 and Documentary Credits), URDG Master (Online Training & Instruction in URDG 758 ICC), Incoterms ® 2010, URC 522 and Collections, URBPO (Uniform Rules for Bank Payment Obligations), ISBP On line (ISBP 745 ICC), DC Master (Advanced Online Training and Instruction in Documentary Credits), Introduction to Trade Finance (Online Training in Trade Finance), Going Global – ICC training on trading internationally EN (EBRD Certificate), ISP Master (Online Training Programme in Standby Credits and ISP98). Consultant and trainer at Chamber of Commerce in Italy, institutions, industrial associations, ICE-Agenzia. He has active collaboration with: Business School of Il Sole 24 Ore, Aldini Valeriani Foundation. He writes for newsletters of the Italian chamber-based system and for Mercato Globale. He is engaged in assistance activities and specialistic consultancy in the context of documentary credits, banking guarantees for different SMEs (small and medium enterprises). He is a consultant on behalf of Sistema Camerale Servizi S.r.l. (formerly Mondimpresa), Unioncamere Lombardia, Unioncamere Puglia, Unioncamere Campania, CCIAA of Chieti, CCIAA of Ferrara, CCIAA of Pescara, CCIAA of Forlì-Cesena.

PUBLISHING PROJECTS
Services for preparing articles on “techniques of foreign trade” themes and scientific coordination in the context of publications relating to international trade techniques.

SECTION F: Publications and Tools (available to users that will request them upon enrolment to the website)

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS:
• Global Trade Finance Program IFC
• Crediti Documentari : preparazione della Charter Party Bill of Lading
• La banca designata nell’ambito di un credito non confermato
• La banca designata nel frangente di un credito confermato
• LC Lettere di credito: dopo il cambio della normativa
• La banca emittente : in una LC credito documentario
• Il finanziamento della attività di esportazione attraverso le operazioni di credito documentario
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation : il nuovo strumento per regolare gli scambi degli operatori del commercio internazionale
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation : funzionamento ed operatività
• BPO – Bank Payment Obligation: la normativa di riferimento
• LC – Crediti Documentari: “ on the basis of the documents alone “
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come allestire i ‘beneficiary’s certificate’
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come disporre la draft
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come predisporre il weight list
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come organizzare il packing list
• LC – Crediti Documentari: il ruolo banca avvisante
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come predisporre la Bill of Lading
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come disporre il documento di trasporto multimodale
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come allestire il Certificato di Origine
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come predisporre il documento di trasporto aereo
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come allestire la Sea WayBill
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come disporre il documento di trasporto su strada
• LC – Crediti Documentari: come preparare correttamente la fattura

AVAILABLE GUIDES:
• Guide: Export Credit Risk Management

AVAILABLE TOOLS ON REQUEST: Please send request through the section Contacts on the website.
• FIATA – FWB NN MULTIMODAL WAYBILL
• FIATA – Shippers Intermodal Weight Certification “ SIC “
• NEGOTIABLE FIATA MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT BL
• SWIFT Transportation Fields
• Clauses in Bills of Lading Allowing for Release of Goods without Requiring Presentation of the Original sheet
• Signing a Transport Document, under UCP 600 ICC
• Lost in transit documents, under UCP 600 ICC
• Form concerning the Certificate of Origin
• CMR form
• On board notation summary
• Swift Trade Messaging Trends 2015
• CMI Uniforms Rules for Sea Waybills
• Opinion Handling Procedures & TORs
• Financial Instruments Features
• Straight versus To Order Transport Document
• Movements
• Rotterdam Rules & Hamburg Rules
• Incoterms® 2010 and LC Documentary Credits
• LC – Documentary Credits: the role of the Bank
• LC – Documentary Credits: On Board Notation
• Settlement, Risk Mitigation or Financing?
• Financial sheet of Iran 2016
• Financial sheet of Saudi Arabia 2016
• ICC Notes, on the principle of strict compliance
• Recommendation 12 Measures to Facilitate Maritime Transport Documents Procedures
• Uniform Commercial Code
• UCP 700 ICC Wish List
• Map of the Credit Insurance
• Slides Bank guarantees in international trade
• United Nations Convention on independent guarantees and SBLC (Standby letters of credits)
• Slides – ISBP 745 ICC
• Slides – Incoterms® 2010
• Slides – Documentary Collection
• Slides – LC – Documentary credits
• Slides – Export Finance
• Slides BPO (Bank Payment Obligation)
• The Hague-Visby Rules
• Institute Cargo Clauses
• Warsaw Convention of 1929
• Montreal Convention of 1999
• FIATA, FCR Forwarders Certificate of Receipt
• Fiata – Negotiable Multimodal Transport Bill of Lading
• FIATA FFI, Fiata Forwarding Instructions
• FIATA FCT, Forwarder Certificate of Transport
• FIATA, FWR Fiata Warehouse receipt
• Marine Insurance, Act 1906
• Bills of Exchange, Act 1882
• ICC United Rules for Multimodal Transport Document
• ICC ISP98
• CMR Convention
• CIM Convention
• Vienna Convention of 1980
• New York Convention of 1958
• Geneva Convention of 1930
• ICC – When a non-bank issues a letter of credit
• ICC – The determination of an Original document in the context of UCP
• ICC – On-board Notation Paper
• ICC – Transferable credits and the UCP 500
• ICC – Guidance Paper – Use Of Sanctions Clauses
• Form concerning the Certificate of Origin
• Rethinking Trade and Finance 2015
• Bill of Exchange
• Letter of Credit Instructions Form
• Fax Transmission Report

LINKS AND DEEPENING

- IBS foreign DESK
- IBS Blog
- Country profiles and international or geopolitical articles
- Principal Documents in International Trade
- Credit Risk definition (from the website of the Borsa Italiana)
- ICE – Agenzia
- SACE
- SIMEST
- EBRD Bank
- European Central Bank
- International Monetary Fund
- Ministry of Economic Development
- Custom Agency
- Customs Glossary
- European Union Activities in International Trade

Country Risk Map – Discover SACE tool

SACE country risk map

Country Risk Map

DISCOVER SACE INTERACTIVE MAP, USEFUL FOR ASSESSING THE RISKS TO WHICH A COUNTERPARTY IS EXPOSED WHEN EXPORTING OR ESTABLISHING ITS FOREIGN PRESENCE

country risk map SACE click

MAPPED AREAS :

- Sovereign credit risk;
- Bank credit risk;
- Corporate credit risk;
- Expropriation and breach of contract;
- War and civil disturbance risk;
- Transfer and convertibility risk.

FURTHER INFORMATION :

- General information on the foreign country;
- Information on the political, economic, financial and operational contexts;
- Insurability Conditions;
- OECD category;

LINK SACE SERVICES
LINK SACE WEBSITE
LINK SACE PRESS RELEASES

Opportunity from Europe through the ICE Agency in Bruxelles

Agenzia ICE Bruxelles Opportunità dall'Europa

Opportunity from Europe through the ICE Agency in Bruxelles

We report the opportunities from Europe through the ICE Agency in Bruxelles In the Newsletter of the ICE Agency you can see:

- selection of the EU announcements;
- selection and preview of the EU contracts;
- important news from Bruxelles;
- programs for the countries with EU external assistance;
- selection and preview of the extra-EU announcements;
- focus and monthly in-depth analysis about current events for the SMEs.

DOWNLOAD OF THE NEWSLETTER THROUGH THE FOLLOWING LINK

2019

LINK 7th year Newsletter no. January 2019
LINK 7th year Newsletter no. February 2019

2018

LINK 6th year Newsletter no. January 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. February 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. March 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. April 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. May 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. July August 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. September 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter no. October 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter November 2018
LINK 6th year Newsletter December 2018

2017

LINK 5th year Newsletter no. January 1st 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. February 2nd 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. March 3rd 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. April 4th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. May 5th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. June 6th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. July August 7th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. September 8th 2017
LINK 5th year Newsletter no. October 9th 2017

2016

LINK 4th year Newsletter no. January 1st 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. February 2nd 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. March 3rd 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. April 4th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. May 5th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. June 6th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. July – August 7th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. September 8th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. October 9th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. November 10th 2016
LINK 4th year Newsletter no. December 11th 2016

2015

LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. January 1st 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. February 2st 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. March 3rd 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. April 4th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. May 5th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. June 6th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. July and August 7th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. September 8th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. October 9th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. November 10th 2015
LINK 3rd year Newsletter no. December 11th 2015

In the following months you will find the next monthly newsletters

SITE ICE Agency Bruxelles

e-commerce china

E-commerce China

e-commerce-china-cina-made-in-italy

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA: HOW TO EXPORT TO CHINA, THE WORLD LARGEST MARKET

THORUGH DIGITAL AGENCY, E-COMMERCE PLATFORMS AND SOCIAL MEDIA

Thanks to a specialized digital agency and an Italian company based in China, Made in Italy or quality products have an easier access to the Chinese market. E-commerce platforms and numerous social media can offer products to over 600 million people online every day, both through B2C and B2B channels, as well as a new generation ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system. The company is relieved of business risks, except for providing the product, which has to be available in China after customs clearance. Possible promotions and certificates called for to launch the products onto the market, upon assistance. The commission includes front end and back end services, as well as lead-to-cash, operation and shipment services. FTZ (Free Trade Zones) are possible for some products.

PRODUCTS SECTORS: food , clothing and fashion, furniture, furnishing accessories, cosmetics and luxury, etc. A feasibility study will be carried out, upon expression of interest.
For more information, send an email.

contact IBS by mail

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA: WHY TO BET ON THE CHINESE MARKET FOR MADE IN ITALY

POPULATION STATISTICS

Population: 1.379 billion
Urban population: 56%
GDP: $ USD 11.3 trillion
Average household income: $ USD 11,000 (72,321 yuan)
Average age: 37,3
Languages: Mandarin Chinese (70%)

GENERAL FRAMEWORK

In 2015, China’s spending on ecommerce accounted for over 40% of the world total.

USE OF MOBILE DEVICES

In China, online shopping through mobile devices is widely spreading, with sales of $ USD 333 billion in 2015, 85% more than in 2014.

OMNICHANNEL STRATEGY

China has adopted the omnichannel strategy, however it is still incomplete and in evolution.

FUTURE AND DATA

In 2016 the Chinese e-commerce market became the largest in the world.
It is expected to reach $ USD 1.6 trillion (almost the Italian annual GDP) within two or three years.

During last year “Singles’ Day”, the online shopping-related Chinese festival, $ 14.3 billion were spent and digital buyers in the country grew to 468 million.

Online wallets are the main payment method, in fact, 33% of clients use technologies to complete their transactions.
e-commerce-china

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA: WHY SHOULD YOU BE INTERESTED IN OUR PACKAGE?

ORGANIZATION

• I want to start a business in China, I need legal assistance.
• I need trade licenses to import goods.
• I need to hire a manager and employees.
• I need a warehouse to stock the products.
• I need to install an integrated management system (ERP).
• I need to get in touch with an accountant.
• I have ties concerning the cash flow.

SALES

• What products should I choose for the Chinese market?
• What prices draw clients’ attention?
• Should I choose the B2B solution, the B2C, or both?
• Is it better a multichannel or a one-channel strategy?
• Digital Marketing in China is complicated and very different from the western model. How to interact with Chinese consumers?

RISKS

• What if I can’t sell the stock?
• What if the teamwork doesn’t make a profit?
• How can I be sure of receiving information regularly and promptly in my headquarter in China?
• In case of operations to do; how can I ensure they are carried out correctly?
• We need data concerning the market and consumers; is there someone able to understand them?

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA – SERVICES: THE FIRST INTEGRATED DIGITAL PLATFORM FOR THE CHINESE MAREKET

DEFINING THE COMPANY’S PRESENCE:

• Starting a business in China is not necessary, we can represent you.
• We will sign a clear and detailed contract, in which all our activities will be transparently explained.

OBTAINING AN ONLINE PRESENCE:

• We will first update the B2B/B2C platforms with your logos and slogans to attract consumers.
• We will organize all the necessary digital marketing campaigns to guarantee constant trade and business transactions on your platform.

SELLING PROCESS:

• We will assist you in every sale, ensuring the highest level of satisfaction for your Chinese clients.
• We will share with you every information to decide together the next step.

OPERATIONS:

• Thanks to an analysis, we will find the most appropriate market for your products and we will inform you about the right quantity of goods to stock.
• You will only have to transfer the stock and we will do the rest.

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA: SUMMARY:

STRATEGY:

Reaching the Chinese online advertising sector and the marketing sector concerning social media, allowing brand recognition and familiarization.
Gaining the Chinese online consumers and making their brand loyalty possible.
Establishing relationships with the Chinese social CRM, encouraging clients to be brand-loyal and promotion.

MARKET :

Entering the Chinese e-commerce market and providing strategic consulting.
Opening the autonomous e-commerce web site TaobaoTmall and others eShops (Jingdong, Amazon, QQ).
One-Stop Solution operations: 3PL services (Third Party Logistics), stocking and distribution.

PERFORMANCES :

• Search Engine Marketing (SEM) service and pay-per-click (PPC) campaigns for Baidu and others.
• Search Engine Optimization services (SEO) and reputation monitoring.
• Web advertising through banners and retargeting/remarketing operations.
• Affiliate Marketing in China – Organization, managing and optimization of the return on investment (ROI).
• UI and UX Design services, localization, optimization and web analytics.

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA: MULTICHANNEL-MULTIVENDOR, E-COMMERCE, CLOUD ERPs

chinese-digital-landscape
piattaforme-mondiali-e-commerce-cina

E-COMMERCE IN CHINA LINKS

- E-commerce
- Digital Platform
- B2B (business to business)
- B2C (business to consumer)
- Digital Agency
- FTZ (Free Trade Zone)
- SEM (Search Engine Marketing)
- SEO (Search Engine Optimization)
- PPC (pay-per-click)
- Lead to Cash
- Omnichannel

LINKS :

- EX-WORKS
- INCOTERMS 2010
- MAIN DOCUMENTS TO USE FOR FOREIGN TRADE
- MERCHANDISE SHIPMENT AND QUALITY
- HINTS ABOUT THE MERCHANDISE ORIGIN
- CUSTOMS GLOSSARY

CANARIES: business opportunities, Financings and Tax breaks

CANARIES: business opportunities, Financings and Tax breaks

canarie-business-opportunita-agevolazioni

IBS by virtue of the valuable synegies and cooperations existing, is pleased to present the OPPORTUNITIES on the CANARIES ARCHIPELAGO, through:

- Financigs and Tax breaks for startups;

- Explanation of the strengths offered by the Archipelago to a prospective investor;

- Services offered in the Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro and La Palma islands territories along with a series of general information in addition.

MEETING VENUE AND SCREENING OF BUSINESSES: after a preliminary phone or mail contact through the following form contact, in Turin a series of meetings with a person in charge that will analyze the Business project will be held, providing some information abut the viability.

TURIN OFFICE: Corso San Maurizio 8, Torino ( Office downstairs)
DEVELOPMENT OFFICE: Tenerife

Before fixing a meeting in person, it is essential to advance a presentation, or a teaser or abstract of the outlines of the project for a first analysis. If the project is evaluated positively further information before the meeting in Turin will be required.

TABLE OF CONTENTS OF THE FOLLOWING ARTICLE:

1. Announcement of a competitive exam for Financings and Tax breaks for startups in technology, innovation and science sectors on the Canaries Archipelago concerning entrepreneurial projects which represent the successful Made in Italy.

2. Deepening on Tenerife, opportunities on three continents (Europe, America, Africa) for internationalization programs, ZEC (Canary Islands Special Zone), tax breaks and customs facilities, general opportunities and information.

contact IBS by mail

ANNOUNCEMENT/ COMPETITIVE EXAM FOR FINANCINGS AND TAX BREAKS FOR STARTUPS IN TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION AND SCIENCE SECTORS ( supporting instruments and guidance for innovative startups)

bando-made-in-italy-canarie-tenerife

OBJECT: Screening of the Entrepreneurial Projects through the announcement titled “The successful and excellent Made in Italy settle in in the Canaries” and first Strategic Guidance for the Italian Startups which wish to settle in the Canaries.

SPONSORSHIP OF THE GOVERNMENT AND OF THE INSTITUTIONS IN CHARGE

Institutions and offices in charge, local authorities and Government of the Canaries, sponsor the present announcement to allow and favour the settlement in the Canaries of new businesses, enterprises and business ventures, projects which intend to represent the winning and successful “Made in Italy” and which want to check how to operate in some strategic sectors specifics of the Canary Islands.

WHY CANARIES: THE ROLE OF THE EU AND THE SUPRANATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

In 2015 the reform avered by the European Union provided constancy to the Economical and Tax Regime (ETR) of the Canary Islands which came into force on 1/1/2015. New and specific time horizons (2026) emerge for what concerns the strategic activities which can be settled and developed in the Canary Islands. Moreover, incentives and tax allowances can be applied and obtained, and also funds and financings for activities which have a strategic value and make the settlement particularly remarkable and strategic.

PRELIMINARY SERVICES AND PERSONS ADMITTED:

The purpose of the initiative is favoring the settlement and/or the presence in the Canary islands of valuable representatives of the most renowned “Italian Style” and “Made in Italy” successful entrepreneurial models.
The following services will be supplied without consideration and engagement only to the projects which match the characteristics required by the Competitive Exam:
- First advice on strategic guidance, which includes the logistic, building and fiscal aspects.
- Counsel and suggestions and/or possible amendments for the entrepreneurial project.
-information about possible opportunities for the settlement of startups, cooperations with Public Authorities, Institutions and Local Governments, Technology Parks, Universities, etc.
- At a later stage, the Projects which will be selected can be presented and helped by offices and residential Partners, to be introduced to the proper authorities, public offices and institutions nominated by the Canaries government and the Spain state.

ADDED VALUE FOR ENTREPRENEURS AND PRINCIPALS OF STARTUPS PROJECTS:

- Have the possibility to provide to Italian investors and entrepreneurs a comprehensive overview, characterized by a first analysis of viability of the entrepreneurial Project in the Canary Islands, which consider the Tax Model (on the basis of the type of project, the objectives and the business model that the project aims to achieve), the logistic aspect, the buildings, the politic and diplomatic initiatives and other aspects which have a strategical importance.

- Start and establish a dialogue between the persons put in charge of supplying support services and interesting important entrepreneurs, providing the latter with information, guidelines and basic services without compensation.

- Conferment of the “Support” and specialized support to important Entrepreneurial Projects, with a high technological and professional profile to enhance the “Made in Italy”.

SECOND STAGE (for the projects evaluated as interesting) :

The selected entrepreneurs, after a first analysis, will have the possibility to benefit from our following services and advices supplied:

PRESENTATION OF THE PROJECT in the offices and Public Councils, or the Authorities and the function nominated by the Canaries Government with the aim to obtain the appreciations and the entitlement to require the benefits, the tax exemption and/or allowance and/or the support in the project or business start up.
In the case a ZEC authorization request is needed (for example to benefit from the implementation of a 4% tax rate) you can resort to the method “Online Procedure”. You will be required to go, upon appointment programming, to the Regional Offices in charge in TENERIFE or GRAN CANARIA, to have a short interview with an Official, to present and register the application or to collect the license obtained.
Alternatively to the procedure above mentioned, in other cases an “online” procedure will be started and concluded and the entrepreneur or the entrepreneurs will have the possibility to go to the island to attend to the following formal acts which need the presence on the spot ( formation of a company etc.).

SUPPORT AND ADVICE FOR THE FORMATION OF A COMPANY AND FOLLOWING MANAGEMENT:

- Drawing up of the Viability Study
- Drawing up of the Business Plan and/or Investment Plan
- Analysis and indication of the company model / asset of an emergent business, for the implementation and the optimization of the tax regime of Canary Islands (ETR, RIC etc. etc..) and/or other solutions which allow tax allowances and/or benefits
- Activities for the formation of a company, for example formal, bureaucratic acts etc., both Limited Company and public limited company of Spanish Law ( equivalent to an S.p.A. ) having the registered office in the Canary Islands
- Management and keeping of accounting
- Support and advice activity for the “start up” stages of the business
- Preparatory activities, such as the location of the place, the areas, the premises etc.

SUPPORT AND ADVICE FOR THE SETTLEMENT AND THE FOLLOWING START-UP OF THE BUSINESS:

- Support for the papers and for the start of the meetings, the cooperations and the synergies with technology parks, Universities, local authorities etc.
- Support, advice and papers concerning the settlement, for the areas and the premises used as office, offices, workshops (both “on the free market” and in technology parks, Vivero de Empresanas, or coworking areas etc.), trade areas, craft areas, industrial areas, depending on the necessities and suited for the purpose.
- Support for the submission (if provided for where it is possible) of requests for the achievement of financings. This activity can be made only after having acquired the legal instrument, that is after having established and registered the business on the Business Register.

CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE ENTREMPRENURIAL PROJECTS:

canarie-opportunita-di-business

The characteristics and the essential requisites that the projects have to fulfill to be selected and taken into account are the following:

- The Entrepreneurial project must concern an activity and/or must operate in one of the following product sector or be related to the following categories :

o Informational sector, development of software and applications
o Electronics, development of hardware and firmware; production of electronic equipment
o Industrial automation, robotics, smart home technology (research and development, prototyping, industrial production)
o ICT and telematic networks, information and communication technologies
o Telecommunications
o Education, e-learning included, using digital platforms
o Intermediation and trading using digital platforms
o Marketing and advertising using digital platforms
o Digital publishing
o Photography and media and communication services
o Video production and post-production/ cinematography
o Drone manufacturing ( remote-controlled aircraft )
o Research for innovation and development applicable to different sectors
o Planning studies
o Nanotechnologies
o Biotechnologies and food and health sciences
o Other activities strictly related to science, technology, innovation, development and research.
o NOTES: for some manufacturing / production activities the rental and the leasing of manufactured products, solutions and equipment realized are included
o WARNING: refreshment activities and small businesses can’t use the tax breaks described and are therefore excluded.

- To be taken into consideration, the entrepreneurial project must be necessarily equipped with the documents required.

- The entrepreneurial projects must include a “solid organization” with its own operational and registered office placed in one of the Canary Islands.

- The lowest economic engagement budgeted from the Italian investor (without considering supports and financings) for the purchase of assets and/ or instrumental goods, on the basis of the realization of the project must be:

• Of at least EUR 100.000 for these activities which will settle in Gran Canaria or Tenerife within 24 months from the start of the business
• Of at least EUR 50.000 FOR THESE ACTIVITIES WHICH WILL SETTLE IN El Hierro, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, La Palma and Lanzarote, within 24 months from the start of the business.

- The entrepreneurial project or the start-up have to include the creation of minimum:

• 5 (five) jobs for the activities which will settle in Gran Canaria or Tenerife within the first 6 months form the start of the business.
• 3 (three) jobs for the activities which will settle in Lanzarote, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro and La Palma within the first 6 months from the start of the business.

2. CANARIES ARCHIPELAGO: “TENERIFE” and the advantages that offers to an investor for the expansion of an internationalization project

tenerife-mappa

GENERAL INFORMATION:

- Tenerife offers a sound and steady political and macroeconomic framework by the addition of European guarantees.
- It is provided with modern buildings thanks to a technological constant development and effective advanced digital communication (examples: fiber optic ring, Teide-HPC supercomputer, data center D-Alix).
- It is favored by a naturalistic environment and a special life quality, with a mild climate all the year with an average temperature of 22 Celsius degrees, with the highest average of sun hours of Europe (3000).
- It has excellent air and sea links and convention centers equipped for excellence events, with highly competitive prices for the rental of industrial ships and offices.
- Highly competitive labor cost, supply cost and cost of services to enterprises (for example: electricity average cost, water and hot water average cost, etc.).
- Financing lines, supports and fundings, guarantees, incentives to the national, regional and insular
economic development
- Tenerife Science and Technology Park (PCTT): if the project would be technologic or of research in the health, biotechnologies, touristic innovation sectors.

tenerife-ambiente

STRATEGIC GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION AND AGRREMENTS WITH NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES:

Thanks to its geographical position, and being a member of the EU, Tenerife represents the gateway for three continents: Europe,America, Africa. For what concerns Africa, these are some countries with which we make trades:

Mauritania, Togo, Morocco, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, and Cape Verde. Moreover, there are existing agreements with many Western African Countries and 50 cooperation projects in different sectors among which: science, education, agriculture, farming renewable energies, bio-combustible production and modernization of the public administration.

canarie-porta-di-ingresso-continenti-europa-africa-america

SOFT TAX REGIME AND ZONA ESPECIAL CANARIA (ZEC)

Special tax regime unique in Europe thanks to its insular condition, which is suitable for any kind of business and entrepreneurial projects, even though the advantages of community right are maintained.
- IGIC (Canary Island General Indirect Tax) : 7% which is a regional tax on the final consumption equivalent to our VAT.

CANARY ISLANDS SPECIAL ZONE (ZEC):

- For the enterprises registered in ZEC, the tax on the revenue of the societies at 4% on the part of taxable base which comes from the transactions made in the Canary Islands is applied.
- The enterprises registered in the ZEC domain don’t pay IGIC tax.
- Requirements: be a start up, have a well-drawn project, have a residential director, have at least EUR 100.000 of investments in fixed asset during the first two years and create at least 5 jobs in the 6 months after the registration of the company on the island register of companies.

Other TAX BENEFITS and ADVANTAGES in INVESTING in TENERIFE:

- Agreements to avoid the double taxation
- Have the possibility to benefit from the directive Company Mothers-daughters (2003/123/CEE) of the European Union through which the dividends allocated from the branch registered on the ZEC domain to the operating holding company with office in any other EU country (European Union) won’t be withheld.
- Exemption from Property transfers tax and documented juridical acts tax
- RIC Reserve for investments in Canary Islands with an allowance up to 90% in the benefit not distributed through the endowment of a Special Reserve for investments in Canary Islands (RIC).

TENERIFE FREE-TRADE ZONE (ZFT)

Customs advantages on the Tenerife Free-Trade Zone (ZFT): storage, transformation and marketing of the goods without paying duties , indirect taxes and special taxes. In particular:

- Exemption from importation rights during the stay of the goods in the Tenerife Free-Trade Zone;
- Exemption from the payment of special taxes for all the goods which will enter in Tenerife Free-Trade Zone;
- Exemption from IGIC tax ( assimilable to our VAT) for the goods of the Free-Trade zone and for the services provided concerning the goods themselves.

TYPES OF SOCIETIES

Even though there are different options and types of societies which can be established and registered the most renowned are the following:

- Sociedad Anonima SA ( equivalent to the English Public limited company Plc)

- Societad de Responsabilidad Limitada SL ( equivalent to the English Limited company Ltd.)

Minimum number of shareholders 1, the capital stock is different ( EUR 3000 for Societad de Responsabilidad Limitada while EUR 60.000 for Sociedad Anonima). First of all a negative certificate is required to specify the name of the company, with the opening of a bank account, and the creation of the articles of association and the incorporation notarial public contract, to which a tax identification number will follow (first temporary then definitive TIN) and registration in the island register of companies. The people with an entrepreneurial project interested in the Canary Islands or Tenerife will receive all the details.

canarie-porti-e-logistica

ENCLOSURES, LINKS OR WIDENINGS ABOUT THE CANARY ISLANDS PROJECT:

- Group of the Free-Trade Zone in Tenerife in Spanish
- Canary Islands Special Zone ZEC in Italian
- Tenerife: comprehensive guide visiting, living, investing
- Why Tenerife? (there are references)
- Modification of the economic and tax regime of the Canary Islands in Spanish
- Proexca and investment opportunities in Spanish
- Procedure register free-trade zone The Canary Islands in Italian
- List of activities in the Free-Trade Zone ZEC Canary Islands in Spanish

Notes: for the enclosures not in automatic download please send an email and provide the data of the person or the business interested.

OTHER USEFUL LINKS:

- IBS foreign DESKS
- Main Documents on International trade
- Letter of Credit and International bank Guarantees
- Customs glossary
- Country profiles and international or geopolitical articles
- IBS Blog

BULGARIA: ENTREPRENEURIAL MISSION, B2B MEETINGS

BULGARIA: ENTREPRENEURIAL MISSION, B2B MEETINGS

bulgaria-missione-imprenditoriale-opportunita-investimento

BULGARIA: “ROAD SHOW TARGET BALKANS” ENTREPRENEURIAL MISSION, B2B MEETINGS, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT AND PARNERSHIP WITH BULGARIAN ENTERPRISES

PROMOTERS:

confindustria-bulgaria-logo

CONFINDUSTRIA BULGARIA – P.zza Pozitano 2, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria

INTERNATIONAL CENTER OF UNICREDIT BULBANK – 8 Aksakov Str, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria

INTRODUCTION

IBS in synergy with CONFINDUSTRIA BLUGARIA has the pleasure of receiving signs of interest to participate to the next ENTREPRENEURIAL MISSION in Sofia. The event is promoted by Confindustria Bulgaria to communicate the strengths of Bulgaria for the benefit of the single businesses and/or delegations of Italian enterprises through the Industrial Associations interested in investments in Bulgaria and in meetings with local partners of different product sectors.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT THE PARTICIPATION TO THE MISSION, THE DATE AND THE ORGANIZATION

Please contact IBS through the following contact form and it will be our responsibility to recontact you to obtain your interest and to provide all the information of detail or to bring you into contact with the Manager of Confindustria Bulgaria instructed to organize the event.

DEEPENINGS ABOUT BULGARIA TO FOLLOW:

- 1. OUTCOMES OF THE MISSION OF NOVEMBER 3 2016 IN SOFIA: description of the event, Entrepreneurial Mission Agenda and Delegation of the Italian Businesses participating at the event.

- 2. WHY INVESTING IN BULGARIA: the introduction to the macroeconomic framework, advantages among which low operating costs, tax benefits, strategic position in the heart of Balkans.

Continue the reading to obtain information about the opportunities. For immediate INFORMATION write us through the following FORM.

contact IBS by mail

DEEPENINGS ABOUT BULGARIA :

1. OUTCOMES OF THE MISSION OF NOVEMBER 3 2016 IN SOFIA

missione-imprenditoriale-sofia-bulgaria-3-novembre-2016

Promoters CONFINDUSTRIA BULGARIA AND UNICREDIT BULBANK

The last entrepreneurial mission took place on November 3 2016, in the office of the International Center of Unicredit Bulbank. The promoters of the event and the Entrepreneurial Mission are Unicredit Bulbank and Confindustria Bulgaria which through the over 300 businesses associated is related to 5% of the total GDP of Bulgaria through the Businesses associated which create over 25.000 jobs, among which we can mention renowned Italian businesses such as Italcementi, Mapei, Unicredit, General, and many others SME.

During the last edition “Target Balkans: Entrepreneurial Mission in Bulgaria” has been recorded the participation of nine Italian businesses interested in the Bulgarian market , particularly active on the territory of Piacenza, motivated to the search for partners and business opportunity in the Bulgarian territory and in the neighboring countries with which Bulgaria makes trades. The event takes place as consecutively reported in the following concise description of the Agenda of the day, through a presentation of Bulgaria and the opportunities of business offered by the country, as a consequence of the event which took place in May 2016 in Piacenza during the incoming of a delegation of Bulgarian Businesses and Institutions in Italy.

The Italian businesses which participate in the entrepreneurial mission in Bulgaria operate in particular in the building industry ( building, reconstruction, restoration, sound conditioning, railings, security doors) in the furnishing industry ( interior and outdoor decoration, urban furniture, pools) and in the industry of facilities or technologies for energy saving. In particular, the day started with the address of the Institutions among which the General Director of the Unicredit Bulbank Enrico Minniti, subsequently the ICE Director of the Agency of Sofia Cinzia Bruno and President of Confindustria Bulgaria Pietro Luigi Ghia. Subsequently, the presentation continued with the address of Aldo Andreoni, Senior Banker, Corporate, Investment and Private Banking division, in which the macroeconomic framework of Bulgaria has been showed and in particular the building, the hotel and catering industry have been analyzed.

The rest of the event has been based on b2b meetings (about one hundred meetings) between the different Italian businesses in a trip to Sofia, and the over sixty Bulgarian businesses which participated with great motivation in the event.

ENTREPRENEURIAL MISSION AGENDA

h. 9.00 – 09.30 Businesses Registration and Welcome Coffee

h. 9.30 – 11.00

- Enrico Minniti, General Manager and Vice President of the board of directors of Unicredit Bulbank – Welcome speech

- Pietro Luigi Ghia, President of Confindustria Bulgaria- Welcome speech

- Cinzia Bruno, Director of Italian Trade Agency ITA Sofia

- Aldo Andreoni, Senior Banker, Corporate, Investment and Private Banking division – Presentation of the opportunities in Bulgaria

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

h. 11.00 – 12.30 B2B meetings with businesses associated to Confindustria Bulgaria already planned

h. 12.30 – 14.00 Launch and Networking

h. 14.00 – 14.30 Registration of Bulgarian associated businesses and welcome coffee

h. 14.30 – 15.00 Brief and presentation of the Italian Businesses by Roberto Tortelotti and Raffaele De Risi

h. 15.00 – 18.00 B2B meetings with the associated Bulgarian societies

DOWNLOAD : Entrepreneurial Mission Agenda

DOWNLOAD: Delegation of Italian Businesses participating at the event

WITNESSES

Witnesses and references of businesses which participated in the event are available. However, to win access to these information a manifestation of interest for the future mission in the phase of organization and a qualification through the business references are needed.

2. WHY INVESTING IN BULGARIA AND IN THE BALKANS

bulgaria-perche-investire-business-partner

MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK IN BULGARIA

Bulgaria recorded a growth occurred in the triennial 2006-2008, and subsequently had a crisis in 2009. However, the data which refer to 2010 and 2011 reflect signs of recovery of the Bulgarian economy. Moreover, since 2012 a fundamental stabilization of the tendential development and a marked vitality on the trades, in particular on the export (export over the border) with foreign countries have been observed. Besides, a recovery of the domestic demand and a noticeable improvement of the coefficient of absorption of the doing business and European funds have occurred. The GDP (gross domestic product) on 2014 stood at EUR 42,8 billion ( Source: UniCredit Bulbank, 2016), recording an annual growth of 1.5%.

In 2015 Italy was promoted from third to second in the classification of the business partners of Bulgaria, after Germany, and only in the first six months of 2015 a 6,5% noticeable increase in foreign trade. The foreign trade between Italy and Bulgaria amount to over EUR 4 billion. The buying of Bulgarian goods from Italy gathered mainly in the mechanics, engineering, precision mechanics, durable instrumental goods, metals and clothing sectors. A good percentage of the businesses is addressed to the luxury footwear and footwear sectors, textile sector, equipment and machinery of general usage, and products resulting from oil and natural sources. For what concerns the total Italian foreign direct investments (FDI) in Bulgaria, they reached EUR 1,4 billion in 2014 and in particular the FDI net transactions for 2014 from Italy stand at around EUR 19 billion (MFA).

DOWNLOAD COUNTRY PROFILE (English): Bulgaria country profile (Source SACE, year 2016)

DOWNLOAD COUNTRY PROFILE (English): economic and financial statement of Bulgaria (Sourc Unicredit Bulbank, year 2016)

DOWNLOAD (English): index from the dal National Statistical Institute, Republic of Bulgaria 2016

POLITIC AND ECONOMIC STABILITY IN BULGARIA AND DOING BUSINESS FAVOURABLE INDEX

• INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS : Bulgaria is a member state of the European Union, of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization )

• CHANGE: the currency stability is guaranteed through the fixed change with euro of: 1 Euro = 1.96 BGN (lev)

• PUBLIC DEBT : Bulgaria has the second lower public debt on the European Union (around 17% of GDP) and one of the lower budget deficit of EU (2.1%) in 2011

• AVERAGE OF POLITICAL RISK 43% (Source: SACE, 2016)

• DOING BUSINESS INDEX : 38° of 189 countries (52 days to register a business)

• MAIN SECTORS OF OPPORTUNITY : infrastructures, means of transport, instrumental mechanics, energy, railways and building (complete list to follow)

• ITALIAN EXPORT IN THE PRECEDING YEAR : textile and clothing , instrumental mechanics, metals, means of transport, chemistry, others

• MAIN BUSINESS PARTNERS : Germany, Italy follows, then Spain and France

• ITALIAN EXPORT POTENTIAL INCREASE IN THE NEXT 3 YEARS : about EUR 240 billion.

TAX BENEFITS, LOW OPERATING COSTS, SYNTHESIS OF THE ADVANTAGES OF INVESTING IN BULGARIA

Tax benefits : . The territory of Bulgaria commands one of the most favorable tax regimes of the European Union. The tax rate too for the businesses is fixed flat to 10%. The tax rate for natural persons stands at 10% . However, for the businesses which decide to settle and operate in areas placed in the development plan of the Government or at high unemployment the tax rate is 0% .

Exemption from indirect tax : there are 2 years of exemption from indirect tax on the added value ( VAT ) for what concerns the import of machinery and equipment committed to investment projects in immobilizations or in fixed credit above EUR 5 billion which generate a return on employment, giving job to at least 50 employees.

Dividend: tax rate 5% on the dividends and liquidation quota (0% for the residents of the EU).

Cost of the work : Bulgaria has one of the most competitive costs of the work all over Central and eastern Europe.

Lease and Users : Bulgaria boasts very low lease costs for different types of offices and users .

Electricity : in Bulgaria the cost of electricity is very favourable, corresponding to 70% of the european average.

bulgaria-posizione-strategica-nei-balcani

STRATEGIC POSITION OF BULGARIA IN THE HEART OF THE BALKANS

Bulgaria is placed in the heart of the Balkans, representing a natural strategic logistic hub :

• LOGISTIC CORRIDORS: five European corridors Pan-European Corridors (IV, VII, VII, XI, X) which cross the country and give to Bulgaria a remarkable strategic importance for what concerns the connectivity with EU countries.

DOWNLOAD: Pan-European Corridors (English)

• TRACECA : transport program which connects Europe with Caucasus and the Central Asian region.

DOWNLOAD: Infrastructural development plan of the Bulgarian Ministry of Transports, until 2015 (English)

• AIRPORTS: 4 main airports Sofia, Bourgas, Plovdiv and Varna.

• PORTS: 2 ports Varna and Bourgas and different ports placed in the Danube river.

QUALITY HUMAN RESSOURCES IN BULGARIA

• HUMAN SKILLS: the workforce is excellent and highly trained in Bulgaria and speaks more than a foreign language.

• MEDIAN AGE : 62.2 % of the Bulgarian population is in the working age (about 4.6 million people)

• HIGH SCHOLASTIC-EDUCATION LEVEL: each year 60.000 students graduate

• LANGUAGESKILLS: 98% of the students of the high school study a foreign language (in most cases English) and 73% of the students study a second foreign language (German is the first for importance, French to follow, then Spanish and eventually Russian)

• INTERNET : the speed of access and web surfing through the internet in Bulgaria is one of the first for speed in Europe, furthermore the diffusion of the service allows the connection and the access to the internet for almost the whole of population and institutions.

THE CHALLENGES OF THE FUTURE FOR BULGARIA

Although in the last years Bulgaria invested and worked to improve the quality of many aspects of its socio-economic structure, there are some crucial themes for a further development which require attention for the future:

• Continue with the strengthening of the infrastructural network
• Continue with a further extension of the support given to the businesses in particular in terms of access to services and infrastructures
• Improve further the reduction of bureaucracy and fasten the practices
• Reform the justice

THE ROLE OF ITALIAN INVESTMENTS IN BULGARIAN TERRITORY (FDI)

Italy, besides having a key role in Foreign trade as second business partner of Bulgaria with over EUR 4 billion of trade in the last year, is a leading figure in FDI (foreign direct investment) for the Bulgarian economy, thanks to the investments made in Bulgaria from some big Italian businesses and different SME (small and medium enterprises).

In the time lapse passed between 1996 and 2014 the FDI Italian direct investments in Bulgaria, according to the official data of the Bulgarian National Bank, reached a total amount of over EUR 1,4 billion, figure which puts Italy among the main first ten investors in Bulgaria ( after the Netherlands, Austria, Greece, England, Germany, Cyprus, Russia, Switzerland and United States of America).

There is a solid delegation and a significant presence of big Italian enterprises like Enel, Assicurazioni Generali, Mapei, Edoardo Miroglio, Banca Unicredit and Rigoni di Asiago. Furthermore, also the presence of SMEs (Italian small and medium enterprises) of which 300 businesses associated to Confindustria Bulgaria is particularly intense.

The presence of Italian Businesses in Bulgaria has a significant impact also on the global national budget, contributing for around 5% towards the national GDP (gross domestic product), with about EUR 2 billion of annual turnover with consequences on employment for 25.000 jobs.

HIGHLY COMPETITIVE LABOR COST IN BULGARIA, AMONG THE LOWEST IN EUROPE

The labor cost in Bulgaria is one of the lowest among all the European countries. Actually, the average labor cost in this moment stands at around 490 euros per month (NSI data, National Statistical Institute Republic of Bulgaria, 2015).

Obviously, this is an average data, and in many areas of the country wages stand at lower salary levels. However, these areas of the country aren’t always provided with the same infrastructural level of the big urban centers or the main cities of Bulgaria.

At the same time, an excellent quality of the labor force can be detected, especially in the niches sectors and in the technical and informational fields. Some local realities like Plovdiv offer in particular excellent proportions between the labor cost and the quality of the work carried out by the staff.

TAX SYSTEM IN BULGARIA

An aspect that makes Bulgaria an attractive territory is also the tax field. In effects, for what concerns the taxation of the business and individuals Bulgaria offers a flat tax, with a flat rate at 10% for businesses and individuals.It is, as is the case for labor cost. One of lowest tax burdens in the EU (European Union). For what concerns indirect taxes, the VAT standard rate (tax on the added value) applied is equivalent to 20%, but for some specific cases a reduction of the rate to 9% is covered. The different executive governments ruling in the last years reaffirmed in different occasions that the flat tax remains also for the future one of the principles and strategic assets which will drive the fiscal policy of the country.

traceca-transport-corridor-europe-caucasus-asia

TRANSPORTS IN BULGARIA

Bulgaria represents an ideal bridge between UE and the countries of the Balkans, Turkey inclusive, as it is placed at the center of the southeast Europe. The country is a regular transitional point for five Pan-Europeans corridors (IV, VII, VIII, IX e X) and is part of TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia) AN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION created with the aim of promoting an effective infrastructural network between Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia.

The corridor VIII in particular, will link Bulgaria to Italy thanks to the ports of Albania. At the moment the Bulgarian government is investing in the adaptation of the railway and motorway networks. In effects the “Trakia” motorway, which is able to link the capital Sofia to the second most important city of the country, that is Plovdiv, and to the port of Burgas in the Black sea, has been finished. The “Struma” motorway stretch to follow, which will link Bulgaria to Greece. For what concerns the air transports the cities of Sofia, Plovdiv, Burgas and Varna are provided with international airports.

Moreover, in addition to national-flag airlines also the low-cost companies broke into the Bulgarian market strengthening the competition in the civil aeronautical sector. Eventually, it is fair to remember that Bulgaria has two of the most important ports of the Black Sea  in Varna and Burgas  and that the North of Bulgaria it’s part of the fluvial transport system of the Danube. This logistic asset, thanks to the Main Canal, allows the ships to travel and to cover directly the stages from the Black Sea to the North Sea.

bulgaria-fondi-strutturali-eu-unione-europea

HOW THE INSTITUTIONS AND THE EUROPEAN FUNDS AFFECT BULGARIA

The investments of the foreign countries in Bulgaria represent one of the main engines for the growth of GDP and the country. Therefore the attention for the international entrepreneurship is high. The membership to EU (European Union) makes the legal system of the country similar to Italian and other European countries standards. The Europan funds too, which have a great impact on the country, are very important. For the period 2007- 2013, EUR 6,8 billion were earmarked to Bulgaria through the EU Structural FundS. Particularly interesting and effective were also the funds allocated and disbursed through the Competitiveness Operative program, funds earmarked for private businesses. For the European Commission planning period of the European Structural Funds 2014-2020, EUR 7,4 billion have been allocated for Bulgaria, an important amount divided into 7 operative programs:

- Transports EUR 1,6 billion
- Environment EUR 1,5 billion
- Areas on the increase EUR 1,3 billion
- Innovation and competitiveness EUR 1,2 billion
- Human Ressources EUR 0.9 billion
- Governance EUR 0,2 billion
- Science and Education EUR 0,5 billion

To these funds follow the EU resources coming from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and others funds coming from the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) which allocate EUR 7,5 billion.

PRODUCT SECTORS OF INTEREST IN BULGARIA :

- Agricultural and Food sector
- Textile sector and clothing
- Leather industry and footwear
- Wood industry and furniture
- Energy, renewable energies and natural resources
- Chemical and pharmaceutical industry
- Rubber and plastics manufacture
- Glass and ceramic
- Metals manufacture
- Mechanics, precision mechanics, instrumental and durable goods
- Electronics
- Transport and logistics
- Constructions, building material, real estate and property activities.
- Other manufacturing industries
- Insurance and bank services
- Commerce and marketing
- Environment and ecology
- Informational services, ICT, communication
- Services to businesses
- Tourism, refreshment, hotels

PROMOTERS AND PARTNERS OF THE INITIATIVE:

CONFINDUSTRIA BULGARIA
P.zza Pozitano 2, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria
Tel: +359 (0) 2 8901420;
Fax: +359 (0) 2 8901424
segreteria@confindustriabulgaria.bg

INTERNATIONAL CENTER OF UNICREDIT BULBANK
1000 Sofia, 8 Aksakov Str.

ITA BULGARIA (Italian Trade Agency)
Bul. knyaghinya Maria Luisa, 2
Business Center TZUM, 1000 Sofia Bulgaria

OTHER PARTNERS OF CONFINDUSTRIA, 2016

- CONFINDUSTRIA BALCANI
- SIMEST (WORLDWIDE ITALIAN ENGAGEMENT)
- BE BULGARIA ENGINEERING
- ASSICURAZIONI GENERALI
- KRIB
- UNIVERSITY OF NATIONAL AND WORLD ECONOMY
- IL SOLE 24 ORE BUSINESS SCHOOL

SOURCES FOR THE ARTICLE: “Entrepreneurial Mission in Bulgaria”

- Confindustria Bulgaria
- www.confindustriabulgaria.bg

- International Center of UniCredit Bulbank
- http://www.unicreditbulbank.bg/en/index.htm

- ITA (Italian Trade Agency)
- http://www.italtrade.com/

- SACE
- http://www.sace.it/en

- SACE Country Risk Map
- http://www.doingbusinessibs.it/news/generali/country-risk-map-scopri-gli-strumenti-sace/?lang=it

- Ministry of Transport GOV Bulgaria
- http://www.government.bg/cgi-bin/e-cms/vis/vis.pl?s=001&p=0136&g=

- National Statistical Institute Republic of Bulgaria
- http://www.nsi.bg/en

- TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia),
- http://www.traceca-org.org/en/traceca/

- EU STRUCTURAL FUNDS
- http://ec.europa.eu/contracts_grants/funds_it.htm