Tag Archives: Scheda Paese

Tourism and Micro Credit in Morocco

turismo in marocco e micro credito

Where to create micro enterprise interested in the micro credit

Perspective view of the tourism sector in Morocco


Commitment: “To continue to make tourism a key driver of economic, social and cultural life of Morocco”

The profound and rapid transformation of the country as a whole over the past decade, the solid foundations laid down by the Vision 2010 and the opportunities offered by the new trends in world tourism, providing a source of great ambitions for the next decade based on core values and points of difference:

Authenticity: The Moroccan tourism for decades has chosen the consolidation of its development and positioning of its brand authenticity. This choice has become a real competitive advantage, which differs from its direct competitors engaged in mass tourism. The Vision 2020 would grow a historical choice through a proactive approach to the protection, conservation and enhancement of cultural and natural heritage of the Kingdom.

Diversity: in terms of tourism, the most important comparative advantage of Morocco is its diversity: diversity of territories and landscapes, the diversity of natural resources and ecosystems, the diversity of cultures and influences (African and European). the Vision 2020 promotes diversity through an ambitious program of land use.

Quality: while the development of new capacity remains a strategic goal, the Vision 2020 aims to significantly improve the competitiveness of the possible links of the chain of tourism, in particular: to deepen the culture of service and to develop an irresistible offer.

Sustainability: finally, on the basis of the general guidelines adopted for the entire country, Vision 2020 places sustainable development at the center of his ambitions. Morocco with its resources that have historically been stored in this way has a real and substantial potential for differentiation in a highly competitive perspective.

Ambition: “In 2020, Morocco is among the top 20 destinations around the world and emerge as a reference in the Mediterranean in terms of sustainable development”

Objective: “To double the size of the industry”

Doubling the carrying capacity, with the construction of 200,000 new beds with 150,000 hotels and 50,000 structures similar to provide visitors with a rich and dense tourist experience

As a result, increasing tourist arrivals, doubling market share in key European markets and traditional attracting 1 million tourists from emerging markets.
Also you want to triple the number of domestic travel, with the aim of expanding tourism in the country.
The tendency is to create 470,000 new jobs across the country, and use by the end of the decade, nearly one million Moroccans.

Increase revenue from tourism to 140 billion dirhams in 2020, a cumulative sum in the decade of almost 1 trillion dirhams.
Increased by two percentage points of GDP from tourism than the national GDP bringing it as close to 150 billion dirhams compared to 60 today.

Potential of Rural Tourism

The selection of rural tourism is potentially varied: ecotourism / nature, mountain sports, water tourism, wellness and relaxation.
The Moroccan market is characterized by biological diversity and the richness of flora and fauna, despite the great expansion of arid and desert (93% of the territory), and despite the poverty of many soils. It should be noted, however, that in the face of a wealth of wildlife, many species are endangered. Many sites are characterized by the value of their ecological variety and quality of the landscape. In particular this is the case in mountain areas, coasts and wetlands. The impressive number of species identified in studies largely reflect the current reality and unfortunately, many animal and plant species have disappeared or have become very rare and vulnerable, thus justifying a policy of protection and rational management based on the principle of the evaluation.

The different wealth in natural resources often in danger in Morocco involving the assumption of responsible behavior both nationally and internationally; and imposes a duty to ensure the perpetuation of wealth consists of these as The potential “natural” is very diverse. It includes sites that lend themselves to ‘observation, sightseeing tours, sports and favorable sites for ecotourism development of biological interest.

The natural sites are isolated centers of attraction that tourists visit during a transfer between two successive destination (such as a stop to the landscape Ito, during a trip to Meknes Tafilalt) or while hiking rapids from their place of residence (eg, a visit to Oukaïmeden from Marrakech or Agadir Imouzzer Ida or Tanane).
The scenic tours and discovery relating to famous sites and visits are organized into groups, with driving or renting a 4×4 investigating judge individually. The South Atlas of Morocco, with the valleys of the south side (Dadss, Mgoun, Todrha) Ksours and palm oasis presaharic, rock carvings and dunes are the main attractions that make up the attractions for tourists.

The sports sites are largely confined to the mountains. We distinguish many sites of rock climbing (especially in the High and Anti-Atlas), downhill skiing or cross country skiing (High Atlas of Marrakech region of Ifrane, Bou Iblane) present on websites, exploitable rivers for rafting and canyoning (Central High Atlas and Middle East Atlas), the rivers for sport fishing (especially in the Middle East Atlas) and numerous sinkholes, caves and sinkholes for caving.

The land areas involved

- Méditerranée (Tangier, Tetouan, etc.)
- Centre – North (Fez, Meknes, etc.)
- Oriental (Oujda, Taza)
- Centre (Home, Rabat, Kenitra, El Jadida, etc.)
- Grand Sud (Ouarzazate, Errachidia)
- Centre – South (Marrakech, Beni Mellal)
- Balnéaire South (Agadir, Essaouira, etc.)

EU funds – ENI Program

With a total budget of € 15.433 billion for the program 2014 / 2,120, ENI is the new European Neighbourhood Instrument, which provides EU assistance, aimed at creating a zone of prosperity, between the European Union countries EU and neighboring areas (partner countries), not having any prospect of joining the EU, but with which the EU has launched a neighborhood policy. It replaced the old ENPI.

This financial instrument will focus mainly on promoting human rights and the rule of law; development of a thriving civil society; sustainable and inclusive growth and economic development, social and territorial cohesion; mobilization and contacts, regional integration.

Main elements of the new program are: improved diversification of the support given by adapting the service to the needs and progress of the recipient countries; an incentive-based approach, so as to enable the EU to increase its support to countries that will achieve sustainable democracy and the agreed reforms; improvement of the rules on cross border cooperation programs between EU member states and partner countries, to facilitate their effective implementation and faster, closer links with the EU policies and instruments to enable the beneficiary countries and their citizens to participate Community programs in areas such as research and innovation, youth development of SMEs ect ..

Italian Development Cooperation STATE OF THE ART IN MOROCCO

E ‘was also signed April 9, 2013 a new Intergovernmental Agreement conversion of debt by EUR 15 million, which will fund initiatives under the national program Moroccan human development, conservation of the archaeological heritage and training of health personnel. Major Ongoing funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

- Support for Healthcare network of basic health services in the Province of Settat;
- Government and Society: Program conversion of debt in favor of efforts to combat poverty;
- Agriculture and Fisheries Olive – Olive implemented exploiting the local growers of Tadla-Azilal, regional project for the integrated management of pests in the country of the Middle East;
- Trade and industry: The fight against poverty in rural Morocco through support to micro-credit;
- Multi-sector: “Fund for Program coordination” – financial instruments and technical assistance to promote the continuation of the cooperation activities in Morocco;
- Migration and Development Project-regional consortia to promote development and export;
- Water and sanitation: Italian contribution to the Programme for water supply of the rural population – PAGER sets for the benefit of future generations. The operation guide is probably the most direct way to ensure recovery and therefore the conservation of these resources, as long as it is done with care.


On August 29, 2014 came into force the new Law “Rules General on international cooperation for development” (Law August 11, 2014 no. 125).
Council after 27 years by the old law governing the matter (Law 49/1987), Law 125/2014 defines the subjects, instruments, methods of intervention and reference standards based on changes acquired over the years in the international community, while allowing an adjustment of the Italian system of development cooperation models prevelanti partener in the countries of the EU.

The Interministerial Committee for Development Cooperation (CICS), consisting of departments involved in the subject matter of cooperative activities will be at the center of the new governance structure of the system and ensure coherence and cooperation coordianamento policy. Under the law now in force, the objectives of the new cooperation will focus on:

• Eradication of Poverty
• reducing inequalities
• affirmation of human rights and dignity of individuals
• conflict prevention
• support to peace-making

The objectives will be detailed and specified by the adoption of a document three years of planning and policy, approved by the Council of Ministers, after obtaining the opinion of the competent parliamentary committees, by March 31 of each year.

Law 125/2014 also defines a new management structure, providing for the birth of the Italian Cooperation for Development which will enhance existing skills and attract new ones, allowing also to grapple with how best innovative partnerships that exist today not normatively compatible with the existing set.

Integrated Development Project

In view of the foregoing, we believe that the possible intervention strategy can be considered in the integration, the project called Micro Credit and a developable project and in support thereof, and framed as supporting human development, such as continuity of action , framed in the funds available in the program (NIHD). You may also be (if compatible) pinpoints the invitation Community-sector cooperation on which to present the project as an additional funding request. Here then, we indicate the possible forms which could be based on the project development:

Module 1

Analysis of the impact of micro finance in Morocco
• The object of analysis, that the individual or family that enjoys the program of micro-credit;
• Randomness. One of the central problems of the impact analysis is to understand to what extent the observed changes in the client’s life can really be attributed to micro-finance program. This raises the question of determining the causal relationships between the variables considered. In order to solve this problem we must consider the question of the fungibility of credit, or the difficulty in determining by whom and in what manner is actually used credit, how much, and how much in fuel consumption for productive activities;
• Indicators. The indicators should have characteristics that make them available and easily applicable. They must also be easy to understand the interviewee, reliable, robust, sensitive, and must be applied at low cost;
• The measurement of income, which covers an important part in the evaluation of the condition of poverty;
• Evaluation of poverty: there are different ways to measure the level of poverty, but the most used are the visual indicators of poverty, ie those based on the quality of the house (House Index), or definitions and classifications given by the community (Participatory Wealth Ranking ) are tools used by many institutions as a starting point to define the level of poverty of potential customers. Two other very useful tools are often used in the impact assessment: indices of women’s empowerment and Exit Analysis; first need to look at what effect access to credit has had on the status of women and on gender relations, the second is a study of the reasons that lead customers to abandon the program for information on how to improve the work of the institutions .

Module 2

Development of a comprehensive system of micro-finance, with additional services needed, run by the Postal Bank Al Barid Bank
• Work to raise awareness and communication of services offered to beneficiaries;
• Diversification of financial products (examples: Social Work);
• Introduction of the service of Micro credit (loans individual and collective);
• Financial education customers;
• Support and advice for clients with low levels of education;
• Approach-oriented banked for financial inclusion and social satisfaction of social needs in emergencies and development of micro-entrepreneurship.

Module 3

Develop initiatives of micro entrepreneurship
• Development of training programs targeted to the acquisition of skills, administrative and fiscal management and also in the cooperative sector;
• Implementation of the development of micro-enterprise in the territory of Morocco including partnerships between non-profit organizations Moroccan and Italian in the areas identified by the program (NIHD).

Module 4

Areas of development of micro entrepreneurship
• Rural tourism, marine, cultural;
• Manufacturing Production craft;
• Agri-food production and sustainable organic;
• Service port for recreational boating;
• Services in the field of logistics.

Module 5

Promotion: Communication and Marketing
• Development of audio-visual and multimedia aimed at social communication, guidance, training, business development;
• Creation of commercial websites;
• Advertising campaigns;
• Themed Events.

Module 6

Monitoring of the project implementation
- Publication of the results during and after

Nigeria Country Profile

Nigeria Country Profile

Nigeria Scheda Paese - Country Profile


Official Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Area: around 925,000 sq. km
Population: around 169 million (world bank data 2013)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: 2,700 USD (World Economic Outlook Database, 2013)
Capital: Abuja (pop. 1.857 million)
Other important cities: Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna
State: Federation of 36 states, independent from the United Kingdom since 1st October 1960
Government: Presidential Constitutional Republic, the Head of State is also Head of Government
Religions: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% traditional local ones
Languages: English (official) and local ones

- 30.9% Agriculture
- 43% Industry
- 26.1% Services

According to United Nations’ estimates, Nigeria will develop a high population growth in the next 40 years, with a population that will be higher than 367 million inhabitants by then.
According to the latest projection over the next 10 years as carried out by the Global Construction Perspectives & Oxford Economics, the growth rate of the Nigerian construction industry, due to the rapid urbanization, will be the highest on the continent, equal to 6.4 billion USD by 2015.
Therefore, investment opportunities in housing sector will increase, even though they already have an excellent starting point in the current housing deficit, which lies between 12 and 16 million units, equal to approximately 200 billion USD.
Lagos is one of the 6 largest cities in the world (it currently has 20 million inhabitants and it is expected to grow up to 25 million by 2020). In the Nigerian construction industry there are mainly foreign companies, which control almost 95% of the market, including a large number of Italian ones, such as Cappa d’Alberto, Gitto, Impregilio, Salini, Borni, AG Ferrero, INTELS.


Forms of Direct Investment: Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Public and Private Limited Liability Companies

Obligation Local Partner: foreign investors can operate in Nigeria even without a local partner, except for engineering consultancy companies and for Oil & Gas sector where there are strong incentives with a local partner to 51% of capital.

Minimum Social Capital: the minimum capital requirement to set up a company open to foreign capital participation is 10000000.00 NGN (approximately 65000.00 USD).


Companies Tax treatment: the tax rate on corporate income is equal to 30%.

Repatriation of profits: The Monitoring & Miscellaneous Provision Act n. 17 of 1995 establishes that foreign investors are free to repatriate after taxes profits deriving from economic activities in Nigeria and through approved professionals. Dividends are taxed by a withholding tax of 10% except for dividends paid by a Nigerian company to another company that are exempt from it.


The Legal System is a mix of legislations: Common Law, Islamic law (12 northern states apply the Islamic criminal code based on the Koran’s teachings, the so-called “Sharia”) and Customary law.

The federal court system bodies are: the Supreme Court (composed of judges appointed by the Head of State on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council) and the Federal Court of Appeal.

Arbitration: the country has ratified the New York Convention of the 1958 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.


Convention to avoid double taxation on income deriving from aviation and shipping, with exchange of notes, signed in Lagos on 02.22.1977 and in force since 11 .09.1978.

Agreement on the promotion and mutual protection of investments signed in Rome on 27.09.2000 and in force since 22.08.2005


SACE Insurability conditions without conditions on sovereign risk, bank risk, private risk and the portability of SACE insurance policy for Export or Foreign Direct Investment in the country.

Poland – Business and SEZ – Special Economic Zones

Polonia scheda paese e ZES zone economiche speciali

Poland – Business and SEZ – Special Economic Zones


Poland can offer to an entrepreneur who decides to settle in the territory of Poland, a political and economic stability, low cost of production and distribution, government incentives, and easy access to European markets.


The Z.E.S. have been created in Poland as a result of the law of 20/10/94 Economic Development, published in the Official Gazette 1994, no Polish. 123 item 600.

Poland has as many as 14 Special Economic Zones SEZ to be active at least until 2026 through the appropriate legal framework. The Z.E.S. cover an area of 15,673 hectares in areas not inhabited; If an entrepreneur is setting up one of these areas, can enjoy a concessional aid and substantial public:

- Plot of land ready for investment at favorable price;
- Advice to assist the company and prepare to invest in;
- Municipal incentives and tax breaks on property taxes;
- For countries outside the EU reductions in import duty;
- Tax relief on the means of transport;
- Incentives for the hiring of staff (non-fiscal incentives);
- Incentives relating to investment procedures (non-fiscal incentives);
- Exemption from payment of income tax: it depends on the location and amount of the investment, and charges for the hiring of employees, the size of the company. The incentive varies from 30% to 50% depending on the region; in the case of small businesses there may be a further reduction of 20% with some restrictions to certain areas.

Investment of at least € 100,000 and investment as well as the jobs created must be maintained for at least five years (three years for SMEs).


Poland SEZ Special Economic Zones

Depending on the company’s Italian business sector, there are geographical areas where it is recommended for inclusion in the industrial sector due to the presence in the territory of the companies operating in this sector, therefore, for ease of retrieval of tangible and intangible resources / human with adequate professionalism and skills.

contact IBS by mail



Russia Unione Euroasiatica


Written and translated by Lorenzo Giusepponi
January 2018

The Eurasian Customs Union

Russia is currently interested in strengthening the Customs Union with Belarus and Kazakhstan, founded in 2010. As Ukraine is increasingly out of the Russian sphere of influence, we are now observing a further political and economic integration among the Union’s member states and a widening of its membership, with the participation of two more countries: Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The promotion of economic integration among the CIS ( Commonwealth of Independent States ) member states was first conceived in 1994, when these countries began discussing the opportunity of establishing the Eurasian Economic Community.

The acceleration of this process, however, only occurred in November 2009, when Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan signed an agreement for the establishment of a Customs Union characterized by a common external tariff, a common customs code, the elimination of non-tariff barriers and the distribution of incomes on a proportional basis, that is 88 percent to Russia, 7 percent to Kazakhstan and 5 percent to Belarus. The Eurasian Customs Union came officially into existence on 1 January 2010. Two years later, the three countries established the Eurasian Economic Space, a single market for the free movement of goods, services, capital and labor. In May 2014, the presidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan signed the treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, which came into effect on 1 January 2015. Armenia and Kyrgyzstan joined in the same year.

One question about this organization concerns the real possibility of achieving an effective economic union in such a short time, taking into consideration how much time it took the European Union to achieve the same goal. A second problem is related to the Customs Union’s membership. If the Union really wants to become an influential block between Europe and China, as President Putin has affirmed, the increase in the number of member states is a priority. In fact, the Russian economy accounts for almost 90 percent of the Union’s total economic volume, making the participation of Belarus and Kazakhstan almost symbolic. Belarus in fact depends on Russia economically, while Kazakhstan has joined just to have a market for the export of raw materials, rather than for the benefits of a common economic space.

The challenge of the Eurasian Economic Union also concerns the real economic benefits that it should generate for its member states. In 2011, trade between member states increased by more than 34 percent, and by 15 percent in the first semester of 2012. This result, however, seemed to be related to the post-crisis recovery of 2009, when the Russian GDP fell by more than 8 percent. By the second half of 2012, the growth of trade had already declined to 3 percent. According to some observers, such figures indicated the end of the Customs Union’s beneficial effects. Such trend was further confirmed during the first semester of 2013, which saw a -5 percent downturn in trade with Belarus and just a 2 percent increase with Kazakhstan. Finally, another difficulty that the Customs Union has to face concerns the entry of its member states into the WTO and the need for regional regulations to be in line with the multilateral ones.

Importing in Russia

Because of complex procedures, importing goods in Russia is not easy. The access of western products to Russia is difficult due to the sanctions imposed by western countries following the political tensions with Ukraine. In case of import declaration, the declarer has to be a Russian physical or legal person, except for physical persons importing personal effects. Non-residents can address to a customs broker, that is a person authorized to provide customs services to third parties.

For the import of some kinds of products (such as food commodities, medicines, detergents, cosmetics, perfumes, electric appliances and electronic components), it is necessary to have a certificate ensuring the products compliance to Russian standards as regards consumer protection and safety. The Rosstandart is the responsible body. The products requiring the certificate of compliance can be cleared only if they are accompanied by the Gost-R certificate.

Russia, as well as the European Union, uses the Commodity Description and Coding System, called “Harmonized System”. Commodities are usually subject to three kinds of taxes: the customs duty, the value added tax and, for some products, the excise tax. According to the kind of commodity, it is possible to impose specific, ad valorem and compound duties. The Russian tariff is divided into 4 sections according to countries. European countries benefit from the “most favored nation” clause, they are thus subject to the basic tariff.

The Gost R certificate

The Russian regulatory framework is different from the European one; it requires most products to be accompanied by a specific certificate proving that they meet Russian standards. The Gost is a system launched with the aim of protecting public health and the quality of the products in the Russian market. Such document can be issued by a Russian institution or a foreign one, as long as it is authorized by the Rosstandart. Most products have to be accompanied by this certification in order to be cleared and marketed in Russia.

Trade between Italy and Russia

Italian companies operate in the majority of Russian regions, but most of them are located in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Trade between Italy and Russia is still suffering from the effects of the economic and financial crisis that hit the country in 2014 – 15, as well as from European sanctions. In 2016, trade volume amounted to €17.4 billion, while in 2015, it amounted to over 21 billion. Italian imports have suffered the worst downturn (-46 percent). Fuels, which represent a considerable share of Italian purchases (65 percent), have confirmed the decline of the years before. Moreover, such sector curbed again in 2016, with a decrease of 31.2 percent compared to 2015. However, despite the reduction of the imported quantity, such figures also result from a decrease in the price of hydrocarbons.

Italian exports, which sharply contracted in 2015 ( – 25.3 percent ), saw again a 5 percent decrease in 2016. The sales decline affected several trade sectors; the machinery sector, which accounts for 26 percent of total exports, has registered a 21 percent loss. On the contrary, food commodities had a slight recovery in 2016 ( + 4.1 percent ) and the same goes for clothing ( + 6.2 percent ), chemical products ( + 9 percent ), pharmaceuticals ( + 3.2 percent ), rubber and plastic items ( + 12 percent ).

Today, Italy is the 6th main exporter to Russia and occupies the same position in imports. At European level, Italy is Russia’s second largest trade partner, preceded only by Germany. Prospects for Italian exports to Russia are improving, however, achieving the before crisis sales level is quite difficult. Sectors were investments are advisable are: electrical energy, gas, steam and air conditioning, pharmaceuticals, health, means of transport and foodstuffs.

Russia italian export to Russia


- www.ubibanca.com
- www.informercatiesteri.it

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South Africa Country Profile

Sud Africa Scheda Paese - Country Profile


Official name : Republic of South Africa
Surface : 1.221.041 sq. mt
Population : 55 million
GDP nominal : 723,5 billion USD
GDP per capita : around 13.154 USD
Capital : Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein; Johannesburg
Largest cities : Johannesburg (3.800.000), Durban (3.100.000), Port Elizabeth (1.500.000), East London (800.080), Pietermaritzburg (553.000);
Government : Unitary parliamentary republic
President : Jacob Zuma, elected in 2009 re-elected in 2014
Religions : Catholic, protestant e indipendentista
Lingua : 11 official languages; afrikaans, English, zulu, xhosa, tswana, sotho, tsonga, swazi, venda, ndebele
Currency : Rand (Z), Exchange rate: 1Euro=17,75 ZAR


The South Africa economy is the most developed African economy, it is divided into different developed sectors , and it represents one third of the African revenue.
40% of the continent industrial production;
25% of African GDP
50% of electricity generation
45% of mineral production

South Africa has complex infrastructures, productive manufacturing sectors and a highly developed service sector with an efficient financial sector and strong institutions.
It is a perfect country for investments and trades, especially with South Sahara areas, that provides the access to the south African region markets for trade, logistics and finance.
Main business activities are focused on metropolitan areas such as: Johannesburg, Durban / Pinetown, Cape Peninsula e Porth Elizabeth / UitenHage.

South Africa has a strategic position because it is crossed by a strong transport network, that links goods and people with eastern and western world. It is a management and distribution hub that allows to access to neighbouring countries.

South Africa has on average 4.8 billion (with a peak of 9.5 billion) dollars of foreign direct investments every year. Generally these investments aim to expand trades in neighbouring countries such as: Mozambique, Angola, Zambia, Kenya, Madagascar and Namibia.

South Africa ranks position:

1st country for possibilities of credit facilities and local banks loans.
10th country for local and foreign investments protection
35th country in the “ease of doing business” ranking. Italy and China position respectively 87th and 91st
The public sector has always had a key role to develop South Africa economy, however the government is working to involve private sector in governmental enterprises.


Agriculture: 3.8%
Industry: 31%
Service sector: 65.2%


The capital goods sector gives great investment opportunities, because South Africa is enlarging and modernising its infrastructures (with public investments), to promote a sustainable development for manufacturing productions but also for prime materials production and export.
Market spaces for intermediate goods: plants, agricultural and food service machineries, systems and equipments to produce, transmit and supply electricity, services and plants for telecommunications, products and services for highways, railways and planes; means of transport parts, mechanical goods for manufacturing industry, materials and equipments for constructions, civil works and civilian facilities, technologies for sustainable and renewable energy, security equipments and plants, technologies for environmental control and land protection; equipment for mining sector and IT technologies.
Consumer goods opportunities for leather and footwear, in other sectors there aren’t enough possibilities because of Asian countries competitiveness.
It is essential to encourage new investments in order to provide important technology investments, to hire local workforces and to manufacture goods intended to export.
According to the Department of Trade and industry (DTI), primary sectors are agri-food, chemical and pharmaceutical sectors ( 5% of GDP); automotive sector (6% of GDP) with 300.000 employees; transport sector, mining sector, energy and tourism sectors (3.4 of GDP with an average annual growth of 2.3%). In 2011 the Green Economy Accord was signed to create qualified green jobs in South Africa thanks to partnership between public and private sector. The goal is create by 2020 300.000 more jobs in the energy production, manufacture CO2 reduction products, agriculture for biofuel production, environmental heritage protection and sustainable tourism.
Other key points are: increase renewable energy consumption, produce ecofriendly stoves, use of trains for transport, creation programs to support sustainable projects and subsidies for a high educational program for young people.


In South Africa local and foreign investors are treated equally. Foreign investors are allowed to choose investment programs, type of business entity, kind of goods (except for defence and security goods) and use of internal funds.


Foreign companies are taxed only for the revenue made in South Africa and for capital gains of properties and assets income. Corporate income tax is 28%. From 2007 the Secondary Tax on Companies (STC), 10% on net shares of profit, added to the basic taxation have created a 36.89% tax. Branches and offices of foreign companies which operate in South Africa have a 33% tax on their profits.

The Private Company is the most common business entity, it can be composed of an associate/sole manager and a legal representative residing in South Africa. Subsidiary societies (society managed by other societies) and foreign branches are under the South African law and they must be registered.


- Double taxation agreements
- Agreements for investments promotion and protection
- Agreements for cooperation in arts, culture, education and sport fields
- Cinema coproduction agreements


Insurability conditions SACE (foreign trade insurance services) without possibility of sovereign risk, bank risk, private risk and insurance policy transfer SACE for export and foreign direct investments.




TANZANIA – An introduction on Africa and its resources; Country Sheet and Opportunities in Tanzania


Africa is generally a huge natural resources basin, and it enjoys a varied climate that allows a rich agricultural production diversity, typical of a temperate climate. Rich harvests of vegetables, corn, and grapevine are made; there is also a big variety of fruits typical of a tropical and equatorial climate. The geographical position of the African continent, which is surrounded by the sea, is a huge advantage for communication with other continents and countries. Fishing is allowed everywhere and it is very abundant, and it represents a significant additional resource. Nonetheless, differences in the level of development among African countries are very great; still a few number of African countries can communicate and establish a connection with the Western countries. Harsh economical, religious, health and cultural conflicts are slowing down the chances of these countries and of its citizen to grow. Unlikely as it seems, countries such as Libya, Kenya and South Africa, which have the potential required, are constantly in turmoil for political, racial or religious causes.


After examining the French-speaking countries in Africa (Morocco, Ghana, Guinea, Senegal) the focus is on an English-speaking country: la Tanzania.

- Population in Tanzania: about 47 million people.
- Capital: Dodoma.
- Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic LINK GOVERNMENT SITE
- Currency: Tanzanian shilling.
- Official languages: Swahili, English.
- GDP: $79.29 billion USD.
- GDP (PPP): $1713 USD.
- Requirements and conditions that grant a loan by SACE.
- Tanzania is among the founding member of WTO.
- Togheter with Kenya and Uganda, Tanzania is a member of the East African Community, established on 30/11/1999.
- Through “Africa Growth and Opportunity Act” Tanzania has trade agreements and a special treatment for exporting to the United States.
- Tanzania is part of “Convention Establishing the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency” (MIGA), and it is a member of “International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes”; Tanzania also signed an agreement for the promotion and protection of foreign investments with Italy in 2001.


Ex-Commonwealth colony, Tanzania benefits from the German colonisation after the First World War and from the English dominion starting in 1964; Tanzania’s independence followed, as the country became a Presidential Republic. A key-figure was the charismatic “Father Nyerere”, who is still remembered as “The man who showed the way to follow”: he managed to offer an example of brotherliness and peace, setting the conditions for the harmonious coexistence of Islamism and Christianism, the two main religions.

His followers followed that same path, including the President in charge. He has to be credited for creating the economic and political conditions to foster and increase foreign investments and assets.
The Tanzania Investment Act (1997), through Tanzania Investment Centre, regulates all foreign investments. This governmental agency coordinates and promotes investments through assistance to firms and foreign investors. Moreover, the Certificate of Incentives attests the status of investors in Tanzania. The “Mining Act” (1998) regulates authorizations as regards mining and oil concessions. The minimum capital in equity to invest in projects completely controlled by foreign investors is $300.000 USD, whereas to establish a company with a majority of Tanzanian investors, or under Tanzanian control, the minimum capital required is $100.000 USD. There are several different incentives and tax breaks according to the field and to the effect of the foreign investment on local economy.


- Being Tanzania a member of the “Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency” and of the “International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes” in this country there is full recognition of the private property and protection of foreign investments; furthermore, it is possible to transfer abroad all of the profits and some capital in currency.
- After the establishment of the “Special Economic Zones”, Tanzania has had tax advantages on investments, in areas in 25 parts of the Country.
- Cancellation or high reduction of duties on goods imported in the country linked to the established company.
- Complete deductions of the expenses for machinery, plants, buildings and structures linked to agriculture.
- Extension of VAT payment on real estate.
- Complete refund of DUTIES on imported raw materials.
- Removal of VAT on exported manufactured goods.
- Possible deductions, with favourable treatments, on depreciation of capital goods.
- As regards mining sector, there is no recovery of the annual reassessment in capital.
- Loss-making in company management can be deducted for tax purposes also the following year for a period of 5 years; for mining sector, that applies for an indefinite period, too.
- Tax breaks and quicker procedures for permissions and authorizations.
- Authorization to have expatriates in company management.
- Other facilitations according to the sector and the typology of the project.


Tanzania’s economy is being affected by the country’s agricultural vocation, which represents about 50 % of the GDP; nonetheless, due to the climate and the geography, cultivated areas are only 4% of the territory. The main products are tea, coffee, cotton, pyrethrum (extract from chrysanthemum, a natural insecticide), sisal, tobacco, cashew, corn, clove, wheat, tapioca, banana, and fruit. Another developing sector is cattle and goat rearing, and it employs 80% of the working population. Tuna and sardine fishing in inland waters for export is another relevant sector in Tanzania. Extractive industry, gold, diamonds and salt especially, is and expanding sector. There are also modest quantities Iron ore, coal, tungsten, lead, kaolin, magnesium, phosphate.

We would like to point out that in the last 20 years the extractive industry has carried on a stunning growth, which has attracted several multinational companies and the Small Scale Miners, a network of more than 2 million small miners. LINK OPPORTUNITY FOR INVESTORS IN MINING, GOLD, DIAMONDS

Tanzania has always cared about schooling, carrying on several welfare political actions since German and English colonization, all aimed to reach not only the biggest urban centres, but also the most isolated villages. However, education still does not cover efficiently all of the territory, and that should gradually change.

Religion in Middle and Far East and Africa is usually a delicate theme, and it is often a cause for conflicts and troubled coexistence. In this sense, Tanzania is a one of a kind: since its independence in 1964, it has been an actual religious oasis. Here, Catholics and Muslims live together and collaborate, following the indications of the various Presidents that have followed in the United Republic of Tanzania. Strangely enough, this happens also in small villages, where there are people who practice different religions. Even though Muslims usually get more resources, there still are other donations for building places of worship for different religious communities.


Child mortality in Tanzania is caused by water, which is often not drinkable or unavailable; this increases the spread of diseases like typhus, diarrhoea and respiratory diseases.
Other causes of the chronic growth of mortality are the scarceness of food in quantity, quality, and energy input; the absence of basic measures of protection like mosquito nets against malaria, a disease sleep-related. Another alarming fact linked to health, rather recurring, is the condition of local miners: they risk serious diseases, including cancer caused by barehanded mixing of the gold sludge, which contain mercury. Considering that hospitals are mainly located in big and very far residential areas, healthcare is generally lacking; hopefully foreign investments can help building new efficient structures with time, or at least creating local structures like small pharmacies, provided with pharmaceutical products and vaccines, along with the help of some medical and paramedical staff all week long.

Water is a precious and vital resource for any village or community, for survival and for foreign direct investments. Thus, it is essential to intervene by creating stable, permanent natural deposits and drinking water plants; and for increasing necessities, by building artesian aquifers. The favourable weather conditions, which allow some harvests during the year, encourage the creation of suitable irrigation systems near lakes or rivers.

According to the last ten years’ experience, heads of the family worry every day to maintain their beloveds, despite salaries are often meagre and the habit of spending in alcoholics and beverages large parts of those salaries. It is therefore desirable that foreign investors should give higher salaries, as people deserve, and to educate them to restrain themselves from alcohol, reassuring them that they will get what they need for support their families. Moreover, the creation of small local shops away from the big cities supplied with products such as corn flour, wheat flour, rice, milk, vegetables and non-alcoholic beverages would also reassure those who earn an income about constantly supporting their families.

Tanzania for investors and backers: concessions for gold and diamond mines

Tanzania for investors and backers: concessions for gold and diamond mines

Tanzania investitori finanziatori miniere d'oro, giacimenti auriferi, concessioni aurifere, concessione aurifera

Tanzania: opportunities in MINING sectors for international investors and backers; gold mines, gold deposits, gold concessions, diamonds


International investors and backers are sought for a project in Tanzania involving gold. Attached and detailed documents concerning a complete Business Plan and feasibility studies are available subject to subscription NDA (NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT). It is also possible to obtain a concession in a 45 sq km area in Tanzania with diamond deposits; nonetheless, it is not possible to publish any of this information in this document, thus we require that you register as a reliable spokesperson by CONTACTING US





Your new company will establish in Tanzania, in order to undertake a gold mining project in Matinje and Kilabili, two towns in the Igunga District in the Tabora Region and Shinyanga.
The plant will be located next to the villagae of Matinje – Kilabili, in the area covererd by PML, which will be bought or leased by the new society.

Mining equipment include:

- Processing plant. + Knelson C + Add. Ball M. + Chemical Laboratory;
- Lorry (ies) with cranes (10 tons) and dumpers;
- 4×4 Car (s) + Van to transport employees;
- Shovels+ excavator;
- Fork lift + equipment + tools;
- Cisterns for diesel;
- N°10 kits for mechanizing shafts: jackhammer, compressors, bits, ventilation equipment, elevator hoists, water pumps, portable generators, security kits, and more;
- N°10 Water deposit cisterns;
- 20 tons lorries;
- 200 Kw generators with control panels;
- Core drill;
- 15/20 t Crane;
- Technical, geological, sanitary, security and environmental impact equipment.

The project will produce an income for both the producers and the inhabitants of the area interested in it: it will revamp local economy by creating new vacancies and strengthen trade, which is linked to the mining sector. Technical services, geological and geochemical studies, along with surveys, drillings, mining activities planning, security, environment and health management will be exclusively managed by the new society. Through an environment-friendly plan, there will not be major environmental impact. Leaching with iodine will be used, instead of the cyanide-based one that multinational corporation prefer: this process is more affordable and environment-friendly. The project will have positive economic and social outcome.


The main goal is to seize a business and an investment opportunity: there are three different ways to fulfil the project development procedures and its objectives. Those can be combined.


Financial exploiting will start by choosing the right gold deposits: they will be chosen through geological studies, satellite and air collections of data and geophysical survey, sampling and laboratory testing. Secondly, Report of Resources will be drawn, and afterwards edited by specialized societies ( S.G.S Switzerland, OMAC Northern Ireland, etcetera. ); finally, specific certificates will be issued as credit lines for financial management on platforms. This will take up to 10 to 12 months, if liquid assets still exist; the minimum expenditure for the investment is 3 million euros average. The certificates may be inserted in the Stock Exchange, thus be sold to potential investors, with high investment returns.


Certificates enable the investor to extract, process and trade gold, besides financial exploiting through underground trenching and vertical shafts complete with mechanization kits (open pit or open-air extraction included). Should the investor be interested in extraction, the project provides to a further minimum investment of 3 million euros average, with an implementation period of 10 – 12 months if liquid assets exist. A iodine-based processing system will eliminate the risk of the cyanide system, which has traditionally been used by big companies operating in this field: it involves cyanidation and mercury, both highly toxic elements which cause serious illnesses and deadly environmental impact.


This third option might allow taking advantage of concessions that have already been “analyzed” through open vertical shafts and existing lodes of gold, which have been previously assigned to local miners. We may buy those concessions, or get in a JV Joint-Venture; it will be given to the new society at least 90-95% of the value, seen the financial investment brought to the project. Any of these options will guarantee tangible return in a very short time, because the product is paid on delivery after verification; the compound return benefits from such quickness.



The procedure allows planning the investment on its own (geological studies, geophysical survey etc.) releasing the Certificates and using them to financial management on platforms, it also allows creating a start-up for excavation, processing and trading products. Thus, it is possible to limit the investment to the Certificates or to pair it to the mining project.


People may think that the mining sector might be a slow one, nonetheless it is a key feature of the project to capitalize time, so that the whole investment will last 5 years, which might be hastened to 3 years.
Reducing time can be possible by concentrating the assets at most, realizing increased output and profits.


Such a profitable investment allows to achieve the expected goals, besides having the best commodity guaranteed and assured by international and global transactions.


Profits will come quickly, reducing the gap between costs and incomes. This is an advantage in the present globalized system, and it reduces risks in transactions.


In the Feasibility study, which is a decision-making tool for attracting interest to the investment, the values taken into consideration assume a major importance. As regards the business plan and the anticipated profits, a prudential assessment will be drawn, in full respect of the professional ethic.


Diversification is included in the Feasibility study and as a strategy “in progress”.


Our Italian customer offers:

- the possibility to obtain several concessions (n. 32 per ha. 41,8) and to get a selected list of additional concessions, which will be verified in order to acquire the best ones;
- ten-year experience, which will allow to speed up African bureaucracy, shortening times and becoming operative rapidly; creating a productive financial start up in a few months’ time, overcoming difficulties that would normally take years to be solved;
- strengthened and prized relationships with professionals of the mining sectors: mining engineers, government geologists and freelancers in the capital city Dar es Salaam;
- all of the best specialists and geologists, along with the Geological Survey of Tanzania will take you and your business into great account; the Geological Survey of Tanzania is the first national authority in terms of geological studies.
- privileged relationship with the Regional Institution of the Ministry of Mines of Shinyanga: this one represents 90% of the national mining sector, and it includes the main multinational companies of this sector, such as Golden Pride, Barrick, Geita, Anglogold and Kahama;
- privileged relationship with the person in charge for this region and with the Principal Geologist of Ministry, both available to collaborate to this project: it will hugely increase its professionalism;
- innovative industrial technology, like the latest-generation iodine systems, which enables the plants to be moved when needed. It also provides for the workers and the small scale miners: they will be working in a much healthier environment and they will benefit both from an economical and a social point of view;
- professionalism is guaranteed; moreover, you will have eight stable trusted partners.


1. primary crusher - foto impianto di frantumazione
2. secondary crusher - foto impianto polverizzazione -  mills
3. foto polverizzazione e prima miscelazione
4. foto vasche di decantazione con agitatori
5. foto inizio del filtraggio del materiale aurifero
6. foto filtrazione finale
7. foto procedimento di osmosi inversa
8. foto collegamenti





Tunisia Scheda Paese


- Official name: Tunisia;
- Tunisia surface: 163.610 km2;
- Population: 10.480.934 million of which 17.7% is labour force;
- GDP: 45.407 million $
- GDP per capita: 4.213 $
- GPD forecasted growth: more than 3.3% ;
- Capital: Tunisi around 2 million citizens;
- Other cities: Hammamet, Susa, Tabarka, sea cities with a high flow of tourists, industrial Sfax, Qayrawan (Kairouan), religious capital, Tozeur, Gabéz, Biserta, last city before the desert, Douz (also known as “The desert door”);
- Government: Unitary semi-presidential republic;
- Main religions: Muslim, Catholic minority, Jewish;
- Languages: Arab, French (around 63% of the population speak it);
- Currency: Tunisian dinar



- Political changes and the Revolution have been made in order to ensure stable conditions ;
- Economic and policy reforms;
- The economic opening-up supports foreign investments ;
- Important strategic position due to its geographic position as an access to Africa and “zero problems with neighbours”
- Actions in order to intensify and diversify foreign relations;


- The democracy is “in progress”;
- Risk of terrorist attacks.



The economic dynamism of Tunisia has developed important production plants, very productive, especially in the service sector. Currently trade and tourism sectors are the main puller of a fragile economy.
Other important sectors are agriculture and the transformation of agricultural products, local craftsmanship, and mineral extraction (oil,lead, silver, zinc and mercury).
Other important aspects :
- Sing up of the FTA (Free Trade Agreement) in 1995.
- Inflation around 6%;
- The relation between foreign trade volume and GDP is around 49,5%; Tunisia integration in the international trade system is excellent.
It is important to underline that Tunisia economy rely a lot on foreign trades. According to world report on Davos competitiveness, Tunisia ranks among first places for its competitiveness( 40th in 133 countries for and 35th for infrastructure quality); the report Index of Economic Freedom, ranks Tunisia 95th on 179 countries and 12th on 17 Middle-East and North Africa countries, with a “mostly unfree” Index of Economic Freedom.
Moreover Tunisia has started to liberalise foreign trade since 1990, becoming member of G.A.T.T. Currently, foreign trades are based on the law n.94-41 of 07/03/1994.

TUNISIA has also signed many bilateral trade agreements that contribute to consolidate the position and the subscription of the international framework, in particular:

• Bilateral agreement that creates a free trade zone in Tunisia;
• Agadir fee trade agreement between Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia
Signed and subscribed in 2004;
• Bilateral agreements with Libya Iraq and agreement with Gulf countries to create a free trade zone.
TUNISIA is a CIRDI member and supported in May 2012 the OECD declaration for international investments and multinational companies.


- Balanced country and commercially attractive;
- Structural reforms implementation;
- Basic economic indicators are solid;
- Strategic geographic position;
- Access to many markets and diversification through different bilateral agreements with African countries;
- Growing domestic market and young population;
- Tourism sector has a continuous growing.


- Young democracy;
- Dependence increased by foreign capital flows and investors trust;
- Tunisia depends on foreign energy supply;
- Deficit of current accounts;
- Corruption.


- Clothes/textile;
- Iron and steel sector;
- Car sector;
- Banks;
- Costruction of big infrastructures;
- Air and sea transport
- Environment and Ecology;
- Renewable energies and sources;
- Personnel training;
- Tourism;
- Craftsmanship;
- Agriculture.


The construction industry is one of the most important sectors in Tunisia.There are around 20.000 companies with a turnover of 3.000 million € per year.

That is 10% of Tunisia turnover and around 7% of its GDP, for this reason the construction sector is the fourth most important sector of Tunisia economy ( after textile, clothes, agri-food and agricultural sectors). However cements is the most exported good.


Since 1995, after the have signed up the Association Agreement with EU (in effect since 1998), the Tunisia opening to the foreign trade has progressively increased in order to prepare the country to the definitive access at the free trade zone with the European Union which has been completed, for industrial products, in 2008. Tunisia has created a series of important structural reforms in order to improve the competitiveness of its economy, to support private investments, to rely more on its business and to modernise its financial and bank systems.

From several years the Italian cooperation has contributed to supports the balance of payments; a 95 million € credit program that has started in 2012. Despite important reform progresses in order to rebalance development banks and policies against laundering, Tunisia financial system does not completely answers to investors expectations, because there isn’t competition nor innovation.
Tunisia Central Bank has started a decreased the regulation system giving to credit companies a higher flexibility in the classification of risky loans. In this way, it has given considerable amount of money to te financial system.

This politics has created a re-financing dependence between many companies and the Central Bank. Risky credits, represented around 13% of the loan portfolio of the banking system.
The banking system is divided, with more than 20 credit companies that represent 100% of the GDP, with a 11 million people population.
In Tunisia the government controls around 40% of the sector, this has negative effects on productivity, overall efficiency and the creation of innovative structures.
A risk for the Tunisian economy is the increase of the deficit, due not only to the increase of interests on public debt, which is constantly increasing, but in particular to “peace” policies of temporary governments that have indulged the increase of minimum wage, created thousands of new jobs in the public sector, post-crisis compensation costs, and supported retail prices for commodities.

In 2013 the value of Tunisian dinar have decreased of 12%. It was due to unbalances between demand and offer (weaken because of the crisis of the biggest export companies) and the demand of foreign currency (increased by higher imports). The crucial variable for the development of Tunisian economy in short and medium period is the recovery of social and political balance and adequate security conditions. Because of the continuous Tunisian export market fragility, this recovery will have to be based on the main components of the domestic demand (families consumption and investments).

Consumption is subjected to a negative influence both from uncertain salary prospects and from the decreased availability of finances from banks. Tunisia is committed to take important actions to improve the banking system. The main problems are assets quality weakness and limited levels of capitalisations, especially for public banks. The public bank consolidation strategy wants to create an Asset Management Company (AMC) that has to absorb non-performing loans of the sector. The AMC will be on effect for nine years but is not certain whether it will work on NPL or just those linked to tourism sector.


After a series of bilateral agreements (also with the EU) Tunisia can be considerer an excellent access to the North Africa area; in Tunisi there is the Mediterranean Centre of Renewable Energies (MEDREC) IMET, which is a perfect context fro contacts and information on renewable energy sector in the wide Maghreb area.
Indeed the Maghreb region has an high potential for renewable energy development, especially for solar and wind-power energy. It is foreseen that the use of these energies will strongly increase in the near future.

Renewable energy projects, currently in the framework of bilateral agreements between IMET and Tunisia, will be part of the MEDREP. Future projects will focus on the electricity distribution to rural isolated populations, thorough a small scale electricity network. It is important to pursue an increased and accelerated integration of renewable energies in the national electricity network, with the goal of reaching a balance on the network, between demand and offer.

The idea is indemnify the global approach of the introduction of renewable energies (in particular solar and geothermic energies) in the construction sector according to the norms in force for energy efficiency: MEDA results programs for the integration of solar technologies in the sector. Moreover, focus on the sea water desalination, in order to increase potable water stocks and the availability of water resources for irrigation. Increase the use of pumps that work with solar, wind-power, biomasses energies in the farming sector.

Another area of interest is the diffusion of refrigeration systems for food storage, renewable energy systems, in farms and fish shops; the goal is promoting in urban areas the use of solar system at home, the installation of small wind-turbines or energy technologies that work with biogas and biomasses;


The progressive improvement of socio-economic conditions, even if slowly and with limits in the real access for the entire population to fundamental services, and an increased attention to health topic, are important factors for healthcare , sanitary and pharmaceutical markets in which work the main multinational companies of this sector. The current Tunisian government is improving healthcare establishments, extending, among the other things, also services opening hours. Industrial Tunisian pharmaceutical production regards around fifty companies with 50.000 employees. The production is focused on therapeutic and preventive drugs 45% are generic drugs.

Tunisian drugs production covers 50% of the domestic real needs. Added to the Tunisian national production, Tunisia has to import drugs from France (44% of imports), Germany, Switzerland and Italy (6%) for a total amount of 550 million TND (270 million €), with an average rate growth of 10% per year. 98% of imported drugs have a therapeutic purpose. Tunisia export are around 15 million €, 60% is exported to North Africa, in part in Europe (France, Belgium; Switzerland) and only a few to other African countries. Recent evolution, concern the development of a cooperation agreement between the Tunisian government and the British company”Hygiene Worldwide” in order to supply to the healthcare national service a liquid with bacterial properties “Genie” which doesn’t contain alcohol in order to respect Koran rules.


Currently the main branch of service sector are the telecommunication and IT (Information technology) that in the last years have been supported by the government, in order to make Tunisia a regional hub, capable of linking the African continent, Middle-East, Europe thanks to its strategic position in the Mediterranean Basin. Currently trade is the second sector, followed by tourism that despite the decrease after the 2011 revolution , is an important sector for Tunisia future. Bank and finance sectors liberalisation and privatisation processes are an obstacle to the attraction of new foreign capitals and to improve the access to the credit by companies, despite past improvements.


Textile and clothes are 35% of the overall Tunisian production and attracts investors for 15% of the overall manufacturing sector. Around 90% of Tunisian companies working in the textile sector works in the clothing sector and in the knitwear packaging. In this branch work thousands of companies, of which around 2000 have more than 10 or more employees. Among those 83% are exporting companies, which is 41% of the manufacturing industry. Tunisia is a large producer of clothes for third parts, thanks to its low cost labour and for its strategic position in the middle of the Mediterranean, moreover, near to a wide and rich market of potential buyers. Companies with more than 10 employees are around 200.000 and 178.000 are totally engaged in the export and 17.000 employees work in companies with a partial export, this underlines the Tunisian vocation for exports.

2/3 of foreign capital companies are owned by foreign people. 350 from France, 240 from Italy, 82 from Germany and 120 from Belgium. The division and distribution of countries that invest in the textile sector in Tunisia represent its political and economic relations. In 2010 before the “Jasmine Revolution”, that have slowed down the main sectors of the economy, the Tunisia textile sector export toward the most important Tunisian market, the European Union, it reached 2.3 billion €. Even if Tunisia has less citizens than Morocco, it is the 5th largest EU supplier , after China, Turkey, India and Bangladesh. The main EU clients of Tunisia are France (36%) Italy (32%) and Germany (10%)


Agri-food sector is a strategic sector for Tunisia. Companies of this sector are around 1000 and 18% work only in the export. There is a national inclination for agricultural production , food transformation and food for domestic consumption. Employees working in companies with more than 10 employees are 70.000. One of the features of this sector that we signal is that 11% of agricultural sector companies and food transformation , are supported by foreign finances,only 2.8% is totally owned by foreign investors. Italy has 40% of foreign participations in this sector, France around 35%. As it is for other sectors of the country the proximity with our country is at the same time and advantage but also a limit for the competition with our companies.

There are several ways to penetrate the agri-food sector, however the best two are bought local companies or participate in existing companies. Currently the agri-food sector situation doesn’t allow an horizontal expansion with the buying market quotas, but is better to enter in local companies specialised in food transformation and production processes mechanisation. There are many investment projects in this sector, some of those collected 2 million €. However, it is important to underline that the territorial proximity, excellent trade political and cultural relations, could persuade soma Italian companies to modernise the Tunisian industry through a continuous growth, the creation of high-tech machineries in order to transform, store and package products. Tessuto industrial of Tunisia


Analysis of the creation of a society in Tunisia. Tunisian trade code has 6 kinds of business entity:

- S.A – Anonym society
- S.A.R.L. – (limited reliability companies)
- S.U.A.R.L. – ; Limited reliability one-man company
- S.N.C – General partnership;
- S.C.S – Limited partnership companies;
- S.C.A. – Limited partnership joint-stock companies
Most spread business entities in Tunisia are Anonym Society (S.A.) Limited Reliability Societies (S.A.R.L.) and Limited Reliability One-man Company (S.U.A.R.L.); these societies are ruled by laws alike to European laws, in particular French ones.
For societies with a foreign participation, the Tunisian investment code supports the creation of:
- Foreign company branches: in order to establish a branch it is necessary to create and give to the authorities the original copy of the company statute or the equivalent certificate of corporation, with attached the company address or the address of the main bureau;
- Partnership: there is no limitation for number of partners; however every partner is responsible for company debts. The law does not provide the obligation of account revision and it is not necessary to publish budgets;
- Joint venture: This type is supported through government agencies, and JV can be created both with a partnership and as limited companies. Tunisian law rules the majority of trade activities, and JV can be established only after a formal application, and after the deposit of declaration, released by authorities:
- A.P.I.I. – Agency for the promotion of industry and innovation , for every industrial activity and services linked to industry;
- CEPEX – Center of exports promotion, for projects linked to international trade;
- A.P.I.A. – Agency for the promotion of agricultural investments, for projects in agricultural sector, agri-food and fishing sector;
- O.N.T.T. – National body for tourism, for projects in the field of tourism;
- O.N.A.T. – National body for craftsmanship, for craftsmanship activities;


Law number 93-120 regulates subsidies for entrepreneur investments in Tunisia, Tunisian or foreign investors, resident or not, also in the joint-venture form. JV are supported by government agencies and they can be established with a partnership or by limited companies.
Moreover it is important to underline that the Tunisian fiscal system has been reformed. The 16th May 1979 the Italian and Tunisian Republics have signed and subscribed in Tunisi the Agreement to avoid double taxations on the revenue, in order to avoid tax evasions, through a protocol, in force since 17th September 1981.
The agreement on double taxation is adopted to residents in one or both signing States (Italy and Tunisia) and it is applied on revenue taxations withdrew for every signing country, through administrative or political subdivisions, whatever the withdraw system is.
Taxes on the overall revenue, taxes on the purchase of movable or immovable assets, taxes on the total amount of salaries paid by companies, and taxes on added value. It is interesting to underline subsidies for export societies.

Society that only export are:

- Societies whose production is intended only for exports;
- Societies that work abroad or in Tunisia but giving services abroad;
- Societies that work only with foreign companies or in free zones or with foreign financial institutes;
Export companies have a taxation similar to those of the free zones except for administrative orders limitations after 2015.
Best subsidies give the possibility of a total exemption from revenue taxes and revenues of first ten years of activity and a 50% reduction for the following years. Extension of the period in which the revenue deduction is in effect (and export profits).
Fiscal relief on revenues and profits re-invested in the initial capital or to increase on condition of minimum taxation.
Fiscal relief on profits re-invested in the company, on condition of minimum taxation.
Faculty and possibility of import (total exemption of rights and taxes) goods needed for the company production.
Total exemption from registration rights and VAT on company activities.
Possibility of earning on the domestic market 30% of the income.
Possibility of hiring at most 4 foreign employees or workmen.


- Trade agreement with 41 countries;
- Free trade zone agreement with 11 countries;
- Multilateral agreements with 50 countries;


- Bilateral agreement to create a free trade zone with Turkey;
- Agadir free trade agreement with Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia signed in 2004;
- Bilateral agreements with Libya, Iraq, and other agreement with Gulf Countries in order to create a free trade zone;
- Arab League multilateral agreement;
- Arab-Mediterranean free trade zone;
- Free trade agreement between Tunisia and EU.


The Tunisian judiciary system is based on French right.
2014 Constitution is very advanced compared with near countries constitutions. It has been drafted according to democratic constitutionalism and parties request, inspired to Islam, in the Constituting Assembly.

Tunisian judiciary institutions are:

- 1 Court of Cassation;;
- 10 Appellate Courts;
- 23 Courts of first Instance;
- 83 Cantonal Courts;



Tunisia and the Arab Spring: the success of the Awakening

Tunisia Arab spring

Tunisia and the Arab Spring: the success of the Awakening

Author: Pierre Varasi
January 2015

The 23rd November 2014 Tunisia dealt with its first democratic elections since its birth in the ‘50s, after obtaining independence. Since that moment, the Neo Destour party, one of the most repressive and authoritarian of the Arab world, has led the country. The demonstrations that since the end of 2010 have concerned all Tunisian cities, originating the so-called ‘Jasmine Revolution’, inspired the Arab Spring, considered a revolutionary movement that should have brought democracy to all the states involved (from Morocco to Yemen). Unfortunately, in most of them what the Arab Awakening left has nothing to do with democracy: instability is everywhere, with a civil war in Syria, militaries in power in Egypt and terroristic groups that threaten peace.

Tunisia is perhaps the only exception among these countries, the silver lining of years of internal fights. The elections, followed by a second ballot the 22nd December, saw the victory of Bèji Caïd Essebsi, of the moderate party Nidaa Tounes, that defines itself as secular, social democratic, liberal and innovative. The party won with the 55.68% of total votes, opening a new chapter of Tunisia’s history, and this should bring to the country’s stabilization.

We are now waiting for the creation of the government, expected this month, and from that moment, it is all downhill. Nonetheless, as always in today’s globalized world, internal work, as necessary as it is, will not be enough. Before the protests that began in 2010 the 7% of the country’s GDP consisted in tourism, and it will be difficult to bring it back to those levels, after these hard times. Economy has almost always gone hand in hand with democracy, and as much as the causal connection is not clear, it is easy to understand that a working economy will be in the next months one of the most important factor in deciding the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of the new government, its length and outcome.

While in a stable country economic problems can lead, in the worst scenario, to new elections, in a democratically fragile and young state, close to even more unstable countries, we cannot consider the attempts to make things work properly unlimited. Politicians and the population itself cannot underestimate the risk of an ‘authoritarian fall back’. An economic growth is definitely more important here than anywhere else. The institute of microcredit, which was born in Bangladesh in the ‘70s, has a decisive role here, as in all ‘Third World’ countries; however, the growth has to come both from the government as well as from national and international entities to be enduring.

Reforms have already begun, and from January 2015 the new financial law will be effective. Presented by the finance minister Hakim Ben Hammouda, the law includes, among different actions, that the offshore companies operating in Tunisia will be able to allocate 50% of their production to the sale in local markets, limit previously of the 30%. Moreover, investments will be encouraged with the reduction of taxes for new industries and with the revision of VAT to 6% for imported machineries.

Foreign investment will save Tunisia, and the government knows it, as the economic provisions show. Funds from the EU, that in 2014 has invested around 201 million euro in its economy and territory, will help the country too. Ten more million have been recently donated through subsidies, such as helping small agricultural entrepreneurships that will absorb five of these. Two will be invested in the management of a program for agricultural development, and the remaining three will reinforce an already existing program that works in the Medenine governorship, still with an agricultural and environmental aim.

In 2015, the International Monetary Fund predicts a growth of 3%, a decrease in the level of inflation, especially thanks to the recent fiscal reforms that the government is implementing, and a deficit decrease from 7.9 to 6.6% of GDP. The forecasts are therefore positive, and this will not only have consequences for the economy, which will definitely grow, but it should bring political and social stability. The stabilization and growth of the country is nonetheless threatened by the tensions in the Maghreb region and in the Middle East, and in particular by what is going to happen in Libya. Only a direct response of the Govern to social problems as youth unemployment and gender inequality present in the country will make Tunisia the very first success of the Arab Spring.

- Euronews.com
- Lastampa.it
- Ifm.org
- Ansamed.info
- Africaneconomicoutlook.org

Turkey country profile

Turchia Scheda Paese - Country Profile

Turkey country profile


Official name: Turkey
Surface: 783.562 km2
Population: 79.6 million (2012) Labour force 26.7 million
GDP: 751.3 billion $ (2012)
GDP per capita: 9.562 $ (2012)
Expected GDP growth: 5% (currently 16th world economy)
Capital: Ankara
Other important cities: Istanbul (13.9 million), Izmir (4 million), Bursa (2.7 million), Adana (2.1 million)
Government: Unitary parliamentary constitutional democracy
Religions: Muslim, Christian and Jewish minorities
Language: Turkish, other minorities
Currency: Turkish lira



- Government stability
- Economic and political reforms
- Start of EU accession negotiations in 2005
- Redrafting soldiers role in politics
- Strategic depth and “zero problems with neighbours”
- Regional assertiveness
- Soft power/ mediator
- Intensification and diversification of foreign relations


- Democracy “in progress”
- Freedom of expression
- Kurdish question
- Weak opposition
- Gezi Park protests
- EU access negotiations deadlock
- Cyprus problem
- Deterioration of relations with Israel


With more than 75 million people (more than a half between 25 and 35 years old) and a growing GDP, Turkey is an interesting country for foreign investments. Indeed, after the term BRICS, famous economists have created a new term to indicate new emerging economies MINT (Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, Turkey).
Turkey has a fast-growing economy in a balanced political and economic context , a liberalised market and a reliable investments field with excellent infrastructures. Moreover there are advanced transport and telecommunication networks and new incentives to support a growing domestic market. Turkey has a highly qualified competitive and low cost labour market. Furthermore it is near to important markets and it has strong relations with Caucasus region, Central Asia, Middle East and Africa.

Other important aspects:

- The comparison between foreign trade volume and GDP was 49.5% in 2012; Turkey is perfectly integrated in the international trade system.
- Liberal model:Turkey has approached to a liberal economy which supports foreign investments, through targeted structural reforms and new liberal policies.
- A strong bank system: Foreign banks in main Turkish banks capital (Yapi Kredi – Unicredit, Teb-BNP Paribas, Oyak – ING);
- Incentives for foreign investors: Erdogan package, Free zones, International organisations, etc…;
- Economic dependence: Turkey has a negative balance of trade, especially in energy sector (recently it has been started a process in order to reduce economic dependence).


- Economic stability and attractiveness;
- Structural reforms;
- Strong economic fundamentals;
- Geographical position;
- Diversification and possibility to access in different markets ( 1.5 billion people);
- Young population and growing domestic market;
- Energy corridor through Europe;
- Sixth travel destination (35.7 million visitors), Turkish Airlines: 241 destinations in 104 countries.


- Dependence on foreign capital flows and investors confidence;
- Dependence on foreign energy supply;
- Current account deficit.


- 2nd (after China) in terms of best construction companies (31 Turkish companies out of 225 best construction companies of the world);
- 2nd largest flat glass producer;
- 3rd largest mega yacht builder;
- 4th largest producer of ceramics and natural stones;
- 5th largest jewellery producer;
- 5th largest dried fruit producer;
- 5th largest ships builder;
- 6th largest cement producer;
- 10th largest producer of steel and iron;
- 16th largest car producer.

In Europe:

- Largest textile producer;
- Largest producer of fertilizers, televisions and buses
- 2nd largest steel and iron producer
- 4th largest communications market
- 4th largest producer of cars and accessories


CAR SECTOR (16th in the world)

- Because of its proximity to Europe and Asia, Turkey is one of the most important car producer;
- Turkey is the largest commercial vehicles producer and exporter in Europe;
- 17 main national and foreign companies, 4.000 secondary companies, 300.000 qualified employers;
- Lower labour costs compared to Europe, qualified labour force;
- Three families out of four do not own a car, therefore there are great market growth opportunities;
- The forecasted increase of the GDP per capita will boost the consumers purchasing power;
- Increasing opportunities in car parts industry.





- Turkey is one of the fastest-growing energy markets in the world;
- It has been forecasted an annual 6% increase in electricity demand from 2009 to 2023;
- The total investments amount forecasted until 2023 is 130 billion dollar;
- Renewable energies will increase by 30%;
- Well structured and organised legal framework in the energy field;
- The authority for energy market regulation (EPDK) works as an independent market regulator;
- “Feed-in tariff” to incentive investments in renewable energies.


- The biggest and fast-growing medical equipments sector, in the region;
- Healthcare transformation plan in order to improve the healthcare system quality and efficiency;
- Pharmaceutical market income was around 9.2 billion dollars in 2010;
- There are significant growth possibilities, because of the increasing population and a low consumption rate;
- Recently it has been created a new R&D law, in order to boost investments;
- Healthcare sector reforms such as centralised healthcare insurance, will increase and improve the access to healthcare services.


- New initiatives and R&D law to increase investments;
- Turkish ICT sector in 2011 has passed 30 billion dollars;
- Increasing demand for high-tech telecommunication services;
- There is an enormous growth potential, taking into into consideration the young population compared with west countries;
- Increasing budget allocated by the government for ICT public investments;
- High education for young qualified computer engineers and software developers;


- 20% growth from 1990
- Small and medium enterprises are competitive and versatile;
- Machinery imports volume (21.3 billion dollars in 2010) is bigger than exports (9.4 billion dollars), this underlines an increasing machinery demand.


- Turkish families had a high consumption rate, 27% in 2010;
- Constant growth during last years. Turkish consumers are guided by large retail sector;
- Food and beverages consumption is increasing because of the young and numerous population;
- Turkey food industry has important export opportunities thanks to different agricultural products available in the country;
- Turkey is becoming one of the largest baking products market;
- In the last 10 years this sector has attracted over 4 billion dollars;
- There are many opportunities for new emerging products in Turkey.


2023 GOAL:

- GDP: 2.000 billion $
- GDP per capita: 25.000 $
- Export: 500 billion $
- 10th world economy



- To start a new business in Turkey you need 6 days, and one day to create a society;
- We will help you starting a new equality-based business with local investors, according to the new Turkish Commercial Code;
- Every type of business entity is allowed;
- There are many costs and time advantages compared with other countries of this region.


Boost foreign direct investments, safeguard foreign investors, create an investment “registration” instead of the earlier “approval”;
- Fundamental principals of the law 4875;
- Fair treatment;
- No pre-accession and pre-founding monitoring;
- No obligation imposed on action property;
- No obligation imposed on types of business entity;


There are different kinds of direct investments, for example a Joint Venture association or commercial Joint Venture. They are individual entities with variable legal independence (low for a representation office, high for legal persons i.e. limited companies). Most common societies for foreign direct investments in Turkey are: representative office, branch, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies.


It is the cheapest legal form investors, indeed it is not legally independent form its parent company. It represents a legal entity in Turkey, its role is to “explore the market”.


- At least one associate (natural persons, juridical persons);
- Minimum share profit 50.000 TL;
- (¼ to immediately deposit and the remains in 24 months);
- Signatory administrators are responsible for company tax debts, except for the prior enforcement duty of share profit;
- Important: the working authorisation requires a 100.000 TL share profit and 1:5 ratio (foreign: local).


- At least one associate (natural persons, juridical persons);
- Minimum share profit 10.000 TL (¼ to immediately deposit and the remains in 24 months);
- Every associate have representation powers. Associates can elect one or more administrators (associate or third party) but at least one associate must have the representation power;
- Associates are responsible for company debts, according to their participation quotas, there is the obligation of prior enforcement duty of share profit;
- Important: the working authorisation requires a 100.000 TL share profit and 1:5 ratio (foreign: local).


Turkey has four different special zones for investments:

- Technological development zones (TDZ)
- Organised industrial zones
- Industrial zones
- Free trade zones


- 20% corporate tax;
- In case of profits distribution, the law provides that 15% is withhold;
- Natural persons income tax of 15-35%
- VAT 18%
- Transfer piercing
- “Transfer piercing” regulation is mentioned in the society tax legislation and implementing regulation of 2007 and 2008. It follows the international OECD principals and in particular the “arm’s length”.


Civil Law: the legal system is similar to the Swiss Code and the Italian criminal Code. Regarding types of business entity, there are:

a) Limited partnership (Komandit Sirketi Kom. Sti)
b) General partnership (Kollektif Sirketi Koll. Sti)
c) Limited reliability company (Limited Sirketi)
d)Limited company (Anonime Sirketi)

Limited companies are the most common type of business in Turkey, which require 3-4 days to be established.


- The main subsidies promoted by the Government are:

- No custom taxes: total exemption from the payment of custom taxes on machineries coming from non-european countries;

- No VAT: total exemption from the payment of vat on machineries imported or bought and used for investments, provided by the “investment incentive certificate”;

- Reduction of corporate tax: reduction from 50% to 90% according to the investment value and the geographical area that covers;

- Reduction of employers social security contributions: subsidies for employers that have to pay social security contributions to their employees. These subsidies can be provided for 2 to 10 years;

- Public concession: The Ministry of Finance can allow the use of a land, for 49 years;

- Subsidies to help paying interests on loans: The government can pay interests on loans used for investments, only when are subsidies are expected.

- VAT refund: It is used only for investments on a prearranged area.

- Bilateral investment treaties with 85 countries;
- Double taxation agreements with 76 countries;
- Customs union with EU;
- Free trade agreements with 19 countries;
- Investments promotion and protection (L. 27 October 2003, n. 294)
- Agreement to avoid double taxation (L. 7 June 1993, n. 195)


1. EFTA (Norway, Switzerland, Iceland, Liechtenstein)
2. Israel
3. Macedonia
4. Bosnia-Herzegovina
5. Palestine
6. Tunisia
7. Morocco
8. Syria
9. Egypt
10. Albania
11. Georgia
12. Montenegro
13. Serbia
14. Chile
15. Jordan
16. South Korea
17. Lebanon
18. Mauritius*
19. Kosovo*
(*) These agreements have to be approved


SACE insurance conditions, without sovereign risk, bank risk, private risk and possibility to transfer the insurance registration SACE for export or foreign direct investment in the country.