Tag Archives: Asia





Author: Elisa Mariani

Translated by Matteo Aristei

October 2016

The joint comprehensive Plan of action was born in July 2015, and represents the crowning of the joint Plan of action, that is a provisional agreement made in November 2013 by Iran, countries of UN Security Council ( China, United Kingdom, Russia, France, United States ), Germany and the rest of EU .

Such agreement concerns the use of Iranian nuclear power for pacific aims . In order to enjoy full rights for the use, Iran undertakes to not produce nuclear weapon, accept positively and implement all the measures requested by the UN Security Council; this measures must be monitored by a joint Commission and by the International atomic energy agency ( IAEA ).

Since 2006, the UN Security Council puts pressure on Iran in order to block their policies on nuclear power and especially the one on the production of Uranium, also through the limitation
of the trade of dual-use goods, goods that can be used both for civil and military aims . After the refusal of Theran in 2012, that was the refusal of accepting favourably the visit of the UN delegation which had to monitor the military establishment of Parchin after 20th September 2015, the turning point was in January 2016, when the IAEA declared that the Iranian Government accepted and started to take the progress requested in the military field .

In fact, Theran is respecting the agreement which provides for the diminution of two third of centrifuges for the uranium enrichment, the maintenance of this fell under the 3,67 % for the next 15 years and Iran reduced the uranium supply . In this respect Iran has maintained the promise to not give the green light to the construction of new buildings for the uranium enrichment and to convert the buildings of Arak and Fordo that are used so far for the the production of plutonium and uranium for military aims, respectively in centres of radioisotope creation for medical aims and research buildings .

The other news is represented by the consensus of Iran for the regular inspection of IAEA in the nuclear sites of the country such as Natanz, where important measures have been taken in order to control the uranium enrichment, including the disposal of new generation centrifuges .

In the last 16th January ( date called implementation day ), this permitted the diminution of the national and international restriction on the import and export of some products such as oil and its derivatives, hydrocarbon, all the instruments for the production of such substances and finally raw material such as metals and diamonds . Despite this, all the stops to the trading of instruments for the construction nuclear weapon in the Iranian territory are in force .

Through the visit of April by the EU High Representative for foreign affairs and security policy Federica Mogherini, the European Union wanted to reiterate its own intention of a creation of a partnership with Iran in mutual interest matters such as environment, economy, energy, migration and humanitarian matters . Italy contributes to this project too, with a financing of 5 billion Euros, that are provided by insurance services of credits for companies and banks together with Cdp s.p.a. ( Deposit and Consignment Office ), allowing in this way our country to have a relevant position in the partnership with Iran .

However, after the agreement of January, the Iranian diplomatic relationships are still tense, especially with United States because of the taxes imposed by the American government that are still in force, and they concern the presumed Iranian military support to the Shiite organization in Lebanon, Syria and Yemen, and for the tests on ballistic missile ; Iran said that has made these tests exclusively for defensive purposes . Such measures obstacle the financial transitions between the two countries and with Europe, since the economical relevance of US empire at national level .

But tension haven’t prevented Italy from basing for an ever more greater cooperation with Iran, as the Business Forum Italy – Iran ( that took place in Rome in January ) confirms . This cooperation has seen ratification of contracts of 17 billion Euros and the the comparison between entrepreneurs of the two countries on trade opportunities in vitally important sectors such as infrastructure, petrochemical and the industrial sector .

The event availed of the participation of the President of Confindustria, Ministers of infrastructure of both countries and Italian ministers of economic development and Agriculture . To give substance to this common project, in the last 8th and 9th February, was created a delegation composed by the undersecretary of foreign affairs, Confindustria, Ministers Del Rio and Martina, together with 130 Italian companies, and it had a mission in Iran in order to define investment programs in the country for the following years .


- repubblica.it
- ilfattoquotidiano.it
- valvecampus.com
- ilsole24ore.com
- confindustriabergamo.it

Belt and Road Initiative


Author : Matteo Aristei

Translated by : Matteo Aristei

January 2019

In these months, the “ Belt and Road Initiative ” ( in Italy is also called “ Nuova Via della Seta ) is now being very discussed . The Italian name comes from the golden age of the trades between Asia and Europe. It is a project created by China, in order to expand, improve and develop connection and cooperation in Eurasia . The Belt and Road Initiative is an inclusive project because it wants to help the poor countries in Chinese and European territories, with the development made by investment on export . The countries in this initiative are quite a lot, from China until Spain by land from Southern Asia until the Mediterranean by sea, going through the Suez Canal .
Of course Italy has a very important vantage point because it offers the last Mediterranean port that permits the transit of goods toward Northern Europe . For this initiative, several billions yuan have been allocated by the Chinese government .

Nuova via della seta - Belt and road initiative

This project aims to create infrastructures that will link all the countries in question, allowing in this way a trade increase and a economic expansion . The initiative was announced in 2013 and it has gradually been taken into account, not only by the Chinese government but also by other countries .

In 2017, in Beijing, an assembly has been held : the “ Belt and Road Forum ”, with the greater international leaders . The Chinese government wants to reconnect over 70 countries with the aim of creating a global economic cooperation focused on peace . China wants more cooperation with more countries, since the purposes are very high and for this it needs enormous investment . Mainly, China is not able to carry all the costs of an infrastructural network of a global size by itself, therefore invites the rest of the world to contribute to the creation of this ambitious plan .

The Chinese government is creating maps for routes which will be done by means of goods transport and there is a clear distinction between the design of the above – ground section and the maritime one . As to “ above – ground section ” we refer to all the road and highway connection, rail and bridges that will be trade routes and meeting – tracts between countries ; talking about the transport by sea, China highlights the importance that some ports will have for this project .

China is about to play once again a very important role for the global economy and with this initiative, it aims to develop and strengthen the welfare of its own population, contributing with the increase the GDP and the other countries’ economy as well . Unfortunately there are obstacles and also disadvantages for other countries, though : the Chinese plan wants to change international balance and for this, the United States will not benefit the advantages of the project . Therefore, America has already started to create a policy against the China ’s plan, and also India is on its side because it fears the hegemonic purposes of Beijing . The European Union focuses on legal issues : EU countries fear that China could dominate infrastructural procurement , stopping the free concurrence, asking Beijing for more transparency .

In the west, the Belt and Road Initiative has been defined in various ways : a new Marshall Plan, a geopolitical strategy with a peace and shared – prosperity purpose but this project is also seen as a colonialist strategy created by China . Moreover, China is designing ‘ Made in China 2025 ’: another plan of renewal that is close to the Belt and Road Initiative . The aim is to transform the Chinese production system into a world factory for cheap products and into a production centre and a high value – added goods sorting .

For Italy, the Belt and Road Initiative could bring enormous advantages . The maritime gates in the project are Trieste – Venice in the Adriatic and Genoa – Savona in the Tyrrhenian Sea . In order to realise the project, there is still a long way to go ; Trieste needs to go on with the enlargement of the container gate and to double it, while Venice is looking for a space for another project created by the Chinese – Italian consortium, but the government did not approved yet . In Genoa, whose port identity has been unified with the Savona one, it will be necessary to create a new dam away from the current one. When all these plans and these works for the infrastructures’ construction will end , the international traffic impact on the Italian economy should make a qualitative leap and the Chinese initiative could bring several job and it could increase the Italian GDP .



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EU Singapore



Author : Matteo Aristei
Translated by : Matteo Aristei

EU Singapore

Almost every custom duty will be abolished and workers rights will be protected . There will be also a better environmental protection . The approval was aimed to a greater economic development . There was talk about such agreement for 10 years .

Singapore is one of the City – State in the centre of the most dynamic and developing areas in the world and is one of the main destination for European investments in Asia ; it is also the third greater Asian investor in Europe ( after China and Japan ). Over 10 thousand European companies have a quarters in Singapore because they use it as a support base to enter the Indian, Chinese and Japanese markets . Singapore is the fourteenth trade partner of Europe and is the most important in the region : it is between the first 20 trade partners of Europe in exchange of goods, between the first 5 in exchange of services and between the first 10 in direct investments . The bilateral trade between EU and Singapore is already over 52 millions Euros ( of which 2.1 millions are from Italian export ), while exchanges of services are almost 50 billions .

EU Singapore agreement

EU and Singapore began their trade and investment negotiations in 2010 and in 13 th February 2019 in Strasbourg, the majority of the European Parliament approved the agreements of free trade and investments protection between Singapore and European Union . These new agreements are an other example of cooperation between Europe and Asia . Such agreements will abolish all the custom tariffs within 5 years and there will be free trade of services in many sectors . The agreements includes also the enforcement of workers rights and environmental protection, which is a very important issue for the Parliament . Moreover, Singapore will accept European quality standards on food products, electronic devices and safety of cars . Finally, members of the Parliament supported a partnership and cooperation agreement, in order to extend the cooperation over the trade, for example in terms of fighting terrorism or climate change . The partnership and cooperation agreement was approved with 537 positive votes, 85 negative and 50 neutral .

Furthermore, this agreement will protect 190 European geographical indications , 25 % of which are Italian . Between the labels protected in the food sector there are : Balsamic Vinegar of Modena, Buffalo Mozzarella of Campania, tomato of Pachino, Red Orange of Sicily, Grana Padano, Mortadella of Bologna, Pecorino Romano, Gorgonzola, Lentils of Castelluccio di Norcia and Prosciutto di Parma and Prosciutto di San Daniele . In the sector of drinks there are Grappa, Montepulciano d’ Abruzzo, Prosecco and Chianti, only to name just a few .

Because it is the first bilateral trade agreement between EU and a Member State of the ASEAN, this agreement is a springboard for further free trade agreements between this two regions . Once it is concluded, this trade agreement can enter into force the first day of the second month after the conclusion . As to the agreement on the investments protection and the one on the partnership and cooperation, Member States have to ratify them for the entry into force .

The Speaker of free trade and investments protection agreements, David Martin ( S&D, UK ) said “ The Parliament has demonstrated its own commitment in favour of a regulated trade system . The European Union keeps alive a free and fair trade .”

EU agreement with Singapore



Italy and China Trade Agreement


Italia e Cina accordi commerciali

Italy and China Trade Agreement

Author : Matteo Aristei

Translated by : Matteo Aristei

January 2019

In the last summer, the Ministers of Economic Affairs Giovanni Tria went in Beijing, China in order to establish new agreements . Several trade and financial agreements were signed .

Italy and China established their diplomatic missions in 1970 with the Bilateral Relationship .

From the economic point of view and between countries of European Union, Italy is the 5th China ’s trade partner . Italy imports fabric and clothing from China while this last imports mainly industrial machines and pharmaceutical instruments from the Italian peninsula . Between 1979 and 2003, more than 2000 project were developed by Italian companies in China ; furthermore, the two countries signed contracts for the creation of new innovative technologies .

Italy and China are already in cooperation such as the Intergovernmental Committee Italy – China that was established in 2004, it is the organism for the coordination of bilateral relationships between the two countries, it has to connect administration with public and private entities of both countries and to supervise all the projects and economical agreements concerning Italy and China . Between these two countries there is also a military cooperation that was established after the Second World War . In July 1991 they signed an agreement for the research and the pacific use of the space and, year by year, this relation improved . In 2005 there was the first official visit in China by the Italian Chief of Defence Staff, this was requested by the Chinese Chief of Staff .

Moreover, Italy and China signed a cultural, scientific and technical cooperation agreement between the two countries and, regularly, there are cultural exchange every 2 – 4 years .

China is really willing to improve economical and financial agreements with Italy, and for this it has signed important agreements with the country .

From the financial point of view , the yuan ( the official Chinese currency ) will enter in the reserves portfolio of Bank of Italy . This is an investment made by Italy that concerns Chinese government bond . With this, our government helps China with the yuan ’s internationalization; furthermore Italy will be open to foreign financial markets .
There has also been talk about the Belt and Road Initiative, it is created by China for the development and the improvement of the cooperation with Europe and other countries . The Italian ’s gate will be Genoa and Trieste .

There has also been a green light to several trade cooperation : Deposit and Consignment has signed a preliminary agreement of cooperation with Bank of China, for exports and internationalization of Italian companies in China ; Fincantieri and China State Shipbuilding corporation have signed a memorandum for the enlargement of the industrial cooperation ; Snam has signed an agreement with State Grid International Development, creating a memorandum of understanding for new technologies and the reduction of CO2 emissions .

Sources :

- China ( Wikipedia )
- Italy ( Wikipedia )
- Panorama
- IlSole24ore

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