Foreste forest food cibo


April 2016
Author: Ilaria Giunti
Translation by: Matteo Gaipa

According to recent WWF researches, forests have been an essential role in our nutrition and in biodiversity: indeed 1 million people get food and resources and 80% of biodiversity is preserved by forests. Forests represent wide part of our planet, indeed 30% it is covered by them, although at the beginning of the millennium have been lost 150 million hectares; we don’t have to be scared of this data, because from 1990 to 1999 we lost only 16 million hectares a year , and from 2000 only 13 million hectares a year. This data provide us an important information, an important decrease which might be a beacon of hope for our planet.


Some of the most affected elements of the deforestation are soil balance, soil enrichment, prime material conservation, a balanced climate, health and food safety.


Even if deforestation data is decreasing , they are still worrying. Many governments are planning and activating reforestation projects, especially in Asia, for example in China, India, Vietnam, where forest areas are increased of 4 million hectares per year, with an average increase of forest surface of 2.2 million hectares per year worldwide. On the other hand, in South America countries and Africa, such as Brazil, Tanzania, Nigeria;, Burma, Bolivia and Venezuela have been registered the higher deforestation rates.


Italy doesn’t follow those trends, indeed from 2005 to today, according to data of the Ministry of the Environment , the forest surfacehas increased of 600 thousand hectares. This increase has interested the centre and south Italy, such as Campania, Molise, Abruzzo, Marche, Umbria, Lazio, Calabria and Basilicata. In the period 2005-2015 thanks to satellite photos it has been possible to see a progressive increase of the forest surface even though with a slower cadence than the past decades.


Many countries have started reforestation projects to fight against climate change consequences, such as desertification and draughts. Indeed, forests have a fundamental role for climate mitigation, because theuy absorb co2, and are among the priorities of international climate agreements.


This project has been created in 1978, and it is the most important reforestation project of the world; “The Great Green Wall” goal is to contain deforestation consequences made by China in the last decades. According to the last Greenpeace data, only 2% of the Chinese forests have remained untouched, more than one quarter of the Chinese territory is covered by sand and desertification is moving forward very fast. Contain the desertification, is the goal of this project the “Great Green Wall”

This project has been defined an “ecological mismatch”, because they have chose for reforestation long trunk trees, for this reason to reach the goal, 3 years ago the World Bank gave to China a 80 million dollars loan in order to plan flora in place of long trunk trees, because this reforestation choice is counter-productive; indeed, those trees don’t have any success in the arid Chinese territory.


- Wikipedia: Deforestation
- Article: FAO
- WWF: deforestation article




Author: Elisa Mariani
Translated by: Lorenzo Giusepponi
September 2016

The immigration issue is a mixed blessing that many people are currently focusing on and it is raising significant questions. In fact, the benefits and problems of migratory flows are still an unanswered question.
According to the Eurostat data of January 2014, resident aliens in the European Union are 20.4 million, mostly concentrated in Germany, Italy, Spain and France. In Italy, during the period 2007-2014, a 3% increase in the number of resident aliens was registered, the equivalent of two million people. In 2013 the migratory flow in Italy was so composed: 9.2% of migrants were expatriate citizens returning in their home country, 25.2% came from EU member states and 65.5% from non-member states. This last percentage is the highest in the EU.

Such data bear witness to the importance for Italy of foreign citizens, who account for 8.1% of the total population. Additionally, in 2014, foreigners in Italy whose age ranged from 15 to 34 accounted for 34.3%, while Italians in this age range were only 21.3%. This demonstrates that the young foreign population represents a potential resource for the country. However, while public debates usually focus on the negative aspects of immigration, there are also some advantages that are cause for reflection.

However, as mentioned before, Italy is not the only country coping with this problem. During recent years immigration has become one of the most debated topics at both the European and the global level. Just yesterday, the Leader’s Summit on Refugees hosted by President Obama, got underway and 150 Heads of State and Government are taking part in it on the occasion of the 71st United Nations General Assembly. In the following days, this will also include the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants. At the opening of the summit, the UN Secretary-General BanKi-Moon said: “Refugees and migrants are not to be seen as a burden. They offer great potential if only we unlock it”.

The stated objective and ultimate aim of international institutions hasn’t changed: solving the crisis of the excessive regular and irregular migratory flows caused by wars and famine and other problems linked to these dramatic situations such as terrorism, mistreatment, the rescue of refugees and the adoption of common measures for border crossing. The strategy aims to achieve the Global Compacts for refugees and migration by 2018.

As the Italian vice minister of foreign affairs – with a mandate on immigration – has confirmed, the EU and its member states will take part in the Summit for Refugees and Migrants in a moment of institutional stalemate that resulted in the European Council and Commission’s loss of power to make decisions and take action. Such fragmentation in the decision-making power was exacerbated after the failure of the Bratislava Summit, where, according to the Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi, the participants deliberately avoided discussing in depth about the immigration problem on the agenda, in order to leave the usual disagreements among the member states ignored and unsolved.

The meeting proved once again the lack of unanimity since Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and the Czech Republic proposed a personal plan which would give more decision-making powers to the single states as they refused to participate in a possible proposal of compulsory refugees quotas. Instead, they favor flexible solidarity, that is a voluntary contribution in the member states’ management of migratory flows according to their resources. This plan, positively welcomed by the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, represents a progress that risks not to be implemented.

Despite its negative sides, the Bratislava Summit led to the draft of a document that includes a schedule with practical measures to be carried out on immigration: the realization of the declaration between the EU and Turkey for supporting the Western Balkan countries, the official establishment and full operability of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency by the end of the year, agreements with other countries to decrease irregular immigration and increase the return rate and finally, a further effort to achieve full unanimity among member states for a common immigration policy.






Economia Circolare e Rifiuti

Translation by Matteo Aristei
June 2019

In the European Union tons of waste are ever more produced and for thus Europe is updating the legislation on waste management . Recently climate change and global warming have increased and Europe needs to plan strategies to protect the future of the earth . The European Union has developed plans and has fixed objectives in order to fight pollution which is damaging our planet, Therefore, Europe aims at the development of a circular economy .

The circular economy is an economical system planned to reuse materials in several productive stages, reducing waste at most . This circular economy is an economy designed to auto-regenerate , in which biological materials must be reintegrated in the biosphere, and the technical ones must be designed to be revalorized without damaging the biosphere . All this implies sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible . In this way, the life cycle of products is extended . With the circular economy consumers can have more durable and innovative products which are able to improve the quality of life .

There are 5 fundamental criteria for the transition towards a circular economy :

1. Eco-planning, planning products thinking about their use since the beginning and end, therefore with features which will allow the assembly and the renovation ;
2. Versatility, modularity, versatility and adaptability of the product are very important in order to permit its use to external condition changes ;
3. Renewable energies, we have to rely on energy produced by renewable sources, guaranteeing the fast abandon of the energetic model based on fossil sources ;
4. Approach to the ecosystem, be careful of the system, bearing in mind the cause-effect relation between different components ;
5. Materials recover, guaranteeing the replacement of virgin raw materials with second raw materials from recover sectors which maintain their qualities .

All of this could deliver benefits such as reducing pressure on the environment, improving the security of the supply of raw materials, increasing competitiveness, stimulating innovation, boosting economic growth, creating jobs ( 580,000 jobs in the EU alone ).

Furthermore, The EU wants to reduce plastic waste . Discover its strategy from increasing recycling to introducing bans on certain micro-plastics and single-use plastics . Waste has a negative impact on the environment, climate, human health and the economy, and although waste management in the EU has improved considerably in recent decades, over a quarter of municipal waste is still landfilled and less than half is recycled or composted . In a bid to tackle plastic pollution, the European Commission proposed a plastics strategy with the aims of ensuring that by 2030 every piece of plastic packaging can be reused or recycled, as well as of reducing the consumption of single-use plastics and the use of micro-plastics . In addition MEPs are also currently discussing a proposal to ban certain single-use plastics such as cutlery, plates and balloon sticks, as well require goods packaging companies to contribute towards the cost of cleaning up discarded plastics . The plenary vote on it is expected to take place in October .

Another problem are micro-plastics : tiny pieces of plastic material typically smaller than five millimetres . Micro-plastics found in the sea can be ingested by marine animals . The plastic then accumulates and can end up in humans through the food chain . They have been found in food and drinks, including beer, honey and tap water . Not surprisingly, plastic particles have also recently been discovered in human stool .

The effect on human health is as yet unknown, but plastics often contain additives, such as stabilisers or flame-retardants, and other possibly toxic chemical substances that may be harmful to the animal or human ingesting them .

In September 2018, MEPs approved a plastics strategy that aims to increase the recycling rate of plastic waste in the EU . In addition, they called on the European Commission to introduce an EU-wide ban on intentionally added microplasticsin products such as cosmetics and detergents by 2020, and to take measures to minimise the release of micro-plastics from textiles, tyres, paint and cigarette butts .






Translation by Matteo Aristei

June 2019

Erasmus + is the EU ‘s programme to support education, training, youth and sport in Europe . This project provides opportunities for over 4 million Europeans to study, train, and gain experience abroad . The aim of Erasmus + is to contribute to the Europe 2020 strategy for growth, jobs, social equity and inclusion, as well as the aims of ET2020, the EU ‘s strategic framework for education and training . Erasmus + also aims to promote the sustainable development of its partners in the field of higher education, and contribute to achieving the objectives of the EU Youth Strategy .

The programme currently covers 33 countries ( all 28 EU countries as well as Turkey, North Macedonia, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein ) and is open to partner countries across the world . As far as Brexit, on 19 March 2019, the Council and Parliament adopted a Regulation to avoid the disruption of Erasmus + learning mobility activities involving the United Kingdom in the event that the UK leaves the EU without a deal (“ no – deal scenario ”).

Recently the European Commission and the Parliament are calling for new priorities for the next Erasmus + programme . MEPs propose to triple the budget and ensure there is more co – funding and cooperation with other European programmes . They also call for the introduction of centres of vocational excellence, international centres providing quality vocational training so that people can develop useful skills in key sectors .

Members are also keen to have more people who are disadvantaged participate . Special support should include language training, administrative support or e – learning opportunities .

Furthermore, on 28 March, Parliament also approved the new priorities for Creative Europe, another major EU culture programme . It will focus on more support for artists ’ mobility, better use of digital technologies and improved distribution of works .

More than three million students have already benefited from the Erasmus programme, since it was launched in 1987 . Last year a record number of 250,000 students took part in the programme to either do part of their studies or an internship abroad .

With the new Erasmus + programme, sport initiatives such as those against doping, violence, discrimination and intolerance are also funded . In addition students who want to embark on a Masters degree in another EU country can apply for a loan with favourable terms .

Following an agreement with the Council in June, Parliament ‘s culture and education committee backed the proposal on 5 November . MEPs voted in favour of the new Erasmus + programme on 19 November .

Erasmus + includes Erasmus, Erasmus Mundus, Leonardo da Vinci, Comenius, Grundtvig and Youth in Action programmes and also for the first time sport . Different budgets for different programmes will be clearly separated .

It is European added value to regional, national and sometimes local policies in the field of education and youth . In the Erasmus + there is also the European voluntary service, which gives people the possibility to try learn and experience work in other countries, all while being paid and socially secure .

Erasmus + will also support new partnerships between teaching institutions and firms . « Knowledge alliances » and « sector skills alliances » should permit training in a real working environment, new teaching approaches and new courses tailored to the world of work .


Climate Change


Cambiamento Climatico EU


Author : Matteo Aristei
2019, June 20th

By the years, the EU has developed environmental rules which are very important worldwide . The environmental policy helps to protect the natural heritage of Europe ,encouraging companies to develop a green economy and it protects the health and the welfare of European citizens .

The fight against climate change is fundamental for Europe . The European Commission wants to reduce the European dependence from imported fossil fuel and help families to produce their own energy . Europe has three proposals about renewable energy, energy efficiency and a control mechanism .

The prospective of an increase in energy prices and in the ever more higher dependence from imports weakens the reliability of energy supplies and damages the whole economy . Europe needs to take drastic decisions in order to reduce emissions and to mitigate climate change . In the next years enormous investments will be needed in order to set up a European energy infrastructure for future needs .

The EU energy policy aims to a safe energy supply which is guaranteed and sustainable at affordable prices . The strategy is based on ‘ 20 – 20 – 20 ’ objectives which Europe wants to reach within 2020 :

- The first objective is to reduce by 20 % the green – house gasses compared to 1990 levels
- 20 % of energy shall come from renewable sources
- The third objective is to improve of 20 % of energy performances

European leaders have also proposed to reduce 30 % of green-house gasses of EU if other big producers of emissions give their contribution .

The long – term objective is to reduce green – house emissions by 80 – 95 % compared to 1990 levels within 2050, guaranteeing the supply and the competitiveness . For this reason Eu leaders are currently putting in place a solid strategic framework for the energy and environment policy, to extend over 2020 . Such programme will supply safety to investors, will foster low carbon emissions technologies and will create jobs in the energy sector of Europe .

This framework will promote progresses towards a safe and competitive energy system . This programme wants to guarantee energy at affordable prices to everyone and to improve the safety of EU energy supply . Furthermore, it wants to reduce the dependence from energy imports and it wants to create new opportunities such as jobs and economic growth .

The energy efficiency is a central objective for 2020 and represents a key instrument to reach long – term European energy and environment objectives . A better efficiency is the more economically effective way to reduce emissions, make safer and more competitive the energy supply and to limit energy cost .

In order to improve this efficiency, the EU focuses on sectors which offer the best possibilities in terms of saving, such as public transportation and construction . Furthermore, smart meters and other eco – friendly measures help to consume less energy .

Plus, electricity and gas are transported thanks to nets which often go through national frontiers . Free trade of energy in Europe will promote competitive prices and more choice for consumers . Furthermore a better supply safety will be developed and there will be a solid framework for investments in new renewable technologies and infrastructures .

An internal market which works correctly, with enough transportation infrastructures and storage, is the best guarantee for supply safety : pushed by market mechanisms, the energy will flow where is needed . The EU aims to the complete integration of national energy markets .

Furthermore, without a technological conversion, the EU will not be able to reach its long – term ambitions and to reduce to the minimum the CO2 emissions made by electricity and transportation sectors . The strategic plan for energetic technologies establishes a mid – term strategy for all the sectors .
The development projects for the main technologies such as biofuels and smart nets have to go faster . Researchers and companies of Europe should intensify commitments in order to remain sate – of – the – art in the international market of energetic technologies, which is ever more increasing, and improve the cooperation with non – EU countries on specific technologies .

With more than 500 millions consumers, the EU energy market is the biggest regional market in the world and the main energy importer . Most of the objectives of Europe are common to other countries and they require an international cooperation .

Europe needs to reduce climate change, guaranteeing everybody the access of oil and gas and foster the technological development and increase energy efficiency .

The international energy policy must reach the common objectives of safety in the supply, in the competitiveness and sustainability . If relationships with production countries are fundamental, the relationships with big energy consumer countries are becoming more important , especially with developing country .

The European Emission Trading Scheme ( EU ETS ) is the backbone of the EU strategy in terms of climate change . It contributes to reduce emission through the minimum cost possible .
This system ( established in 2005 ) wants to decrease every year the amount of emissions produced by factories which consume a lot of energy ( such as power plants ). These companies have to give back allowances for every ton of CO2 they produce, and therefore they have an incentive to produce less emissions . Some sectors have their allowances for free, but now often companies buy them in auctions or from CO2 markets .

If today green – house emission weren ’t produced any more, the ones that are already present in the atmosphere would continue to affect the planet for decades , we don ’t have any choice : we have to adapt to climate change . The necessary actions range from new building regulations must be taken into account for future climatic conditions, the construction of flood defense systems or the development of drought – resistant crops . The Commission has defined a strategy to promote and facilitate adaptation throughout the EU .


Europe Strategy Environment


EU ambiente e strategie

Author: Matteo Aristei
2019, July 4th

In numerous bars, new environmental initiatives and projects about plastic straw are becoming more popular . Yes, sometime parents come and ask for a straw for their children ’s juice but unfortunately they can ’t have it . This because in numerous bars straws are banned . They are not accepted any more because they are one of the plastic objects most used in the world which, for their small size, cannot be recycled .

Actually this campaign against the use of straws was not invented in these bars, but the first campaign was launched by the United Kingdom and it’s called ‘ the last straw ’. Similar initiatives have spread ever more and everywhere in Europe and several pubs have took part in this British initiative and they commit not to use straws any longer . Of course not immediately, because throwing away all the straws in their storage will cause an environmental impact .

So, as first step, they have decided to not automatically put the straw into drinks for costumers any more because a good cocktail doesn ’t depend on the straw, but on the ingredients ’ quality . Then, after that all the straws in the storage are finished , plastic straws will be replaced by other type straws such as bioplastic, made by corn starch, or steel straws which can be re – used . Of course these straws are more expensive but less straws will be used .

After these straws, disposable plastic dishes and cups are used one time and then are thrown away . They take hundred years to biodegrade and often they end up in the see where they kill even cetacean and turtles and they arrive in our food chain because they are absorbed by the fishes we eat . In fact, fro 2021 in the European Union some disposable plastic products such as cups or straws will be banned . This is a plastic – free policy was given by a very large majority vote in the European Parliament to the new directive which also imposes other objectives for the future .

Among these, the achievement by 2029 of 90 % of separate waste collection for bottles and new indications on their composition : by 2025 they must be made with at least 25 % of recycled content, to reach 30 % five years later . From 2024 on the other hand, the obligation to have the cap attached to the bottle will be introduced to prevent it from dispersing easily . How will we do it? We will find alternatives, which already exist . Others will be added : new biodegradable materials are already being studied and one day will enter our daily use just as it happened with plastic .

Plastic capsules are certainly the most polluting and difficult product to dispose of . If you have this type at home, you know that the part that contains the coffee is made of plastic, but the tongue is made of aluminum, so it would be normal to throw them without thoughts into undifferentiated waste, but if you keep the environment you should do more : remove the tab and throw it into the appropriate aluminum collection container, rinse the plastic cup well so that the coffee residues inside it are eliminated and throw it in the plastic bin .

Furthermore, recently there has been an increase in the use of mobile phones . Nowadays people change cell phones very often, but then what happens to old cell phones ? What impact do they have on the environment ? In one study, 19 models of mobile phones were examined from the point of view of the possibility of being recycled . From the results of the study it is evident that many companies in the sector do not consider the ease of recycling as an important feature of their products at all . And this is serious if we consider that only in Italy 17 million mobile phones are sold each year .

And this is because there is a frantic race to the most popular model of the moment . And so many devices, after an average life of 18 months, become difficult to recycle . To be able to recycle the various parts of the mobile phone, these should first be easily disassembled, i.e. held together by interlocking and not by glue or screws . But unfortunately this occurs only in 50 % of cases. Other times it is the intrinsic nature of the materials that prevents them from being recycled .

Sometimes we are guilty because we throw away our mobile phone instead of bring it in ecological areas made by Sanitation or, when it is possible, give It back to the shop where whe buy a new mobile phone .

In addition to the problem of mobile phone disposal, there is also the packaging disposal which often has an environmental impact . It would be great if in a future, packaging will be made by recyclable materials .

Still in the interests of the environment, companies should sell accessories separately . In this way only those that are really needed are bought . And then they should make accessories usable on all models . It is also a good idea to use two SIM cards at the same time to avoid buying a second mobile phone . Many people in fact have two or three mobile phones for various reasons ; to be able, for example, to have different numbers, perhaps a private one for work, to take advantage of the best offers from the various managers or even to avoid the risk of not being able to be traced in case of low battery . In short, there is really a lot to do to reduce the environmental impact of mobile phones that have now become consumer goods .

Raising public awareness and encouraging them spontaneously to refuse the straw is another very important task because these small changes can actually already do a lot to reduce the amount of plastic we produce every day and it is important that everyone does their part .





Author : Matteo Aristei
2019, July 11 th


What is the European Union and what does it do ? Here is a very general overview to understand what the European Union is, how it was created, what are its objectives and functions

The European Union is an economic and political union, unique in its kind, which includes 28 countries that cover a large part of the continent .
The European Union is a political entity with well – defined borders ; unlike geographic Europe, which for many is not exactly defined . In fact, on the one hand, many people claim that geographical Europe also includes Russia and even extends beyond the Urals . On the other hand, for many other people, Russia is not even Europe .

The European Union is made up of 28 countries which are : Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, and Hungary . However, there are other countries that have applied for access to the European Union and are : Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey . The accession of these various countries is at various stages, in the sense that the European Union is negotiating accession, precisely to the European Union, with these states individually .

The predecessor of the EU, the European Economic Community ( EEC ), was created in the aftermath of the Second World War with the aim of promoting economic cooperation starting from the principle that trade produces interdependence between countries that reduces the risks of conflicts .
In 1958 the EEC was therefore created, which intensified economic cooperation between six countries : Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands .
Since then, 22 other members have joined in forming a big single market .

What was born as a purely economic union has over time has become an organization active in a whole series of sectors, such as climate and health, external relations and security, justice and immigration . To reflect this change, in 1993 the name of European Economic Community ( EEC ) was replaced by European Union ( EU ).

A factor of peace, stability and prosperity for over half a century, the EU has contributed to raising the standard of living and introduced a single European currency : the euro . More than 340 million EU citizens in 19 countries currently use it as a currency and benefit from it .
Thanks to the abolition of border controls between member countries, people can now move freely around almost the entire continent . It has also become much easier to live, work and travel in another EU country . This ensures all citizens the certainty of their rights and the freedom to choose in which Member State to work, study or spend their retirement years . Each member country, as far as work, social security and taxes are concerned, has a duty to treat EU citizens in the same way as their citizens .

The EU ‘s main economic engine is the single market, which allows most goods, services, capital and people to move freely . The EU intends to develop this immense resource also in other fields, such as energy, knowledge and capital markets, to allow European citizens to fully benefit from it .

The EU remains committed to making its institutions more transparent and democratic . Decisions are taken as openly and as closely as possible to citizens .
The European Parliament, elected by direct universal suffrage, now has more powers, while national parliaments play a more important role, supporting the European institutions in their work .
The EU is governed by the principle of representative democracy, in which citizens are directly represented at EU level in the European Parliament and Member States are represented in the European Council and in the EU Council .

European citizens are invited to contribute to the democratic life of the Union by expressing their views on EU policies during their development or by suggesting improvements in existing legislation and policies . The European citizens ‘ initiative allows citizens to have more say in EU policies affecting their lives . Citizens can also file complaints and requests for information on the application of EU law .

The European Union is the largest trading bloc in the world . It is the world ‘s leading exporter of manufactured goods and services and the largest import market for over 100 countries .
Free trade between Member States was one of the founding principles of the European Union . This is possible thanks to the single market . Beyond its borders, the EU is also working to liberalize world trade .

The EU is committed to helping victims of natural or man – made disasters around the world and supports over 120 million people every year . Together the EU and its Member States represent the first humanitarian aid donor in the world .

The EU plays an important role in diplomacy and works for stability, security and prosperity, democracy, fundamental freedoms and the rule of law at the international level .

The single currency is another characteristic of the European union . As you know, the euro is the single currency adopted by the member countries of the European Union . But not everyone, as the countries that have adopted the euro, the single currency, are part of the eurozone and to become part of this eurozone, fundamental requirements must be met from an economic point of view, with parameters that have for example with the level of inflation, debts and government deficits .

A big issue in today’s Europe is multilingualism

Multilingualism is a strategy of the European Commission to promote the dissemination of linguistic knowledge in order to promote the integration of European citizens. Furthermore, multilingualism is also a condition of society .
When we talk about multilingualism in Europe, we talk for example about the possibility of using a single language . It is an old dream of the community, but in reality it never existed . And it cannot exist because language is a natural phenomenon that is constantly changing .
One of the possibilities for a common language is the artificial language . And in reality, in the past, artificial languages were widespread, particularly at the beginning of the 1900 s, before the First World War and even later .

Esperanto also belongs to this period . Esperanto proclaims itself to be neutral, artificial and easy to learn . And surely it is true that it is an easy language : it contains only 16 rules and has a system of productivity of words, that is, from the existing words new ones can be produced . So yes, it is actually an easy language to learn . But it is certainly not a neutral language, as no language in the world is . Esperanto belongs to a very specific culture : it was invented by a Polish – Jew who lived in Lithuania and his grammar was published for the first time in Russia . It is therefore a mixture of Germanic, Latin and Slavic languages and therefore, I repeat, it cannot be considered a neutral language . Above all, not being able to count on a true culture, a tradition and texts has never been adopted by European peoples . It is indeed difficult to guide a society, a people in one direction, in a precise linguistic behavior without this becoming an imposition .

Our Europe needs to speak and to share languages and therefore to promote a great spread of linguistic knowledge . This is multilingualism for us .
There are clearly ” international languages “, of great diffusion, such as English . And it is right to use it, because it is useful and serves the goal of European integration . But English alone is not enough . It is necessary to develop different linguistic knowledge based on the specific needs of each people, of every citizen of the Union . Here, this is the multilingualism that we can achieve . This is an achievable and sensible goal that we should all aim for .

The objectives of the European Union are :

• promote peace, its values and the well – being of its citizens
• offer freedom, security and justice, without internal borders
• promote sustainable development based on balanced economic growth and price stability, on a highly competitive market economy, with full employment and social progress, and environmental protection
• fight against social exclusion and discrimination
• promote scientific and technological progress
• strengthening economic, social and territorial cohesion and solidarity between Member States
• respect the richness of its cultural and linguistic diversity
• establishing an economic and monetary union with the euro as the single currency .

EU values are shared by Member States in a society where inclusion, tolerance, justice, solidarity and non – discrimination prevail . These values are an integral part of our European way of life :

• Human dignity : human dignity is inviolable . It must be respected and protected and constitutes the very basis of fundamental rights .
• Freedom : freedom of movement gives citizens the right to move and reside freely in the European Union . Individual freedoms, such as respect for private life, freedom of thought, religion, assembly, expression and information, are protected by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU .
• Democracy : the functioning of the EU is based on representative democracy . Being a European citizen also means enjoying political rights . Every adult citizen of the EU has the right to stand as a candidate in the European Parliament elections . EU citizens have the right to apply and vote in their country of residence or home country .
• Equality : equality means recognizing all citizens the same rights before the law . The principle of equality between men and women is the basis of all European policies, and is the element on which European integration is based . It applies in all sectors . The principle of equal pay for the same work was inscribed in the 1957 treaty . Even if the inequalities persist, the EU has made considerable progress .
• Rule of law : the European Union is founded on the principle of the rule of law . In other words, all his powers rest on treaties freely and democratically signed by the member countries . Law and justice are protected by an independent judiciary . The member countries have given the Court of Justice of the European Union the competence to give a definitive ruling and all must respect the sentences issued .
• Human rights : the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union protects human rights, including the right not to be discriminated against based on sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation, the right to protection of personal data and the right of access to justice .
These goals and values, which are the foundations of the EU, are enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union .

In 2012, the EU won the Nobel Peace Prize for having contributed to peace, reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe .


Surely what we all know is the flag with a blue background and a flag with a circle made up of 12 stars but which do not represent the members of the Union who are instead 28 . The flag represents the union, the identity in a broader sense and wants however, it also represents the solidarity and harmony that exists between the various member states of the union . This flag was first adopted in 1955 by the Council of Europe which then encouraged the other EU institutions to take it as its flag .
In fact, in 1983 the European Parliament also took it as its symbol and then in 1985 it was chosen by all the leaders of the European Union . Despite this, each institution currently has its own emblem .

Another symbol of the European Union is the anthem . The hymn in question is Beethoven ‘s ninth symphony composed in 1823 that aims to represent the brotherhood that exists between the whole human race . The hymn to joy, this is the name of the symphony, was first taken as its symbol in 1972 always by the Council of Europe and then in 1985 by all the leaders of the European Union . This composition symbolizes freedom, peace and solidarity which are then celebrated as values shared by the Member States of the European Union .

A further emblem is the motto that mentions ” United in diversity ” which represents how all the states that are part of this institution have come together to work to guarantee peace and prosperity .

A final symbol I would like to talk about is instead the Europe holiday which also coincides with the European Union ‘s open day . In fact, 9 May represents a day of peace and unity . This day was followed by the Schuman declaration which was named after a speech by French Prime Minister Robert Schuman in 1950 in Paris where he argued that there was a need for a new way to cooperate on a political level in Europe . So this politician saw the need to create a European body that would unite all the states and in fact, following his speech, it was precisely the year in which the European Union started … it took its first steps .
To celebrate this event every year the European Union opens the doors of the Parliament and of some local offices that organize activities to make more and more known to the citizens of the European Union, of the member states of the European Union this institution and to celebrate together the creation of such a Union .


Innovations and Environment


Innovazioni per ambiente e strategie

Matteo Aristei
2019, July 11th


Ecology and, in general, everything that is related to the environment is becoming, as well in Italy, an essential element in the life of citizens . Of course many things are still to be done in our country, for now the situation is improving .

The most important topic today is that ecology is now also seen as a way out of the crisis by a large number of companies in numerous sectors from the nautical to the photovoltaic panels, from thermodynamics to biodegradable plastic, which are expanding unlike the traditional companies that still suffer the effects of the great economic crisis of recent years .

In fact, we are witnessing a small boom in what has already been called the green economy, which today has already created around 200,000 jobs a year, a figure that now corresponds to 20 % of the demand for labor in Italy and which seems to be the ‘ single ’ still growing . About 30 % of small and medium manufacturing companies now invest in environmental protection . This figure is close to 45 % in the case of an innovative company . In fact, technological innovation linked to environmental issues is becoming a driving force to move towards value – added production and to win over more demanding customers. With the ecological turn, in fact, more profitable markets open up, capable of intercepting an increasingly widespread demand abroad, but now also in Italy . In fact, in our country, following a recent survey, 76 % of the population declared that the development of a green economy is essential to make Italy grow and make it more competitive . Of the surveyed population, 71 % admitted that the improvement of the environmental situation concerns above all the behaviour of citizens and their direct involvement . It is clear that only if we reach 100 % of this figure and if everyone passes completely from words to deeds, we can hope to live in an ever cleaner environment and to leave a safer and healthier future for our children .

For example, one of the biggest problems in the modern world is the leak of water . It should be noted, however, that when you think of saving water you cannot limit yourself to the water that is consumed directly for drinking or washing . Most of the water we consume we consume it indirectly through the products we buy, especially agricultural products . Almost 60 % of fresh water coming from rivers, lakes or other water sources is used for irrigation of all fields .

Scientists around the world are racking their brains to create crops that need less water . We are opting for combinations of biotechnologies and traditional methods of varietal selection to achieve this objective . In the United States the Department of Agriculture has created a special team of scientists and researchers who come from 5 major universities to carry out a project on soybeans . Traditional methods not based on genetic engineering have been used to select a plant that can grow well in dry soils . The project was started in 1981 and the research started in China where soy is a traditional crop . In the USA, on the other hand, this crop has been known for a short time and for this reason almost all varieties in American fields are very similar genetically . This is negative because if a climate change occurs where crops are susceptible, the entire production of an entire year is in danger . In particular, one of the most concrete risks derives from unexpected droughts, which are increasingly likely due to climate change .

Scientists have studied more than 1500 varieties of plants, especially Asian varieties . The goal was to find something that naturally had the characteristics to overcome the long dry summers typical of some areas of North America without any problem . Only 5 varieties have been shown to have the right numbers . Obviously the conditions must not become too extreme otherwise the plants die . To overcome these extreme conditions it would be necessary to resort to genetic engineering and many companies are already doing it .

All these innovations and initiatives contribute to enhancing a greener economy, which is increasingly fundamental to combat climate change and pollution and, certainly, to create a better future .




Alleanza Africa Europa

Author: Matteo Aristei
2019, July 19th

The European Commission develops a new Africa Europe partnership for sustainable investments and employment that aims to substantially stimulate investment in Africa, create jobs, strengthen trade and invest in skills and education . Today ‘s projects are based on the commitments made at the African Union – European Union summit held in Abidjan in November last year, on which the two continents decided to strengthen their partnership . It shows the main lines of action for a more robust economic program for the EU and its African partners .

The European Union, more than China and the US today, trades and exports to Africa : for example, ” foreign investment in Africa is 40 % for Europe, 5 % for China “.

Furthermore, the task force was created by the European Commission in May 2018 and it was set up to give opinions and advice on strengthening the Africa Europe partnership for food and agriculture . The European Commission will ensure the follow – up and implementation of various actions recommended by this group of experts to support the development of the agri – food sector and the rural economy of Africa .

In these four years of work of the Juncker Commission, a partnership of equals with the continent closest to Europe, whose development and security also guarantee those of Europe, has developed according to the high representative Federica Mogherini at the Brussels press conference, presenting the new ” Africa – Europe Alliance ” for sustainable investments and work, to which President Jean Claude Junker referred a short time ago in the State of the Union . After the private investment plan launched two years ago, work is about to be consolidated, developed and improved .

The Commissioner for Trade, Cecilia Malmström, states : ” The entry into force of the continental free trade area demonstrates the determination of our African partners to promote business opportunities on the continent . The EU and Africa are key partners for trade and investments . This historic stage brings us closer to greater EU – Africa economic integration, a key objective of the Africa – Europe alliance . ”

The Commissioner responsible for International Cooperation and Development, Neven Mimica, says : ” This is a major step towards the economic integration of Africa, which I congratulate our African partners . The EU supports the continental area of free trade since its establishment, both politically and technically, and with financial resources exceeding 60 million euro . This is a pillar of the Africa – Europe partnership, as trade and integrated markets in Africa will foster sustainable investments and job creation . ”

The priorities of this new cooperation will be renewable energy and transport, young people, improvement of climate to encourage local resources, improvement of intra – African trade relations together with Europe .

Today ‘s proposal demonstrates the commitment to strengthen the Africa – EU partnership and outlines a series of key actions including :

• investing in people through investments in skills and education, at international and national level, to improve employment and adapt skills to the job offer, also through scholarships and exchange programs, such as in the framework of Erasmus +;

• promote strategic investments and strengthen the role of the private sector, specifically by significantly reducing the risks associated with investment projects through the combination of loans and the provision of guarantees and subsidies ;

• strengthen the business background and promote a more favourable climate for investments, especially by intensifying dialogue with African partners and supporting reforms in the sector ;

• use the full potential of economic integration and trade : based on the implementation of the continental free trade area for Africa, the long – term perspective is to conclude an extensive intercontinental free trade agreement between the EU and Africa . To this end, it is necessary to make the most of economic partnership agreements, free trade agreements, including global free trade areas and in – depth proposals to the countries of North Africa, and other trade regimes with the EU, as constituent elements of the area continental free trade for Africa ;

• mobilize a huge financial resource package, as shown in particular by the proposal for the next EU multiannual financial framework on external financing, in which Africa is considered a priority region .

Consultation and dialogue with African partners will be organized in the coming months to define priorities and take further measures jointly . The alliance will take into account the diversity of the African continent and the specificities of each country, including the contractual relations of the countries of North Africa within the respective association agreements and their experience in cooperation with the EU in the framework of the policy European Neighbourhood Policy .


Renewable Energy

Renewable Energy

energia rinnovabile

Author : Matteo Aristei

2019, August 3rd

Renewable energies

In recent years, many countries have decided to renew their energy supply . The goal is to reduce the use of non – renewable and polluting sources .
In the future, in fact, electricity should be extracted as much as possible from wind, sun and water .

Renewable energy means resources that are available almost to infinity, whose extraction does not damage the environment and are : sun, water, wind, geothermal energy and bioenergy .

In addition to protecting the environment, we should also be concerned about the development of renewable energy . Until 2020 the percentage of renewable energies should rise to 35 % of current consumption .

Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a technical term for the distribution of heat in the earth . We also speak of terrestrial heat . The deeper you go into the earth, the warmer it is . Scientists estimate that the temperature at the centre of the earth ranges from 4800 to 7700 degrees Celsius . The heat is obtained from heat pumps near the surface of the earth ‘s crust .

The heat inside our planet is available day and night . It can be used for both heating and current production . If there were no problems with drilling techniques, geothermal energy could cover the entire energy needs of a country .

Unfortunately, in various countries, hundreds or even thousands of meters in depth must be drilled to reach a sufficient temperature level . The costs of geothermal energy are therefore very high . Moreover, in some places there are problems with aquifers . Other countries are, for geological reasons, in one of the best locations, such as Iceland, which covers most of its energy needs thanks to the heat coming from within the earth .

Solar energy

The sun is a free source of energy and sunlight is available almost unlimitedly . So – called photovoltaic systems can convert sunlight into electricity . When sunlight meets a photovoltaic cell, it can convert light into energy . Often these systems are installed on the roofs of houses or in the fields . With a small solar system, owners of private homes can also heat their own running water or manage their heating independently .

By means of this, homeowners are more independent of electricity prices but of course they have to pay for the installations of the plants . The production of electricity with solar systems is mostly suitable for regions where there is not much sun . The amount of energy is independent of the number of hours of sunshine .

Wind energy

Much of the energy that allows us to live comfortably is not infinite and is running out . Moreover, it often pollutes a lot . This is why renewable energy is needed, that is, that does not end and does not pollute . Like the wind, created by the wind .
Let ‘s find out what we talk about when we discuss renewable sources, what wind energy is and how it can be exploited .
Wind energy, as its name implies ( Aeolus, the god of wind ), is a type of energy derived from the force of the wind, which is converted into labor – power ( often in the form of electricity ).
Since ancient times the passing of currents has been the ally of men to move ( the sails blown by the wind allowed to navigate easily ) or to move objects of production ( the rotating blades of windmills, for example, moved the millstones to crush the wheat and make flour ). Nowadays, however, it was thought to use the force of air to produce electricity .
Between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, various scientists focused their studies on the exploitation of wind for energy purposes . The result of their studies is that today, most of the wind energy is produced by turbines and wind turbines .

How do you convert wind power into energy ?

Electric energy is obtained from turbines that transform the movement of the blades moved by the wind into electricity .
As in paper swivels, so the wind moves the large wind turbine blades creating kinetic energy ( ie the energy generated by the movement of a body ).
The blades are connected to a rotor, in turn connected to a ” shaft ” 1 ( placed in the pole ), which sends the rotation energy to the electric generator located at the base of the structure . This generator uses some magnets and the properties of electromagnetic induction to produce an electrical voltage ( ie a difference in electric charge ) and therefore electric energy .

The wind makes the wind turbines work and the wind is converted into electricity . This method works best in windy areas, so for example in the North Sea or in the Baltic Sea . Furthermore, huge wind turbines are installed, not only on land but also at sea . You can really produce a lot of energy in this way . However, a disadvantage is that the wind does not blow constantly and therefore no constant amount of energy is produced . The wind energy is particularly clean because it releases little carbon dioxide .


The energy that is produced from biomass is called bioenergy . Biomass means animal and vegetable products that can be used for current production . Materials, for example, are wood scraps that are compressed, as are wheat, biodiesel and biogas . Biomass can be solid, liquid or gaseous .

The advantage is that the biomass can be versatile and can be transformed either into electric current or into heat or into fuel . The disadvantage is that unlike wind and solar energy, more carbon dioxide is released in the combustion of biomass .

Hydroelectric power

To produce current from water, one must first accumulate a lot of water in the dikes . Afterwards the water can be let out, so as to make water wheels and turbines work in order to produce energy . Hydropower is used by man for energy production for a long time . Before the machines in the mills or sawmills were operated by water power, today they build several water plants, which for example use the current of a river . In the dams and artificial lakes large masses of water are stored which can also be used as drinking water at the same time . However, when stored, the oxygen content in the water drops and nature is strongly modified through the construction of large dams .


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