Tag Archives: Sub-Saharan Africa


DESK esteri IBS & Servizi


Various DESKS report the active Services in the country and the Business Opportunities, including the sectors, and the types of companies that could get major benefits in terms of Export or Foreign Direct Investment in the territory, both for the potential of the market and for any Discounts or Funds made available by Local Authorities or by the competent Institutions .

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ECOWAS – CEDEAO: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo
Congo, Rwanda, Zambia (case by case basis)


USA, Panama
Dominican Republic

Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Spain



China , Incoming in Italy buyer and foreign operators’ from China LINK
South Korea
ASEAN: Cambodia, Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam


Benelux ( Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands )
EAST EUROPE : Bulgaria, Poland , Hungary + (Trade Missions Abroad in Bulgaria LINK )
France + ( Monte Carlo, French Riviera real estate )
Spain Canary Islands (startup and innovation)
Ukraine (case by case basis)

MENA (Middle East & North Africa )

Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine region , UAE ( United Arab Emirates ) and GCC
Libya (case by case basis)

Highlight Foreign Markets


Associazioni di Categoria SERVIZI IBS


We want to be for you and your Corporate Customer as a reference point for the Exportation and Internationalization


- NEWS ABOUT TRADE FAIRS : fair opportunity of interest to the sector and foreign country;
- IBS IN FAIR IN YOUR PLACE : agreed number of commercial contacts,deeds of buyer, agents, , suppliers, related to an important fair through our senior advisors. ADVANTAGE: cost reduction for the company because of the centralisation;
- MISSION : information about our tasks abroad and events about incoming I Italy by economic entities, trading partners, buyers;
- FUNDS FOR MISSIONS AND FAIRS : information through the competent institutions in order to access to the funds available;
- AT THE REQUEST INCOMING, B2B MEETINGS, TASKS AND FOREIGN WORKSHOPS ORGANISED AN AD-HOC : In one of the places where IBS is most implanted there will be B2B meetings and events for a limited number of holdings.


Thanks to Joint Inter-Professional Funds, there will be learning processes/consultancy of check-up and business preparation to export.
In addition it is possible to follow specific training programmes for the internationalised and exporting companies about, for example:
- export manager e strategic approach to the market;
- legal themes: international sales contract, international complying, relationship of agency and distribution, means of payment, non-payment and debt collection;
- international tax;
- customs, new Community Customs code, Incoterms 2010 and other issues;
- trade and export financing : documentary credits, bank guarantees, PBO (Bank Payment Obligation), LC and Stand By Letter of Credit, credit insurance, other specific issues;
- business planning.


- Export manager in firm for 6 months – one year as Export Development Manager and Manager for development of contacts with clients, buyers, trading partners;


- Scouting of agents, suppliers, trading partners, economic entities abroad specialised in sectors of interest;


- For a group of holdings affected we could facilitate the creation of a community showroom and a local sales network, with resident local staff who speaks Italian;


- Products or segments of production widely traded if made in Italy for their high production costs. We could assist the enterprises for a productive decentralization in EU and non-European countries;
- For example in Albania, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Moldavia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey, Tunisia e Hungary;
- In addition to bureaucracy, our network of Italian companies abroad could support you with regard to integrated management, accounting, payroll, services of mentorship for the entrepreneur and his family, other specific request.


- We are in contact with market investors who participate in projects with a long-term efficiency;
- We could assist the enterprises who want to make a planning idea a business and viability plan to present to the investors.


- Assistance on the establishment of “business networks” to strengthen in order to enter in the foreign market with the tax benefits available under the Italian legislation;



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Benin - Country Profile


Capital: Porto-Novo
Largest city: Cotonou
Official languages: French
Government: Presidential republic
Total area: 114,763 km2
Population: 10,872,298 (2016 estimation)
GDP: total $27.177 billion / per capita $2,297 (2017 estimation)
Currency: West African CFA franc

Economy composition

Agriculture accounts for a quarter of GDP and 51 percent of the country’s employment with cotton as its primary export commodity. The informal sector, including subsistence agriculture, contributes up to almost 60 percent of GDP and engages over 80 percent of the labor force. Diversification slowly advances led by the agriculture and service sectors. During the period 2010-2016, the primary sector contributed by 0.5 percent to the real GDP growth while the secondary and tertiary sectors accounted for around 1 percent and 2.2 percent respectively, shares that have changed little since 1990 for when data are first available.


The agricultural sector is highly dependent on rainfall patterns and, mostly, on one major commodity (cotton). Despite its low productivity, agriculture remains one of the main sources of growth and employment of the country. To further contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction, productivity should be considerably strengthened. Agricultural exports are concentrated on three groups of products: cotton, fruits (pineapple), and nuts (cashews) and oilseeds (soy and cottonseed). To address the needs of a growing urban population, the country continues to import a large share of horticultural products from neighboring countries (mostly, Burkina Faso and Nigeria), rice from Asia, wheat, frozen meat and milk from Europe, and frozen poultry from Brazil. The agricultural sector faces the triple challenges of diversifying exports, increasing food production, and sustainably increasing farm and post-harvest productivity. The share of the agricultural sector has declined across low-income countries over time but has remained elevated in Benin.


During the last decade, growth in Benin has been comparatively highly volatile and per capita GDP growth has been stagnating. Real economy rebounded to 4 percent in 2016 compared to 2015, where the growth rate slowed to 2.1 percent due to weak agriculture output generated by unfavorable weather and negative spillovers from Nigeria. From 2006 to 2016, real GDP growth averaged 4.2 percent driven mainly by the services. The fiscal deficit grew from -0.4 percent of GDP in 2012 to -6.2 percent of GDP in 2016. In addition, economic growth was not inclusive. Notwithstanding recent progress, Benin remains a low-income country with almost 11 million people and a per capita income of US $ 790 in 2015.

The rapid population growth—which averages 3.5 percent per year—led to a modest and unequal increase in household consumption. Indicators related to education, health, access to water, and infant mortality have improved in recent years but at a slow pace. Growth has been accompanied by a low level of job creation with widespread underemployment affecting especially women and the youth in urban areas. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) is keeping its pace with sub-Saharan Africa countries (SSA) but more investment is needed. Comparing Benin to SSA countries presently, the share of the manufacturing and services sectors is ahead of most of them, reaching 75 percent of GDP.

Benin - Employment by sector

Benin Sectoral Employment by Gender

Export Diversification

Export diversification has not taken place. African benchmark countries diversified quite strongly after 1990 and have caught up to Asian benchmark countries. The number of export partners has increased on average, but the shares of the main export partners remain dominant.

Necessary Policies

Economic policies should focus on addressing weaknesses that hinder entry into new lines of economic activity. In particular, measures that could help improve productivity in the short run include:

• the large-scale adoption of improved agricultural technologies
• the development of productivity through efficient water management, reduction of post-harvest losses and better access to market through warehouses and other facilities
• the institutional support to the Ministry of Agriculture and other stakeholders in the sector
• a better access to financial services

Furthermore, measures to improve education could render significant impacts on the informal economy.

Financial inclusion and development

While access to finance is improving, relatively to other sub-Saharan countries, a number of reforms could foster financial inclusion and complement efforts to promote the expansion of the private sector and employment creation. Benin’s financial sector is shallow, segmented, and with limited financial inclusion. Three main categories operate in it: the banking sectors, the microfinance institutions and other non-bank financial institutions.

As of end-2016, there were 15 commercial banks, with 4 banks holding about 80 percent of credits to the banking system. Although the banking system remains stable, its depth has not improved. The banking sector is broadly sound but plays a limited role in financial inclusion. According to the BCEAO (Central Bank of West African States) 2010 estimations, there is a low level of access to banking service. More precisely, the number of deposit accounts in commercial banks relative to the active population is around 5 percent. Despite banks have developed branch networks in the country, only 17 percent of the population had a bank account in 2015. Access to finance is difficult for some vulnerable groups and for small and medium-sized enterprises.

The microfinance sector plays an important role in providing financing to both sectors of the economy and rural population that are underserved by banks. Despite the fact, that microfinance plays an increasing role in reducing poverty in Benin; it lacks to provide financing to small and medium enterprises, in particular, long term loans. The large number of unauthorized MFIs represents a high risk for the banking system, and requires a further tightening of licensing requirements. Although the number of bank branches has been recently increasing, in particular in rural areas, there is room to further expand financial inclusion by strengthening the regulatory framework.

Access to an account in Benin compares poorly with averages from low income countries. Male reported higher access than females and the level of education is also a factor determining access to an account.

Benin - Having an account

Benin’s financial sector provides limited contribution to private investment because the institutional framework discourages commercial banks from taking risks and because the cost of establishing bank branches in rural area is very high. Benin is performing relatively well regarding use of mobile banking holding around 5 percent of the total volume of mobile transactions in the WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union) region, but there is scope for further progress.

Benin - Volume of mobile transactions

Efficiency of public investment in Benin

Benin is projected to increase public investment volumes significantly to help close the region’s infrastructure gap. Benin is lagging behind SSA average in electricity supply, paved road density and telecommunication infrastructure. Benin has historically spent much less on public investments than its neighbors. Public investments as a proportion of the national budget were maintained at an average annual rate of 36.7 percent from 2010 to 2014 despite significant needs. The country performances regarding public investment appear weaker in comparison to similar countries. Although Benin’s public investment effort is above the WAEMU countries average, it has drastically decreased since 2010. Access to public infrastructure such as electricity or treated water has scarcely improved since the 1990’s. To close this gap, Benin is envisioning to significantly boost public capital expenditure in the medium term. In addition to the infrastructure gap, however, infrastructure is also perceived as being of low quality, and investment efficiency appears low. The most recent World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Competitiveness Indicators ranks Benin behind the SSA average.

Benin - indicators of Infrastructures quality


Benin faced a difficult macroeconomic situation characterized by two factors. Growth has slowed significantly and the public debt-to-GDP ratio reached 47 percent in 2016. At the same time, low tax revenues constrain the government’s ability to achieve social objectives. To address large macroeconomic imbalances Benin launched a reform in 2017 centered on domestic revenue mobilization. The reform sought to boost tax revenues through an increase in the VAT rate and cut non-priority spending to contain the accumulation of public debt. The reform reduces the income of the urban poor and income inequality in rural areas.


Benin’s solid macroeconomic performance did not translate in a meaningful reduction in poverty. Following a decade of mediocre economic performance, growth over the last 3 years (2013–15) averaged 5.2 percent, closing the gap with SSA average in per capita GDP growth. Despite the increase in real GDP per capita since 1987, the poverty rate in the country deteriorated in recent years. An overall estimate of poverty in Benin conducted by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Analysis (INSAE) shows that the percentage of population that lives in poverty conditions grew from 36.2 percent in 2011 to 40.1 percent in 2015. However, Benin’s level of development has remained virtually unchanged, as its Human Development Index has risen from 0.480 in 2015 to 0.485 in 2016 below the average of 0.523 for SSA countries.

Benin - Real GDP per Capita 1965 - 2016

Benin - Human Development Index 1980 - 2014

The country registers considerable decline in rights, being the seventh most deteriorated country on the continent. There is a concerning regression registered in freedom of expression, association and assembly. At the same time, Benin is the eighth most improved country in Education (+10.6) on the continent, especially in primary education.

References from the International Monetary Fund:

Dabla-Norris, Era, Giang Ho, Kalpana Kochhar, Annette Kyobe, and Robert Tchaidze, 2013, “Anchoring Growth: The Importance of Productivity-Enhancing Reforms in Emerging Market and Developing Economies”. IMF SDN/13/08.
Dabla-Norris, Era, Jim Brumby, Annette Kyobe, Zac Mills, and Chris Papageorgiou, 2011, “Investing in Public Investment Efficiency”. IMF Working Paper 11/97.
Dominguez-Torres, Carolina and Vivien Foster, 2011, Benin’s Infrastructure—A Continental Perspective. Policy Research Working Paper 5689. The World Bank. June Henn, Christian, Chris Papageorgiou, and Nikola Spatafora, 2013,” Export Quality in Developing Countries,” IMF Working Paper 13/108.
IMF, 2014a, “Sustaining Long-Run Growth and Macroeconomic Stability in Low-Income Countries—The Role of Structural Transformation and Diversification.” IMF Policy Paper, March.
Imbs, Jean, and Romain Wacziarg. 2003. “Stages of Diversification.” American Economic Review, 93(1): 63-86.
Medina, Leandro; Andrew W Jonelis, and Mehmet Cangul, 2017, “The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Size and Determinants,” Working Paper No. 17/156 Papageorgiou, Chris, Fidel Perez-Sebastian, and Nicola Spatafora, 2013, Structural Change through Diversication: A Conceptual Framework. International Monetary Fund. March.
Regional Economic Outlook, 2015, African Department. International Monetary Fund. April.
Maria Albino-War, Svetlana Cerovic, Francesco Grigoli, Juan Carlos Flores, Javier Kapsoli, Haonan Qu, Yahia Said, Bahrom Shukurov, Martin Sommer, and SeokHyun Yoon, 2014, Making the Most of Public Investment in MENA and CCA Oil-Exporting Countries. International Monetary Fund, November.
Foster, Vivien, and Cecilia Briceño-Garmendia, 2010, Africa’s Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation, Africa Development Forum. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Commission for Africa, 2015, Still Our Common Interests, March.
Gelb, A., and S. Grassman, 2010. “How Should Oil Exporters Spend Their Rents?” Working Paper 221, Center for Global Development, Washington, DC.
Grigoli, F., and J. Kapsoli, 2013. “Waste Not: The Efficiency of Health Expenditure in Emerging and Developing Countries.” IMF Working Paper 13/87, International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC.
International Monetary Fund, 2015, “Making Public Investment More Efficient”, Fiscal Affairs Department Policy Paper, Washington, DC.
Keefer, P., and S. Knack, 2007. “Boondoggles, Rent-Seeking and Political Checks and Balances: Public Investment under Unaccountable Governments.” Review of Economics and Statistics 89 (3): 566–72.
Adrian Peralta-Alav, Marina Mendes Tarvares, and Xuan S. Tam, 2017, The Distributional Implications of Fiscal Consolidation in Developing Countries, Manuscript.
Bollinger, Christopher R. and Barry T. Hirsch, 2013, “Is Earnings Nonresponse Ignorable?” Review of Economics and Statistics, May, 95(2): 407–416.
Bollinger, Christopher R. and Barry T. Hirsch, 2006, Match Bias from Earnings Imputation in the Current Population Survey: The Case of Imperfect Matching, Journal of Labor Economics, July, 24, 483-519.
Fabrizio, Stefania, David Furceri, Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu, Bin Grace li, Sandra V. Lizarazo, Marina Mendes Tavares, Futoshi Narita, and Adrian Peralta-Alva, 2017, Macro-Structural Policies and Income Inequality in Low-Income Developing Countries. SDN/17/01. January Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique, 2015, Enquete Modulaire Integree sur les Conditions de Vie des Menages. Octobre.
Medina, Leandro, Andrew Jonelis, and Mehmet Cangul, 20917, The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Size and Determinants, International Monetary Fund. WP/17/156 Tang, Xin, A Tutorial of the Toolkit for Solving a Multisector Heterogeneous Agents General Equilibrium Model, August. Manuscript.
Institut National de la Statistique et de l’Analyse Economique, 2015, Enquête Modulaire Intégrée sur les Conditions de Vie des Ménages. Octobre.
Nora Lustig, ed., Commitment to Equity Handbook: Estimating the Redistributive Impact of Fiscal Policy, The Brookings Institution and CEQ Institute/Tulane University, in progress.
Human Development Report 2016, UNDP, 2016.


- IMF International Monetary Fund
- Benin Wikipedia
- Benin official Government website

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Ghana Accra scheda paese - Country Profile


Official Name: Republic of Ghana
Area: abt 240,000 km2
Population: abt 26 million esteemed
GDP growth esteemed in 1014: 7.5%
GDP pro-capita: abt 2,000 USD (world economic outlook database 2013)
Capital: Accra 2,269 mln (CIA World Factbook)
State: unitary state, independent from the United Kingdom from the 6th of March 1957
Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic, the head of the State is also the head of the Government.
Religion: Christian 69%, Muslim 16%, Animist 15%
Languages: English (official language), other local languages
Currency: New Ghanaian Cedi (GHS); 1 € = 2.54 GHS (10.04.2013)


- Agriculture 24.6%
- Industrial sector 27.5%
- Services 47.9%


The construction sector is growing considerably (9.2% of the GP – source: African Economic Outlook 2013) because the housing needs are not satisfied by the quantity of the available residential units.
Bank of Ghana estimations highlight a need for 1.5 million affordable homes (social housing projects, meaning real estate development projects funded by national or international institutions).
The main obstacle to the sale of real estates concerns the access to credit.
There is a positive response to the made-in-Italy; over the last 10 years, the property market registered transactions worth an estimated value of about 2 billion USD.
Among the private entities, one organisation that plays an important role in the real estate development of the country is Ghana Real Estate Developers Association (GREDA).
This country has an urgent need for infrastructures (roads, drainage systems, water mains, agricultural drainage, industrial plants, port facilities) and for the maintenance of the few ones already existing.
The local productivity (especially concrete and building materials) can guarantee high profit margins; the furniture industry follows the fast progression not only of the housing sector but also of the civil construction, which is linked to services (offices, shopping centres, tourist facilities, shops, showrooms..).
Agriculture is an extremely important sector for Ghana’s economy and it constitutes 23% of the country GDP; The main products of Ghana’s agriculture are cocoa, rice, coffee, sugar, tropical fruit palm oil, peanuts, tobacco.
Aiming to produce 10% of the energy from renewable sources, the government supports the production of fuel for biodiesel engines (for example jatropha seeds, Brong Ahafo region).


Company typology: Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Company Limited by shares, Company limited by guarantees, External company (branch), Companies Code;
The current legislation in Ghana requires the presence of one local partner only to the companies that operate in the mining sector.
The minimum investment required for every foreign member in a company under Ghanaian law is:
• USD 10,000.00 if the joint venture is mixed, i.e. composed of both foreign and Ghanaian members
• USD 50,000.00 if the joint venture corporate in Ghana is 100% composed of foreign members;
• USD 300,000.00 for the registration of companies that operate mere trading activities.


The income tax rate on legal persons is fixed at 25%, the dividend payment to local or foreign partners is subject to a rate of 8%;
If a foreign operator works in Ghana through a branch, the neat revenue is subject to a further 10% deduction;
There are tax incentives for free-zone companies (ten-year exemptions and application of a reduced 8% tax rate), for companies that deal with the processing of agricultural products (adjusted rates that can be up to 20% depending on the company’s locationing) and waste disposal (rate discounts up to 50%);
Repatriation of profits: non-resident people doing business in Ghana through a stable organization can repatriate their profits paying a 10% tax.


Mixed system including Common law and Customary law;
The judicial system bodies are: Supreme Court, High Court, Court of Appeal, Regional Tribunals.


The Convention for the avoidance of double taxation concerning income tax and the prevention of tax evasion was signed on the 19.02.2004;
Agreement to avoid double taxation on incomes deriving from air and maritime navigation (signed in Accra on the 23.08.1968 and entered into force on the 24.03.1977, with exchange of notes done on the 30.06.1972 in order to determine its retroactivity up to the 01.01.1961);
Ghana ratified the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.


SACE insurability conditions: no conditions for private and baking risk; conditions for sovereign risk.



Energie Rinnovabili in Kenya


Author: Elisa Mariani
August 2016
Translated by Arianna Zargar

Until a few years ago Kenya had a scarce production of electric energy, with an internal supply available only for the 30% of the population. Furthermore, according to relative recent estimates, Kenya ranks worldwide 22nd for the production of electric energy and 46th for the production of photovoltaic energy. In view of this situation, the Kenyan government is making efforts to develop projects relating to renewable energy, which focus on the extension of electricity supply to most of the people of the country.

That is why the executive is encouraging the development of renewable energy on the Kenyan territory on three fronts, in collaboration with private entrepreneurs. First among everything the photovoltaic industry, which forecasts 1 billion euros investment allocated by the government itself with a private contribution that will double funding for the creation of 9 photovoltaic plants. The purpose of this strategy, supported also by Cliff Ouiti, one of the biggest supporter of KEREA (Kenya Renewable Energy Association), consist in the divert of the 50% of energy from the photovoltaic in 2016, intended to decrease duties thereby reducing the costs of energy of 80%.

Another field of intervention concerning the renewable is wind energy with the Lake Turkana Wind Power Project, intended to create the biggest wind farm of the African continent, located in the Loyangalani district of the Marsabit County, in the area close to the Lake Turkana, with the installation of 365 wind turbines covering 162 km of land. In addition to providing news in terms of energy, this project is part of a redevelopment intervention of the region itself, which is characterized by illiteracy, dryness, insufficient connections and infrastructures compared to the rest of the country and poverty. In fact, we need only think that in this district the majority of the population lives, on average, with only 15€ monthly in peripheral areas and 30€ in urban areas.

Moreover, this area is highly recommended for the construction of wind plants thanks to its excellent ventilation. The wind farm will be finished within October 2016, as confirmed by Kenya Electricity Transmission Company (KETRACO). The jewel in the crown of this project is the approval and financial support from Google that aspires to obtain the 12,5% of amounts at finished and functioning plant.
The last piece of the puzzle in this renewable revolution is represented by the exploitation of geothermic energy, a sector that has seen a wide development in Kenya and plays a key role in the energy production of the country. The success of this energy type in Kenya is mainly due to the geyser, fumaroles, and hot springs presence in the Rift Valley.

The Kenyan government is searching private investors and international partners willing to cooperate for the increase in using the renewable, especially of geothermic energy. This call has been collected by The United Kingdom that has 20 firms interested in investing in renewable energies. For this purpose, a Memorandum of Understanding for the renewable development between the UK and Kenyan has been signed.

Lastly, the project Kenya Vision 2030 was launched in 2008 also includes, among the many initiatives, the production of 5000 MW of low-carbon energy through the use of geothermal science.
According to UNEP estimates (United Nations Environment Programme), thanks to policies relatives to renewable energies adopted by the Kenyan government, which also include the introduction of the account energy, intended to promote renewable supply, the energetic production will have an increase of 1300 MW leading, within the next 15 years, the renewable sector to cover the 60% Kenyan energy needs.

SOURCES for the article “The extraordinary development of renewable energy in Kenya”

- italafricacentrale.com
- aliceforchildren.it
- greenbiz.it
- rinnovabili.it
- missionconsolataonlus.it
- vision 2030.go.ke
- ltwp.co.ke

Nigeria Country Profile

Nigeria Country Profile

Nigeria Scheda Paese - Country Profile


Official Name: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Area: around 925,000 sq. km
Population: around 169 million (world bank data 2013)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: 2,700 USD (World Economic Outlook Database, 2013)
Capital: Abuja (pop. 1.857 million)
Other important cities: Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Kaduna
State: Federation of 36 states, independent from the United Kingdom since 1st October 1960
Government: Presidential Constitutional Republic, the Head of State is also Head of Government
Religions: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% traditional local ones
Languages: English (official) and local ones

- 30.9% Agriculture
- 43% Industry
- 26.1% Services

According to United Nations’ estimates, Nigeria will develop a high population growth in the next 40 years, with a population that will be higher than 367 million inhabitants by then.
According to the latest projection over the next 10 years as carried out by the Global Construction Perspectives & Oxford Economics, the growth rate of the Nigerian construction industry, due to the rapid urbanization, will be the highest on the continent, equal to 6.4 billion USD by 2015.
Therefore, investment opportunities in housing sector will increase, even though they already have an excellent starting point in the current housing deficit, which lies between 12 and 16 million units, equal to approximately 200 billion USD.
Lagos is one of the 6 largest cities in the world (it currently has 20 million inhabitants and it is expected to grow up to 25 million by 2020). In the Nigerian construction industry there are mainly foreign companies, which control almost 95% of the market, including a large number of Italian ones, such as Cappa d’Alberto, Gitto, Impregilio, Salini, Borni, AG Ferrero, INTELS.


Forms of Direct Investment: Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Public and Private Limited Liability Companies

Obligation Local Partner: foreign investors can operate in Nigeria even without a local partner, except for engineering consultancy companies and for Oil & Gas sector where there are strong incentives with a local partner to 51% of capital.

Minimum Social Capital: the minimum capital requirement to set up a company open to foreign capital participation is 10000000.00 NGN (approximately 65000.00 USD).


Companies Tax treatment: the tax rate on corporate income is equal to 30%.

Repatriation of profits: The Monitoring & Miscellaneous Provision Act n. 17 of 1995 establishes that foreign investors are free to repatriate after taxes profits deriving from economic activities in Nigeria and through approved professionals. Dividends are taxed by a withholding tax of 10% except for dividends paid by a Nigerian company to another company that are exempt from it.


The Legal System is a mix of legislations: Common Law, Islamic law (12 northern states apply the Islamic criminal code based on the Koran’s teachings, the so-called “Sharia”) and Customary law.

The federal court system bodies are: the Supreme Court (composed of judges appointed by the Head of State on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council) and the Federal Court of Appeal.

Arbitration: the country has ratified the New York Convention of the 1958 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.


Convention to avoid double taxation on income deriving from aviation and shipping, with exchange of notes, signed in Lagos on 02.22.1977 and in force since 11 .09.1978.

Agreement on the promotion and mutual protection of investments signed in Rome on 27.09.2000 and in force since 22.08.2005


SACE Insurability conditions without conditions on sovereign risk, bank risk, private risk and the portability of SACE insurance policy for Export or Foreign Direct Investment in the country.


South Africa Country Profile

Sud Africa Scheda Paese - Country Profile


Official name : Republic of South Africa
Surface : 1.221.041 sq. mt
Population : 55 million
GDP nominal : 723,5 billion USD
GDP per capita : around 13.154 USD
Capital : Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein; Johannesburg
Largest cities : Johannesburg (3.800.000), Durban (3.100.000), Port Elizabeth (1.500.000), East London (800.080), Pietermaritzburg (553.000);
Government : Unitary parliamentary republic
President : Jacob Zuma, elected in 2009 re-elected in 2014
Religions : Catholic, protestant e indipendentista
Lingua : 11 official languages; afrikaans, English, zulu, xhosa, tswana, sotho, tsonga, swazi, venda, ndebele
Currency : Rand (Z), Exchange rate: 1Euro=17,75 ZAR


The South Africa economy is the most developed African economy, it is divided into different developed sectors , and it represents one third of the African revenue.
40% of the continent industrial production;
25% of African GDP
50% of electricity generation
45% of mineral production

South Africa has complex infrastructures, productive manufacturing sectors and a highly developed service sector with an efficient financial sector and strong institutions.
It is a perfect country for investments and trades, especially with South Sahara areas, that provides the access to the south African region markets for trade, logistics and finance.
Main business activities are focused on metropolitan areas such as: Johannesburg, Durban / Pinetown, Cape Peninsula e Porth Elizabeth / UitenHage.

South Africa has a strategic position because it is crossed by a strong transport network, that links goods and people with eastern and western world. It is a management and distribution hub that allows to access to neighbouring countries.

South Africa has on average 4.8 billion (with a peak of 9.5 billion) dollars of foreign direct investments every year. Generally these investments aim to expand trades in neighbouring countries such as: Mozambique, Angola, Zambia, Kenya, Madagascar and Namibia.

South Africa ranks position:

1st country for possibilities of credit facilities and local banks loans.
10th country for local and foreign investments protection
35th country in the “ease of doing business” ranking. Italy and China position respectively 87th and 91st
The public sector has always had a key role to develop South Africa economy, however the government is working to involve private sector in governmental enterprises.


Agriculture: 3.8%
Industry: 31%
Service sector: 65.2%


The capital goods sector gives great investment opportunities, because South Africa is enlarging and modernising its infrastructures (with public investments), to promote a sustainable development for manufacturing productions but also for prime materials production and export.
Market spaces for intermediate goods: plants, agricultural and food service machineries, systems and equipments to produce, transmit and supply electricity, services and plants for telecommunications, products and services for highways, railways and planes; means of transport parts, mechanical goods for manufacturing industry, materials and equipments for constructions, civil works and civilian facilities, technologies for sustainable and renewable energy, security equipments and plants, technologies for environmental control and land protection; equipment for mining sector and IT technologies.
Consumer goods opportunities for leather and footwear, in other sectors there aren’t enough possibilities because of Asian countries competitiveness.
It is essential to encourage new investments in order to provide important technology investments, to hire local workforces and to manufacture goods intended to export.
According to the Department of Trade and industry (DTI), primary sectors are agri-food, chemical and pharmaceutical sectors ( 5% of GDP); automotive sector (6% of GDP) with 300.000 employees; transport sector, mining sector, energy and tourism sectors (3.4 of GDP with an average annual growth of 2.3%). In 2011 the Green Economy Accord was signed to create qualified green jobs in South Africa thanks to partnership between public and private sector. The goal is create by 2020 300.000 more jobs in the energy production, manufacture CO2 reduction products, agriculture for biofuel production, environmental heritage protection and sustainable tourism.
Other key points are: increase renewable energy consumption, produce ecofriendly stoves, use of trains for transport, creation programs to support sustainable projects and subsidies for a high educational program for young people.


In South Africa local and foreign investors are treated equally. Foreign investors are allowed to choose investment programs, type of business entity, kind of goods (except for defence and security goods) and use of internal funds.


Foreign companies are taxed only for the revenue made in South Africa and for capital gains of properties and assets income. Corporate income tax is 28%. From 2007 the Secondary Tax on Companies (STC), 10% on net shares of profit, added to the basic taxation have created a 36.89% tax. Branches and offices of foreign companies which operate in South Africa have a 33% tax on their profits.

The Private Company is the most common business entity, it can be composed of an associate/sole manager and a legal representative residing in South Africa. Subsidiary societies (society managed by other societies) and foreign branches are under the South African law and they must be registered.


- Double taxation agreements
- Agreements for investments promotion and protection
- Agreements for cooperation in arts, culture, education and sport fields
- Cinema coproduction agreements


Insurability conditions SACE (foreign trade insurance services) without possibility of sovereign risk, bank risk, private risk and insurance policy transfer SACE for export and foreign direct investments.




TANZANIA – An introduction on Africa and its resources; Country Sheet and Opportunities in Tanzania


Africa is generally a huge natural resources basin, and it enjoys a varied climate that allows a rich agricultural production diversity, typical of a temperate climate. Rich harvests of vegetables, corn, and grapevine are made; there is also a big variety of fruits typical of a tropical and equatorial climate. The geographical position of the African continent, which is surrounded by the sea, is a huge advantage for communication with other continents and countries. Fishing is allowed everywhere and it is very abundant, and it represents a significant additional resource. Nonetheless, differences in the level of development among African countries are very great; still a few number of African countries can communicate and establish a connection with the Western countries. Harsh economical, religious, health and cultural conflicts are slowing down the chances of these countries and of its citizen to grow. Unlikely as it seems, countries such as Libya, Kenya and South Africa, which have the potential required, are constantly in turmoil for political, racial or religious causes.


After examining the French-speaking countries in Africa (Morocco, Ghana, Guinea, Senegal) the focus is on an English-speaking country: la Tanzania.

- Population in Tanzania: about 47 million people.
- Capital: Dodoma.
- Government: Unitary presidential constitutional republic LINK GOVERNMENT SITE
- Currency: Tanzanian shilling.
- Official languages: Swahili, English.
- GDP: $79.29 billion USD.
- GDP (PPP): $1713 USD.
- Requirements and conditions that grant a loan by SACE.
- Tanzania is among the founding member of WTO.
- Togheter with Kenya and Uganda, Tanzania is a member of the East African Community, established on 30/11/1999.
- Through “Africa Growth and Opportunity Act” Tanzania has trade agreements and a special treatment for exporting to the United States.
- Tanzania is part of “Convention Establishing the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency” (MIGA), and it is a member of “International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes”; Tanzania also signed an agreement for the promotion and protection of foreign investments with Italy in 2001.


Ex-Commonwealth colony, Tanzania benefits from the German colonisation after the First World War and from the English dominion starting in 1964; Tanzania’s independence followed, as the country became a Presidential Republic. A key-figure was the charismatic “Father Nyerere”, who is still remembered as “The man who showed the way to follow”: he managed to offer an example of brotherliness and peace, setting the conditions for the harmonious coexistence of Islamism and Christianism, the two main religions.

His followers followed that same path, including the President in charge. He has to be credited for creating the economic and political conditions to foster and increase foreign investments and assets.
The Tanzania Investment Act (1997), through Tanzania Investment Centre, regulates all foreign investments. This governmental agency coordinates and promotes investments through assistance to firms and foreign investors. Moreover, the Certificate of Incentives attests the status of investors in Tanzania. The “Mining Act” (1998) regulates authorizations as regards mining and oil concessions. The minimum capital in equity to invest in projects completely controlled by foreign investors is $300.000 USD, whereas to establish a company with a majority of Tanzanian investors, or under Tanzanian control, the minimum capital required is $100.000 USD. There are several different incentives and tax breaks according to the field and to the effect of the foreign investment on local economy.


- Being Tanzania a member of the “Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency” and of the “International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes” in this country there is full recognition of the private property and protection of foreign investments; furthermore, it is possible to transfer abroad all of the profits and some capital in currency.
- After the establishment of the “Special Economic Zones”, Tanzania has had tax advantages on investments, in areas in 25 parts of the Country.
- Cancellation or high reduction of duties on goods imported in the country linked to the established company.
- Complete deductions of the expenses for machinery, plants, buildings and structures linked to agriculture.
- Extension of VAT payment on real estate.
- Complete refund of DUTIES on imported raw materials.
- Removal of VAT on exported manufactured goods.
- Possible deductions, with favourable treatments, on depreciation of capital goods.
- As regards mining sector, there is no recovery of the annual reassessment in capital.
- Loss-making in company management can be deducted for tax purposes also the following year for a period of 5 years; for mining sector, that applies for an indefinite period, too.
- Tax breaks and quicker procedures for permissions and authorizations.
- Authorization to have expatriates in company management.
- Other facilitations according to the sector and the typology of the project.


Tanzania’s economy is being affected by the country’s agricultural vocation, which represents about 50 % of the GDP; nonetheless, due to the climate and the geography, cultivated areas are only 4% of the territory. The main products are tea, coffee, cotton, pyrethrum (extract from chrysanthemum, a natural insecticide), sisal, tobacco, cashew, corn, clove, wheat, tapioca, banana, and fruit. Another developing sector is cattle and goat rearing, and it employs 80% of the working population. Tuna and sardine fishing in inland waters for export is another relevant sector in Tanzania. Extractive industry, gold, diamonds and salt especially, is and expanding sector. There are also modest quantities Iron ore, coal, tungsten, lead, kaolin, magnesium, phosphate.

We would like to point out that in the last 20 years the extractive industry has carried on a stunning growth, which has attracted several multinational companies and the Small Scale Miners, a network of more than 2 million small miners. LINK OPPORTUNITY FOR INVESTORS IN MINING, GOLD, DIAMONDS

Tanzania has always cared about schooling, carrying on several welfare political actions since German and English colonization, all aimed to reach not only the biggest urban centres, but also the most isolated villages. However, education still does not cover efficiently all of the territory, and that should gradually change.

Religion in Middle and Far East and Africa is usually a delicate theme, and it is often a cause for conflicts and troubled coexistence. In this sense, Tanzania is a one of a kind: since its independence in 1964, it has been an actual religious oasis. Here, Catholics and Muslims live together and collaborate, following the indications of the various Presidents that have followed in the United Republic of Tanzania. Strangely enough, this happens also in small villages, where there are people who practice different religions. Even though Muslims usually get more resources, there still are other donations for building places of worship for different religious communities.


Child mortality in Tanzania is caused by water, which is often not drinkable or unavailable; this increases the spread of diseases like typhus, diarrhoea and respiratory diseases.
Other causes of the chronic growth of mortality are the scarceness of food in quantity, quality, and energy input; the absence of basic measures of protection like mosquito nets against malaria, a disease sleep-related. Another alarming fact linked to health, rather recurring, is the condition of local miners: they risk serious diseases, including cancer caused by barehanded mixing of the gold sludge, which contain mercury. Considering that hospitals are mainly located in big and very far residential areas, healthcare is generally lacking; hopefully foreign investments can help building new efficient structures with time, or at least creating local structures like small pharmacies, provided with pharmaceutical products and vaccines, along with the help of some medical and paramedical staff all week long.

Water is a precious and vital resource for any village or community, for survival and for foreign direct investments. Thus, it is essential to intervene by creating stable, permanent natural deposits and drinking water plants; and for increasing necessities, by building artesian aquifers. The favourable weather conditions, which allow some harvests during the year, encourage the creation of suitable irrigation systems near lakes or rivers.

According to the last ten years’ experience, heads of the family worry every day to maintain their beloveds, despite salaries are often meagre and the habit of spending in alcoholics and beverages large parts of those salaries. It is therefore desirable that foreign investors should give higher salaries, as people deserve, and to educate them to restrain themselves from alcohol, reassuring them that they will get what they need for support their families. Moreover, the creation of small local shops away from the big cities supplied with products such as corn flour, wheat flour, rice, milk, vegetables and non-alcoholic beverages would also reassure those who earn an income about constantly supporting their families.

Tanzania for investors and backers: concessions for gold and diamond mines

Tanzania for investors and backers: concessions for gold and diamond mines

Tanzania investitori finanziatori miniere d'oro, giacimenti auriferi, concessioni aurifere, concessione aurifera

Tanzania: opportunities in MINING sectors for international investors and backers; gold mines, gold deposits, gold concessions, diamonds


International investors and backers are sought for a project in Tanzania involving gold. Attached and detailed documents concerning a complete Business Plan and feasibility studies are available subject to subscription NDA (NON-DISCLOSURE AGREEMENT). It is also possible to obtain a concession in a 45 sq km area in Tanzania with diamond deposits; nonetheless, it is not possible to publish any of this information in this document, thus we require that you register as a reliable spokesperson by CONTACTING US





Your new company will establish in Tanzania, in order to undertake a gold mining project in Matinje and Kilabili, two towns in the Igunga District in the Tabora Region and Shinyanga.
The plant will be located next to the villagae of Matinje – Kilabili, in the area covererd by PML, which will be bought or leased by the new society.

Mining equipment include:

- Processing plant. + Knelson C + Add. Ball M. + Chemical Laboratory;
- Lorry (ies) with cranes (10 tons) and dumpers;
- 4×4 Car (s) + Van to transport employees;
- Shovels+ excavator;
- Fork lift + equipment + tools;
- Cisterns for diesel;
- N°10 kits for mechanizing shafts: jackhammer, compressors, bits, ventilation equipment, elevator hoists, water pumps, portable generators, security kits, and more;
- N°10 Water deposit cisterns;
- 20 tons lorries;
- 200 Kw generators with control panels;
- Core drill;
- 15/20 t Crane;
- Technical, geological, sanitary, security and environmental impact equipment.

The project will produce an income for both the producers and the inhabitants of the area interested in it: it will revamp local economy by creating new vacancies and strengthen trade, which is linked to the mining sector. Technical services, geological and geochemical studies, along with surveys, drillings, mining activities planning, security, environment and health management will be exclusively managed by the new society. Through an environment-friendly plan, there will not be major environmental impact. Leaching with iodine will be used, instead of the cyanide-based one that multinational corporation prefer: this process is more affordable and environment-friendly. The project will have positive economic and social outcome.


The main goal is to seize a business and an investment opportunity: there are three different ways to fulfil the project development procedures and its objectives. Those can be combined.


Financial exploiting will start by choosing the right gold deposits: they will be chosen through geological studies, satellite and air collections of data and geophysical survey, sampling and laboratory testing. Secondly, Report of Resources will be drawn, and afterwards edited by specialized societies ( S.G.S Switzerland, OMAC Northern Ireland, etcetera. ); finally, specific certificates will be issued as credit lines for financial management on platforms. This will take up to 10 to 12 months, if liquid assets still exist; the minimum expenditure for the investment is 3 million euros average. The certificates may be inserted in the Stock Exchange, thus be sold to potential investors, with high investment returns.


Certificates enable the investor to extract, process and trade gold, besides financial exploiting through underground trenching and vertical shafts complete with mechanization kits (open pit or open-air extraction included). Should the investor be interested in extraction, the project provides to a further minimum investment of 3 million euros average, with an implementation period of 10 – 12 months if liquid assets exist. A iodine-based processing system will eliminate the risk of the cyanide system, which has traditionally been used by big companies operating in this field: it involves cyanidation and mercury, both highly toxic elements which cause serious illnesses and deadly environmental impact.


This third option might allow taking advantage of concessions that have already been “analyzed” through open vertical shafts and existing lodes of gold, which have been previously assigned to local miners. We may buy those concessions, or get in a JV Joint-Venture; it will be given to the new society at least 90-95% of the value, seen the financial investment brought to the project. Any of these options will guarantee tangible return in a very short time, because the product is paid on delivery after verification; the compound return benefits from such quickness.



The procedure allows planning the investment on its own (geological studies, geophysical survey etc.) releasing the Certificates and using them to financial management on platforms, it also allows creating a start-up for excavation, processing and trading products. Thus, it is possible to limit the investment to the Certificates or to pair it to the mining project.


People may think that the mining sector might be a slow one, nonetheless it is a key feature of the project to capitalize time, so that the whole investment will last 5 years, which might be hastened to 3 years.
Reducing time can be possible by concentrating the assets at most, realizing increased output and profits.


Such a profitable investment allows to achieve the expected goals, besides having the best commodity guaranteed and assured by international and global transactions.


Profits will come quickly, reducing the gap between costs and incomes. This is an advantage in the present globalized system, and it reduces risks in transactions.


In the Feasibility study, which is a decision-making tool for attracting interest to the investment, the values taken into consideration assume a major importance. As regards the business plan and the anticipated profits, a prudential assessment will be drawn, in full respect of the professional ethic.


Diversification is included in the Feasibility study and as a strategy “in progress”.


Our Italian customer offers:

- the possibility to obtain several concessions (n. 32 per ha. 41,8) and to get a selected list of additional concessions, which will be verified in order to acquire the best ones;
- ten-year experience, which will allow to speed up African bureaucracy, shortening times and becoming operative rapidly; creating a productive financial start up in a few months’ time, overcoming difficulties that would normally take years to be solved;
- strengthened and prized relationships with professionals of the mining sectors: mining engineers, government geologists and freelancers in the capital city Dar es Salaam;
- all of the best specialists and geologists, along with the Geological Survey of Tanzania will take you and your business into great account; the Geological Survey of Tanzania is the first national authority in terms of geological studies.
- privileged relationship with the Regional Institution of the Ministry of Mines of Shinyanga: this one represents 90% of the national mining sector, and it includes the main multinational companies of this sector, such as Golden Pride, Barrick, Geita, Anglogold and Kahama;
- privileged relationship with the person in charge for this region and with the Principal Geologist of Ministry, both available to collaborate to this project: it will hugely increase its professionalism;
- innovative industrial technology, like the latest-generation iodine systems, which enables the plants to be moved when needed. It also provides for the workers and the small scale miners: they will be working in a much healthier environment and they will benefit both from an economical and a social point of view;
- professionalism is guaranteed; moreover, you will have eight stable trusted partners.


1. primary crusher - foto impianto di frantumazione
2. secondary crusher - foto impianto polverizzazione -  mills
3. foto polverizzazione e prima miscelazione
4. foto vasche di decantazione con agitatori
5. foto inizio del filtraggio del materiale aurifero
6. foto filtrazione finale
7. foto procedimento di osmosi inversa
8. foto collegamenti



CHINA AFRICA : A new beneficial alliance

CHINA – AFRICA : A new beneficial alliance


CHINA-AFRICA: A new beneficial alliance

Author: Elisa Mariani
Translated by Martina Paoli
October 2016

After the summit between China and Africa held on November 2006 in Beijing, attended by the African highest authorities, which was the beginning of a solid cooperation, these two countries have come a long way together. In 2014, the parties carried out over $200 billion commercial deals, while, recently, they have made possible an infrastructural development in Africa.

This partnership derives from the China’s interest in African natural resources, especially energy resources. In fact, Chinese imports from Africa consist largely of wood, diamonds, gold, cobalt, platinum, uranium and petroleum. Africa, on the other hand, receives a significant economic, political support from China, one of the most powerful countries in the world, which is investing in the construction of hydroelectric plants, dikes, railways, public buildings, streets and telecommunication networks in the African continent.

For example, China has signed an agreement in order to be able to use Algeria’s oil, in exchange for the construction of different types of buildings, including schools and institutional buildings; while $9 billion have been allocated for the creation of dykes and railways in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in exchange for the exploitation of the copper and cobalt mines.

During an interview at the Global African Investment Summit, Sindiso Ngwenya, the Secretary- General for the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, reminded the importance of the Chinese support for the infrastructural development in the tripartite free trade area (TFTA), which involves 26 African countries with the aim of creating a unified market based on the industrial, infrastructural growth and the elimination of custom duties and other restrictions to the free movement of goods.

Moreover, according to Ngwenya, the Chinese aid has been important for the integration and trade between African regions, and the improvements in the sectors of energy, agriculture and human resources, which represent only some of the main factors for the achievement of the purposes of Agenda 2063, the plan for the development and the socio-economic transformation of the African continent over the next 50 years.

The China-Africa Summit of 2006 has marked an important turning point for the partnership between these two developing countries.

Taking advantage of the cold relations between Europe and Africa, the President Hu Jintao announced a number of measures to be implemented by 2009, for the prosperity and the well-being of the African countries, including the allocation of $5 billion divided into loans, export credits, and financial subsidies for the creation of a China-Africa Development Fund, in order to increase Chinese investments in the African continent.

China has also declared to be ready to eliminate the debts of the poorest countries, expand the imports of goods from Africa, removing customs barriers, and train 15,000 qualified people in the sectors of agriculture, education, and medicine.

Chinese interest in training qualified personnel and investing in Africa’s agriculture are high due to the need to import from the African continent raw materials such as tobacco and cotton.
In fact, thanks to China, 48 states of the art establishments for agricultural production have been built up in Africa to support local farmers.

Currently, this historic alliance still achieves mutually beneficial results and continues to represent a valid example for other economies, although strongly criticized and feared by USA and EU, which are both potential partners of Africa, but not as competitive and concrete as China. The allocation of $ 60 billion to promote Chinese investments in Africa, announced by the leader Xi Jinping, confirms the success of this partnership.

In fact, in December 2015, at the Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), held in Johannesburg, the President declared those funds will be used for the collaboration between the two parties, with the aim of increasing the welfare of the African continent. The financial support includes $40 billion for concessional loans and zero-interest loans, and $150 million to provide food assistance to people affected by El Niño, an extreme climate phenomenon, which devastated the harvest in those areas of Africa.

According to Jacob Zuma, the President of South Africa, thanks to Chinese aid, the country intends to restore the mining industry, which has recently felt the effects of a slowing demand for raw materials and a decrease in products prices.

Furthermore, Huawei, the Chinese multinational company which provides networking products and telecommunication solutions, is significantly expanding its business, managing a turnover of more than $3 billion in Africa, thanks to the creation of a national phone network and other internet networks in Zambia and Nigeria.


- focac.org
- infoaut.org
- cooperazioneallosviluppo.esteri.it
- repubblica.it